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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Integrated proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of the Aedes aegypti eggshell.
BMC Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Mosquito eggshells show remarkable diversity in physical properties and structure consistent with adaptations to the wide variety of environments exploited by these insects. We applied proteomic, transcriptomic, and hybridization in situ techniques to identify gene products and pathways that participate in the assembly of the Aedes aegypti eggshell. Aedes aegypti population density is low during cold and dry seasons and increases immediately after rainfall. The survival of embryos through unfavorable periods is a key factor in the persistence of their populations. The work described here supports integrated vector control approaches that target eggshell formation and result in Ae. aegypti drought-intolerant phenotypes for public health initiatives directed to reduce mosquito-borne diseases.
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Dissecting the EGFR-PI3K-AKT pathway in oral cancer highlights the role of the EGFR variant III and its clinical relevance.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Dysregulated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling is considered pivotal for oral cancer, and the pathway is a potential candidate for therapeutic targeting.
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Surface ?-enolase promotes extracellular matrix degradation and tumor metastasis and represents a new therapeutic target.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In previous research, we found ?-enolase to be inversely correlated with progression-free and overall survival in lung cancer patients and detected ?-enolase on the surface of lung cancer cells. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that surface ?-enolase has a significant role in cancer metastasis and tested this hypothesis in the current study. We found that ?-enolase was co-immunoprecipitated with urokinase-type plasminogen activator, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and plasminogen in lung cancer cells and interacted with these proteins in a cell-free dot blotting assay, which can be interrupted by ?-enolase-specific antibody. ?-Enolase in lung cancer cells co-localized with these proteins and was present at the site of pericellular degradation of extracellular matrix components. Treatment with antibody against ?-enolase in vitro suppressed cell-associated plasminogen and matrix metalloproteinase activation, collagen and gelatin degradation, and cell invasion. Examination of the effect of treatment with shRNA plasmids revealed that down regulation of ?-enolase decreases extracellular matrix degradation by and the invasion capacity of lung cancer cells. Adoptive transfer of ?-enolase-specific antibody to mice resulted in accumulation of antibody in subcutaneous tumor and inhibited the formation of tumor metastasis in lung and bone. This study demonstrated that surface ?-enolase promotes extracellular matrix degradation and invasion of cancer cells and that targeting surface ?-enolase is a promising approach to suppress tumor metastasis.
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Involvement of hydrogen peroxide in heat shock- and cadmium-induced expression of ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in leaves of rice seedlings.
J. Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considered a signal molecule inducing cellular stress. Both heat shock (HS) and Cd can increase H2O2 content. We investigated the involvement of H2O2 in HS- and Cd-mediated changes in the expression of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in leaves of rice seedlings. HS treatment increased the content of H2O2 before it increased activities of APX and GR in rice leaves. Moreover, HS-induced H2O2 production and APX and GR activities could be counteracted by the NADPH oxidase inhibitors dipehenylene iodonium (DPI) and imidazole (IMD). HS-induced OsAPX2 gene expression was associated with HS-induced APX activity but was not regulated by H2O2. Cd-increased H2O2 content and APX and GR activities were lower with than without HS. Cd did not increase the expression of OsAPX and OsGR without HS treatment. Cd increased H2O2 content by Cd before it increased APX and GR activities without HS. Treatment with DPI and IMD effectively inhibited Cd-induced H2O2 production and APX and GR activities. Moreover, the effects of DPI and IMD could be rescued with H2O2 treatment. H2O2 may be involved in the regulation of HS- and Cd-increased APX and GR activities in leaves of rice seedlings.
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Ghrelin induces cell migration through GHS-R, CaMKII, AMPK, and NF-?B signaling pathway in glioma cells.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Ghrelin is a newly discovered gastric peptide which stimulates food intake, energy balance, and growth hormone release. Recent reports have also shown that circulating ghrelin can efficiently reach the brain. However, the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiologic roles underlying ghrelin-induced glioma migration remain unclear. Glioma is the most common primary adult brain tumor with poor prognosis because of the spreading of tumor cell to the other regions of brain easily. In present study, we found that application of recombinant human ghrelin enhances the glioma cell migration in both rat C6 and human U251 cells. Ghrelin and its receptor GHS-R (growth hormone secretagogue receptor) are expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cell types, including various cancer cells. However, little is known about the expression of ghrelin or GHS-R in brain tumors. Here, we found that ghrelin increased GHS-R receptor up-regulation, and the enhancement of ghrelin-induced glioma cell motility markedly inhibited by a GHS-R antagonist. In addition, ghrelin-mediated migration was attenuated by treatment of CaMKII inhibitor, and AMPK inhibitors and pre-transfection with AMPK siRNA. Moreover, ghrelin stimulation also increased the phosphorylation of CaMKII and AMPK. Treatment with three different types of NF-?B inhibitors or pre-transfection with KM-IKK?, or KM-IKK? also reduced ghrelin-induced glioma cell migration. Moreover, treatment of ghrelin also induced IKK?/? activation, I?B? phosphorylation, p65 phosphorylation at Ser(536), and increased NF-?B-DNA binding activity and ?B-transcriptional activity. These results indicate that ghrelin enhances migration of glioma cells is mainly regulated by the GHS-R, CaMKII, AMPK, and NF-?B pathway.
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Functional characterization of cellulases identified from the cow rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5 by transcriptomic and secretomic analyses.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2011
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Neocallimastix patriciarum is one of the common anaerobic fungi in the digestive tracts of ruminants that can actively digest cellulosic materials, and its cellulases have great potential for hydrolyzing cellulosic feedstocks. Due to the difficulty in culture and lack of a genome database, it is not easy to gain a global understanding of the glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) produced by this anaerobic fungus.
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Berberine induces heme oxygenase-1 up-regulation through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT and NF-E2-related factor-2 signaling pathway in astrocytes.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Our previous report has shown that berberine effectively inhibits LPS- and IFN-?-induced neuroinflammation in microglia cells. Recently, we also reported that HO-1 (Heme oxygenase-1) may be a therapeutic target to regulate neuroinflammation in microglia cells. The present study examined the ability of berberine, the major constituents of Chinese herb Rhizoma coptidis, to induce expression of HO-1, and analyzed its signaling mechanism in rat brain astrocytes. HO-1 is known as an antioxidant enzyme which helps to protect against cellular damage and maintains tissue homeostasis. Here, we found that berberine increased HO-1 mRNA and protein expression concentration- and time-dependently. In addition, berberine-induced HO-1 expression was attenuated by PI 3-kinase (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin, and an AKT inhibitor. Treatment of astrocytes with berberine also induced p85 (PI 3-kinase) and AKT phospholation, and increased AKT kinase activity. Berberine also increased NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) accumulation in the nucleus and increased Nrf2-DNA binding activity as determined by the EMSA (electrophoretic mobility shift assay). Moreover, berberine-induced increase of Nrf2-DNA binding activity was reduced by PI 3-kinase and AKT inhibitors. Berberine-increased HO-1-luciferase activity was also inhibited by co-transfection with dominant-negative (DN) mutants of p85 and AKT. Moreover, berberine-mediated increase of HO-1 transcriptional activity and protein expression were reduced by transfection with siRNA againt Nrf2. These findings suggest that berberine-increased HO-1 expression is mediated by Nrf2 activation through the PI 3-kinase/AKT pathway in astrocytes. Thus, berberine may be useful as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of neuroinflammation-associated disorders.
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Mapping of genetic deletions on chromosome 3 in colorectal cancer: loss of 3p25-pter is associated with distant metastasis and poor survival.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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There is no detailed analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 3 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Our aim was to define frequently deleted loci on chromosome 3 and to explore novel prognostic markers and the locations of candidate tumor suppressor genes associated with CRC.
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Effect of magnesium deficiency on antioxidant status and cadmium toxicity in rice seedlings.
J. Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals and inhibits physiological processes of plants. Magnesium (Mg) is known as one of the essential nutrients for plants. Mg deficiency in plants affects metabolic processes. Plants grown in the field may encounter several abiotic stresses, rather than a single stress. Thus, the relationship between Mg nutrition and Cd toxicity is of ecological importance. In this study, effects of Mg deficiency on antioxidant systems and Cd toxicity in rice seedlings were investigated. Mg deficiency significantly decreased Mg concentrations in shoot and roots of rice seedlings. However, fresh weight and dry weight of rice seedlings were not affected by Mg deficiency. The contents of ascorbate and glutathione (GSH), the ratio of GSH/oxidized glutathione, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase in Mg-deficient leaves were higher than respective control leaves. Cd toxicity was judged by the decrease in biomass production, decrease in chlorophyll, and induction of oxidative stress. Based on these criteria, we demonstrated that Mg deficiency protected rice seedlings from Cd stress. Moreover, chlorophyll destruction by paraquat was higher in detached leaves from Mg-sufficient than Mg-deficient seedlings. Cd concentration was higher in Mg-deficient shoot and roots than their respective control shoot and roots, suggesting that the protective effect of Mg deficiency against Cd toxicity is not due to reduction of Cd uptake. Moreover, we observed that Cd-decreased Fe and Zn contents in Mg-deficient seedlings were more pronounced than that in Mg-sufficient seedlings. Of particular interest is the finding that the increase in OsIRT1, OsZIP1, and OsZIP3 transcripts caused by Cd in Mg-deficient roots was greater than that in control roots.
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Management and prevention of complications of subcutaneous intravenous infusion port.
Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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Subcutaneous intravenous infusion port (SIIP) has become an increasingly and widely adopted technique in the management of oncology patients. This route has been used not only for chemotherapy but also for parenteral nutrition provision, blood transfusion, medication administration, blood sample collection, hemodialysis, and so on. This system provides a safe vascular access with low complication rate which helps preventing patients from vascular infection and catheter associated thrombosis. In this study, we reviewed 1247 cases of breast cancer patients that had subcutaneous intravenous infusion port implanted for chemotherapy in our general surgery department from 1990 to 2008. The result indicates that complication decreases as our technique and experience mature. We hereby share our accrued experience and improved technique, hoping to be of help to young surgeons.
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Second-hand smoke and chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women: a health-care based study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Cigarette smoking cannot fully explain the epidemiologic characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women, particularly for those who rarely smoke, but COPD risk is not less than men. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women.
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Calcium binds to LipL32, a lipoprotein from pathogenic Leptospira, and modulates fibronectin binding.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2009
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Tubulointerstitial nephritis is a cardinal renal manifestation of leptospirosis. LipL32, a major lipoprotein and a virulence factor, locates on the outer membrane of the pathogen Leptospira. It evades immune response by recognizing and adhering to extracellular matrix components of the host cell. The crystal structure of Ca(2+)-bound LipL32 was determined at 2.3 A resolution. LipL32 has a novel polyD sequence of seven aspartates that forms a continuous acidic surface patch for Ca(2+) binding. A significant conformational change was observed for the Ca(2+)-bound form of LipL32. Calcium binding to LipL32 was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding of fibronectin to LipL32 was observed by Stains-all CD and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments. The interaction between LipL32 and fibronectin might be associated with Ca(2+) binding. Based on the crystal structure of Ca(2+)-bound LipL32 and the Stains-all results, fibronectin probably binds near the polyD region on LipL32. Ca(2+) binding to LipL32 might be important for Leptospira to interact with the extracellular matrix of the host cell.
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Mitochondrial genomic instability in colorectal cancer: no correlation to nuclear microsatellite instability and allelic deletion of hMSH2, hMLH1, and p53 genes, but prediction of better survival for Dukes stage C disease.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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Malfunction of mismatch repair (MMR) system and p53 produces nuclear genomic instability and is involved in colorectal tumorigenesis. In addition to a nuclear genome, eukaryotic cells have cytoplasmic genomes that are compartmentalized in the mitochondria. The aims of this study were to detect the mitochondrial genomic instability (mtGI) in colorectal carcinomas, and to explore its relationship with nuclear genetic alterations and its prognostic meaning.
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Osteopontin increases heme oxygenase-1 expression and subsequently induces cell migration and invasion in glioma cells.
Neuro-oncology
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Malignant gliomas are associated with high morbidity and mortality because they are highly invasive into surrounding brain tissue, making complete surgical resection impossible. Osteopontin is abundantly expressed in the brain and is involved in cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms of glioma cell migration. Migration and invasion activity were determined by transwell and wound-healing assays. Gene and protein expressions were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR, real time-PCR, and Western blotting. Nrf2-DNA binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Establishment of migration-prone sublines were performed to select highly migratory glioma. An intracranial xenograft mouse model was used for the in vivo study. Application of recombinant human osteopontin enhanced the migration of glioma cells. Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA and protein also increased in response to osteopontin stimulation. Osteopontin-induced increase in cell migration was antagonized by HO-1 inhibitor or HO-1 small interfering (si)RNA. Osteopontin-mediated HO-1 expression was reduced by treatment with MEK/ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitors, as well as siRNA against Nrf2. Furthermore, osteopontin stimulated Nrf2 accumulation in the nucleus and increased Nrf2-DNA binding activity. In migration-prone sublines, cells with greater migration ability had higher osteopontin and HO-1 expression, and zinc protoporphyrin IX treatment could effectively reduce the enhanced migration ability. In an intracranial xenograft mouse model, transplantation of migration-prone subline cells exhibited higher cell migration than parental tumor cells. These results indicate that osteopontin activates Nrf2 signaling, resulting in enhanced HO-1 expression and cell migration in glioma cells.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.