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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Interaction of Infectious Spleen and Kidney Necrosis Virus ORF119L with PINCH Leads to Dominant-Negative Inhibition of ILK and Cardiovascular Defects in Zebrafish.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the type species of the Megalocytivirus genus, Iridoviridae family, causing a severe systemic disease with high mortality to mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) in China and South-East Asia. Up to now, the pathogenesis of ISKNV infection is still not fully understood. Based on a genome-wide bioinformatics analysis of ISKNV-encoded proteins, we found that ISKNV open reading frame 119L (ORF119L) is predicted to encode a three ankyrin-repeats (3ANK) domain-containing protein, which shows high similarity to the dominant-negative form of integrin-linked kinase (ILK), i.e., viral ORF119L lacks the ILK kinase domain. Thus, we speculated that viral ORF119L might affect the host ILK complex. Here, we demonstrated that viral ORF119L directly interacts with particularly interesting Cys-His-rich protein (PINCH) and affects the host ILK-PINCH interaction in vitro in Fathead minnow (FHM) cells. In vivo ORF119L overexpression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos resulted in myocardial dysfunctions with disintegration of sarcomeric Z-disk. Importantly, ORF119L overexpression in zebrafish highly resembles the phenotype of endogenous ILK inhibition, either by over-expressing a dominant-negative form of ILK or by injecting an ILK antisense morpholino. Intriguingly, ISKNV-infected mandarin fish develop disorganized sarcomeric Z-disk in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream effector of ILK, was remarkably decreased in ORF119L overexpressing zebrafish embryos. As such, we show that ISKNV ORF119L acts as a domain-negative inhibitor of the host ILK, providing a novel mechanism for the megalocytivirus pathogenesis.
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[Identification of herbal tea ingredient Plumeria rubra and its adulterants using DNA barcoding].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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ITS2 sequence was used as a barcode to identify herbal tea ingredient Plumeria rubra and its adulterants. Genomic DNAs from forty eight samples were extracted, the ITS2 sequences were amplified and sequenced bi-direstionlly, and then assembled and obtained using CodonCode Aligner. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW, the genetic distances were computed by kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model and the Neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA5.0. Results showed that the length of ITS2 sequence of P. rubra were 244 bp. The intra-specific genetic distances (0-0. 016 6) were much smaller than inter-specific ones between P. rubra and its adulterants(0.320 8-0.650 4). The NJ tree indicated that P. rubra and its adulterants could be distinguished clearly. Therefore, Using ITS2 barcode can accurately andeffectively distinguish herbal tea ingredient P. rubra from its adulterants, which providesa new molecular method to identify P. rubra and ensure its safety in use.
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Comparison of various formulae for estimating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by a combination of ages and genders in Taiwanese adults.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The accuracy and precision of the Friedewald formula for estimating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is questionable. Although other formulae have been developed, only a few studies compare them. Thus, we compared the efficiencies of various formulae, based on the age and gender of adults, to determine which ones yield more accurate estimations in terms of mean squared error, and which formulae underestimated and overestimated LDL-C performance.
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An activating transcription factor of Litopenaeus vannamei involved in WSSV genes Wsv059 and Wsv166 regulation.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Members of activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate response element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family are induced by various stress signals and function as effector molecules. Consequently, cellular changes occur in response to discrete sets of instructions. In this work, we found an ATF transcription factor in Litopenaeus vannamei designated as LvATF?. The full-length cDNA of LvATF? was 1388 bp long with an open reading frame of 939 bp that encoded a putative 313 amino acid protein. The protein contained a basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) domain that was a common feature among ATF/CREB transcription factors. LvATF? was highly expressed in intestines, gills, and heart. LvATF? expression was dramatically upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Pull-down assay revealed that LvATF? had strong affinity to promoters of WSSV genes, namely, wsv059 and wsv166. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that LvATF? could upregulate the expression of wsv059 and wsv166. Knocked down LvATF? resulted in decreased expression of wsv059 and wsv166 in WSSV-challenged L. vannamei. Knocked down expression of wsv059 and wsv166 by RNA interference inhibited the replication and reduce the mortality of L. vannamei during WSSV challenge inoculation. The copy numbers of WSSV in wsv059 and wsv166 knocked down group were significant lower than in the control. These results suggested that LvATF? may be involved in WSSV replication by regulating the expression of wsv059 and wsv166.
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Chromosome abnormalities in embryos derived from microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration and testicular sperm extraction.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To evaluate the patterns of chromosome abnormalities in embryos derived from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in comparison to embryos that are derived from naturally ejaculated (EJAC) patients.
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Estimating Young's modulus of graphene with Raman scattering enhanced by micrometer tip.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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We demonstrate that the Raman intensities of G and 2D bands of a suspended graphene can be enhanced using a gold tip with an apex size of 2.3 ?m. The enhancement decays with the tip-graphene distance exponentially and remains detectable at a distance of 1.5 ?m. Raman mappings show that the enhanced area is comparable to the apex size. Application of a bias voltage to the tip can attract the graphene so that Raman signals are intensified. The exponential enhancement-distance relationship enables the measurement of the graphene deformation, and the Young's modulus of graphene is estimated to be 1.48 TPa.
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An ultra-high-throughput spiral microfluidic biochip for the enrichment of circulating tumor cells.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The detection and characterization of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the blood of cancer patients can potentially provide critical insights into tumor biology and hold great promise for cancer management. The ability to collect a large number of viable CTCs for various downstream assays such as quantitative measurements of specific biomarkers or targeted somatic mutation analysis is increasingly important in medical oncology. Here, we present a simple yet reliable microfluidic device for the ultra-high-throughput, label-free, size-based isolation of CTCs from clinically relevant blood volumes. The fast processing time of the technique (7.5 mL blood in less than 10 min) and the ability to collect more CTCs from larger blood volumes lends itself to a broad range of potential genomic and transcriptomic applications. A critical advantage of this protocol is the ability to return all fractions of blood (i.e., plasma (centrifugation), CTCs and white blood cells (WBCs) (size-based sorting)) that can be utilized for diverse biomarker studies or time-sensitive molecular assays such as RT-PCR. The clinical use of this biochip was demonstrated by detecting CTCs from 100% (10/10) of blood samples collected from patients with advanced-stage metastatic breast and lung cancers. The CTC recovery rate ranged from 20 to 135 CTCs mL(-1) and obtained under high purity (of 1 CTC out of every 30-100 WBCs which gives ?4 log depletion of WBCs). They were identified with immunofluorescence assays (pan-cytokeratin+/CD45-) and molecular probes such as HER2/neu.
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Personal exposure to particulate matter and inflammation among patients with periodontal disease.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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The association between particulate air pollution and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has been well documented in epidemiological studies. Periodontitis has been linked to elevated hs-CRP levels in recent studies. It is still unknown whether patients with periodontal infections are more susceptible to particulate air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate whether particles with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5?m (PM2.5) had greater effects on increasing hs-CRP among patients with periodontal infections compared to periodontally healthy individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study on two panels of adult subjects, 100 adult patients with chronic periodontitis and 100 periodontally healthy adults, in order to evaluate the association between particulate matter (PM) and hs-CRP. We collected blood samples from each subject, measured hs-CRP and monitored average exposure to PM2.5 over 24h four times during 2010 to 2012. We used mixed-effects models to estimate the association between PM2.5 and hs-CRP and adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. We found that a 10?g/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 3.22% (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.21, 5.23; p<0.01) increase in hs-CRP among all adult subjects. The effect of PM2.5 in patients was significantly higher than the effect in healthy participants. In the healthy adult panel, a 10?g/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 1.17% (95% CI: 0.54, 1.80; p<0.01) increase in hs-CRP. For adults in the patient group, a 10?g/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 9.62% (95% CI: 7.05, 12.19; p<0.01) increase in hs-CRP. We concluded that personal exposure to PM2.5 was associated with increases in hs-CRP among adult subjects. The presence of periodontal disease led to a considerably increased effect magnitude by more than eight fold.
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Single cell kinase signaling assay using pinched flow coupled droplet microfluidics.
Biomicrofluidics
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Droplet-based microfluidics has shown potential in high throughput single cell assays by encapsulating individual cells in water-in-oil emulsions. Ordering cells in a micro-channel is necessary to encapsulate individual cells into droplets further enhancing the assay efficiency. This is typically limited due to the difficulty of preparing high-density cell solutions and maintaining them without cell aggregation in long channels (>5?cm). In this study, we developed a short pinched flow channel (5?mm) to separate cell aggregates and to form a uniform cell distribution in a droplet-generating platform that encapsulated single cells with >55% encapsulation efficiency beating Poisson encapsulation statistics. Using this platform and commercially available Sox substrates (8-hydroxy-5-(N,N-dimethylsulfonamido)-2-methylquinoline), we have demonstrated a high throughput dynamic single cell signaling assay to measure the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in lung cancer cells triggered by cell surface ligand binding. The phosphorylation of the substrates resulted in fluorescent emission, showing a sigmoidal increase over a 12?h period. The result exhibited a heterogeneous signaling rate in individual cells and showed various levels of drug resistance when treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, gefitinib.
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Genome-wide analyses of proliferation-important genes of Iridovirus-tiger frog virus by RNAi.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Tiger frog virus (TFV), a species of genus Ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae, is a nuclear cytoplasmic large DNA virus that infects aquatic vertebrates such as tiger frog (Rana tigrina rugulosa) and Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Trionyx sinensis). Based on the available genome sequences of TFV, the well-developed RNA interference (RNAi) technique, and the reliable cell line for infection model, we decided to analyze the functional importance of all predicted genes. Firstly, a relative quantitative cytopathogenic effect (Q-CPE) assay was established to monitor the viral proliferation in fish cells. Then, genome-wide RNAi screens of 95 small interference (si) RNAs against TFV were performed to characterize the functional importance of nearly all (95%) predicted TFV genes by Q-CPE scaling system. We identified 32 (33.7%) genes as essential, 50 (52.6%) genes as semi-essential and 13 (13.7%) genes as nonessential for TFV proliferation. Quantitative RT-PCR and titer assays of selected genes were performed to verify the screen results. Furthermore, the screened essential genes were analyzed for their genome distribution and conservative comparison within Ranavirus. Such a systematic screen for viral functional genes by cell phenotypes should provide further insights into understanding of the information in antiviral targets, and in viral replication and pathogenesis of iridovirus.
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Litopenaeus vannamei NF-?B is required for WSSV replication.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Many viruses can hijack the host cell NF-?B as part of their life cycle, diverting NF-?B immune regulatory functions to favor their replications. There were several reports on the functions of Litopenaeus vannamei NF-?B (LvNF-?B) in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replication in vitro. Here, we studied the relationship between LvNF-?B family protein Dorsal (LvDorsal) and Relish (LvRelish) with WSSV replication in vivo. The expressions of LvDorsal and LvRelish were significantly upregulated by WSSV challenge. Virus loads and expression of viral envelope protein VP28 in LvDorsal or LvRelish silencing shrimps were significantly lower than the control shrimps injected with EGFP-dsRNA or PBS after challenge with 1×10(5) copies WSSV/shrimp. In addition to the LvDorsal activation of WSV069 (ie1) and WSV303 promoter that we have reported, LvRelish can also activate WSV069 (ie1) and WSV303 promoter by dual luciferase reporter assays through screening 40 WSSV gene promoters that have putative multiple NF-?B binding sites. The promoter activity of the WSV069 (ie1) by LvDorsal activation was significantly higher than that by LvRelish activation. WSSV replication in LvDorsal, LvRelish or WSV303 silencing shrimps were significantly inhibited. These results indicate that the L. vannamei NF-?B family proteins LvDorsal and LvRelish expressions are significantly activated by WSSV challenge and WSSV replication partially relied on the activations of LvDorsal and LvRelish in vivo.
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In situ growth of porous platinum nanoparticles on graphene oxide for colorimetric detection of cancer cells.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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A green approach is proposed for in situ growth of porous platinum nanoparticles on graphene oxide (PtNPs/GO). The resulting nanocomposite has been proven to function as peroxidase mimetics that can catalyze the reaction of peroxidase substrate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. On the basis of the peroxidase-like activity, we used the PtNPs/GO as a signal transducer to develop a colorimetric assay for the direct detection of cancer cells. By using folic acid as a recognition element, a total of 125 cancer cells (MCF-7) can be distinguished by naked-eye observation. We envision that this nanomaterial could be used as a power tool for a wide range of potential applications in biotechnology and medicine.
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Nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in invertebrates: An evolutionary perspective.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Nucleic acids derived from viral pathogens are typical pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In mammals, the recognition of viral nucleic acids by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which include Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLRs), induces the release of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs) through the activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3/7 pathways, triggering the host antiviral state. However, whether nucleic acids can induce similar antiviral immunity in invertebrates remains ambiguous. Several studies have reported that nucleic acid mimics, especially dsRNA mimic poly(I:C), can strongly induce non-specific antiviral immune responses in insects, shrimp, and oyster. This behavior shows multiple similarities to the hallmarks of mammalian IFN responses. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in invertebrates. We also discuss the potential recognition and regulatory mechanisms that confer non-specific antiviral immunity on invertebrate hosts.
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Neurotrophic and neuroprotective potential of human limbus-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The purpose of this study was to examine neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of limbus stroma-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (L-MSCs) on cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo.
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Feasibility of using the predisposition, insult/infection, physiological response, and organ dysfunction concept of sepsis to predict the risk of deterioration and unplanned intensive care unit transfer after emergency department admission.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Recognizing patients at risk for deterioration and in need of critical care after emergency department (ED) admission may prevent unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) transfers and decrease the number of deaths in the hospital. The objective of this research was to study if the predisposition, insult, response, and organ dysfunction (PIRO) concept of sepsis can be used to predict the risk of unplanned ICU transfer after ED admission.
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Identification and functional characterization of heat shock transcription factor1 in Litopenaeus vannamei.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Heat shock transcription factors belong to the heat shock factor (HSF) protein family, which are involved in heat shock protein (HSP) gene regulation. They are critical for cell survival upon exposure to harmful conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a HSF1 (LvHSF1) gene in Litopenaeus vannamei, with a full-length cDNA of 2841 bp and an open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 632 amino acids. Through multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, it was revealed that LvHSF1 was closed to insect HSF family, which contained a highly conserved DNA-binding domain, oligomerization domains with HR-A/B, and a nuclear localization signal. Tissues distribution showed that LvHSF1 was widely expressed in all tissues tested. And it was upregulated in hemocytes and gills after Vibrio alginolyticus or Staphylococcus aureus infection. Dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that LvHSF1 activated the promoters of L. vannamei HSP70 (LvHSP70) and L. vannamei Cactus (LvCactus), while inhibited the expressions of Drosophila antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Atta, Mtk, and L. vannamei AMP PEN4 through NF-?B signal transduction pathway modification. Knocked-down expression of LvHSF1 by dsRNA resulted in downregulations of LvHSP70 and LvCactus, as well as cumulative mortality decreasing under V. alginolyticus or S. aureus infection in L. vannamei. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that LvHSF1 is involved in LvHSP70 regulation, therefore plays a great role in stress resistance. And it also takes part in LvCactus/LvDorsal feedback regulatory pathway modification of L. vannamei, which is in favor of V. alginolyticus or S. aureus infection.
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Electrochemical immunosensor for detection of topoisomerase based on graphene-gold nanocomposites.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A facile electrochemical immunosensor based on graphene-three dimensional nanostructure gold nanocomposites (G-3D Au) using simple and rapid one-step electrochemical co-reduction technique was developed for sensitive detection of topoisomerase. The resultant G-3D Au nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and then were used as a substrate for construction of the "sandwich-type" immunosensor. Amperometric current-time curve was employed to monitor the immunoreaction on the protein modified electrode. The proposed method could respond to topoisomerase with a linear calibration range from 0.5 ng mL(-1) to 50 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 10 pg mL(-1). This new biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response, high sensitivity and selectivity, and was successfully used in determining the topoisomerase which was added in human serum with a relative standard deviation (n=5)<5%. The immunosensor served as a significant step toward the practical application of the immunosensor in clinical diagnosis and prognosis monitor.
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Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis reveals recurrent genomic alterations associated with histopathologic features in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent studies indicate that genomic alterations (GAs) are associated with many human malignancies. Genome-wide analysis of GAs involved in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and association with histopathologic features are limited. To help characterize this relatively rare neoplasm, we collected 32 frozen tissue samples of ICC to study GAs and molecular karyotypes by using single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Recurrent GAs occurring in at least 40% of the patients were further correlated with histopathologic features. Gain of 1q21.3-q23.1 and losses of 1p36.33-p35.3 and 3p26.3-p13 were significantly associated with larger tumor size more than 5 cm in diameter; and loss of 4q13.2-q35.2 with tumor multiplicity. Moreover, losses of 1p36.32-p35.3, 3p26.3-p22.2, 4q13.1-q21.23, 4q31.3-q34.3 and 4q34.3-35.2 were inclined to be associated with high histological grade. As to tumor vascular invasion, gain of 1q21.3-q23.1 and losses of 3p22.1-p12.3 and 4q13.2-q35.2 were significantly associated with tumor vascular invasion. Some regions were concurrently associated with multiple histopathologic characteristics, including loss of 4q13.2-q35.2 associated with larger tumor size, high histological grade and vascular invasion; losses of 1p36.33-p35.3 and 3p26.3-p22.2 with larger tumor size and high histological grade; and gain of 1q21.3-q23.1 with larger tumor size and vascular invasion. Our study indicates that complex chromosomal instability is characteristic of ICC. Detecting crucial GAs will enable risk stratification and development of personalized therapies.
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Clinical validation of an ultra high-throughput spiral microfluidics for the detection and enrichment of viable circulating tumor cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells that can be isolated via liquid biopsy from blood and can be phenotypically and genetically characterized to provide critical information for guiding cancer treatment. Current analysis of CTCs is hindered by the throughput, selectivity and specificity of devices or assays used in CTC detection and isolation.
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Comparison of risks factors for unplanned ICU transfer after ED admission in patients with infections and those without infections.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The objectives of this study were to compare the risk factors for unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) transfer after emergency department (ED) admission in patients with infections and those without infections and to explore the feasibility of using risk stratification tools for sepsis to derive a prediction system for such unplanned transfer.
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Ovarian cancer stem-like cells show induced translineage-differentiation capacity and are suppressed by alkaline phosphatase inhibitor.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
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Spheroid formation is one property of stem cells-such as embryo-derived or neural stem cells-that has been used for the enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs). However, it is unclear whether CSLC-derived spheroids are heterogeneous or whether they share common embryonic stemness properties. Understanding these features might lead to novel therapeutic approaches. Ovarian carcinoma is a deadly disease of women. We identified two types of spheroids (SR1 and SR2) from ovarian cancer cell lines and patients specimens according to their morphology. Both types expressed stemness markers and could self-renew and initiate tumors when a low number of cells were used. Only SR1 could differentiate into multiple-lineage cell types under specific induction conditions. SR1 spheroids could differentiate to SR2 spheroids through epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was highly expressed in SR1 spheroids, decreased in SR2 spheroids, and was absent in differentiated progenies in accordance with the loss of stemness properties. We verified that ALP can be a marker for ovarian CSLCs, and patients with greater ALP expression is related to advanced clinical stages and have a higher risk of recurrence and lower survival rate. The ALP inhibitor, levamisole, disrupted the self-renewal of ovarian CSLCs in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. In summary, this research provides a plastic ovarian cancer stem cell model and a new understanding of the cross-link between stem cells and cancers.This results show that ovarian CSLCs can be suppressed by levamisole. Our findings demonstrated that some ovarian CSLCs may restore ALP activity, and this suggests that inhibition of ALP activity may present a new opportunity for treatment of ovarian cancer.
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Metformin induces cytotoxicity by down-regulating thymidine phosphorylase and excision repair cross-complementation 1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Metformin is an antidiabetic drug recently shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and growth, although the involved molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. In many cancer cells, high expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and Excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1) is associated with poor prognosis. We used A549 and H1975 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines to investigate the role of TP and ERCC1 expression in metformin-induced cytotoxicity. Metformin treatment decreased cellular TP and ERCC1 protein and mRNA levels by down-regulating phosphorylated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The enforced expression of the constitutively active MEK1 (MEK1-CA) vectors significantly restored cellular TP and ERCC1 protein levels and cell viability. Specific inhibition of TP and ERCC1 expression by siRNA enhanced the metformin-induced cytotoxicity and growth inhibition. Arachidin-1, an antioxidant stilbenoid, further decreased TP and ERCC1 expression and augmented metformins cytotoxic effect, which was abrogated in lung cancer cells transfected with MEK1/2-CA expression vector. In conclusion, metformin induces cytotoxicity by down-regulating TP and ERCC1 expression in NSCLC cells.
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Molecular and clinical characterization of the myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome caused by mutations in the thymidine kinase (TK2) gene.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes (MDSs) are a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous group of mitochondrial cytopathies characterized by severe mtDNA copy number reduction in affected tissues. Clinically, MDSs are mainly categorized as myopathic, encephalomyopathic, hepatocerebral, or multi-systemic forms. To date, the myopathic form of MDS is mainly caused by mutations in the TK2 gene, which encodes thymidine kinase 2, the first and rate limiting step enzyme in the phosphorylation of pyrimidine nucleosides. We analyzed 9 unrelated families with 11 affected subjects exhibiting the myopathic form of MDS, by sequencing the TK2 gene. Twelve mutations including 4 novel mutations were detected in 9 families. Skeletal muscle specimens were available from 7 out of 11 subjects. Respiratory chain enzymatic activities in skeletal muscle were measured in 6 subjects, and enzymatic activities were reduced in 3 subjects. Quantitative analysis of mtDNA content in skeletal muscle was performed in 5 subjects, and marked mtDNA content reduction was observed in each. In addition, we outline the molecular and clinical characteristics of this syndrome in a total of 52 patients including those previously reported, and a total of 36 TK2 mutations are summarized. Clinically, hypotonia and proximal muscle weakness are the major phenotypes present in all subjects. In summary, our study expands the molecular and clinical spectrum associated with TK2 deficiency.
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Outcomes and prognostic factors of post-irradiation and de novo sarcomas of the head and neck: a histologically matched case-control study.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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This study was designed to compare post-irradiation sarcomas (PIS) and de novo sarcomas (DN) of the head and neck in terms of tumor characteristics, prognostic factors, and survival outcomes.
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mitochondrial control region are associated with metabolic phenotypes and oxidative stress.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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To identify the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the control region and elucidate their role in metabolic phenotypes and oxidative stress.
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Nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in shrimp.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Vertebrates detect viral infection predominantly by sensing viral nucleic acids to produce type I interferon (IFN). In invertebrates, it has been believed that the IFN system is absent and RNA interference is a sequence-specific antiviral pathway. In this study, we found that injection of nucleic acid mimics poly(I:C), poly(C:G), CL097, poly C and CpG-DNA, afforded shrimp antiviral immunity, which is similar to the vertebrate IFN system. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method, 480 expression sequence tags were identified to be involved in the poly(I:C)-induced antiviral immunity of the model crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei, and 41% of them were new genes. In the SSH libraries, several IFN system-related genes such as dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and IFN?-inducible protein 30 were identified. L. vannamei IKK?, whose vertebrate homologs are central regulators of the IFN-producing pathway, could significantly activate IFN reporter genes in HEK293T cells. In crustacean databases, many genes homologous to genes of the vertebrate IFN response, such as IRFs, PKR, ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific) and other interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were discovered. These results suggest that shrimp may possess nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity.
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The shrimp IKK-NF-?B signaling pathway regulates antimicrobial peptide expression and may be subverted by white spot syndrome virus to facilitate viral gene expression.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The I?B kinases IKK? and IKK? and the IKK-related kinases TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and IKK? are the master regulators of the NF-?B signaling pathway. Although this pathway has been extensively studied in mammals, less attention has been paid in crustaceans, which have significant economic value. Here, we report the cloning and functional studies of two IKK homologs, LvIKK? and LvIKK?, from Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. LvIKK? and LvIKK? mRNAs are widely expressed in different tissues and are responsive to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. When overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, LvIKK? but not LvIKK? activates the promoters of NF-?B pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs), such as the Penaeidins (PENs). In HEK 293T cells, both LvIKK? and LvIKK? activate an NF-?B reporter. The silencing of LvIKK? or LvIKK? using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) decreases the expression of L. vannamei AMPs, including PENs, lysozyme and crustins. Intriguingly, LvIKK?- or LvIKK?-silenced L. vannamei are resistant to WSSV infection. We hypothesized that successful infection with WSSV requires the activation of the IKK-NF-?B signaling pathway to modulate viral gene expression. We constructed luciferase reporters for 147 WSSV genes. By screening, we found that the WSV051, WSV059, WSV069, WSV083, WSV090, WSV107, WSV244, WSV303, WSV371 and WSV445 promoters can be activated by LvIKK? or LvIKK? in Drosophila S2 cells. Taken together, our results reveal that LvIKK? and LvIKK? may participate in the regulation of shrimp AMPs and that WSSV may subvert the L. vannamei IKK-NF-?B signaling pathway to facilitate viral gene expression.
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The potential role of microfilaments in host cells for infection with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus infection.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) belongs to the genus Megalocytivirus from the family Iridoviridae. Megalocytivirus causes severe economic losses to tropical freshwater and marine culture industry in Asian countries and is devastating to the mandarin fish farm industry in China particularly.
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Molecular characterization and function of a p38 MAPK gene from Litopenaeus vannamei.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are broadly expressed from yeasts to mammals, and are involved in the regulation of cells responsible to various extracellular stimuli. In this study, a p38 MAPK gene (designated as Lvp38) from Litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned and characterized. It contained the conserved structures of a Thr-Gly-Tyr (TGY) motif and a substrate-binding site, Ala-Thr-Arg-Trp (ATRW). The tissue distribution patterns showed that Lvp38 was widely expressed in all examined tissues, with the highest expression in hemocytes, nerves, and intestines. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Lvp38 was upregulated in gills and hemocytes after infection with the Gram-negative Vibrio alginolyticus and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Reporter gene assays indicated that Lvp38 activated the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of Drosophila and shrimp. Knockdown of Lvp38 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in a higher mortality of L. vannamei under V. alginolyticus and S. aureus infection, as well as a reduction in the expression of three shrimp AMP genes, namely, PEN4, crustin, and ALF2. Taken together, our data indicated that Lvp38 played a role in defending against bacterial infections.
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PRSS1_p.Leu81Met mutation results in autoimmune pancreatitis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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To describe protease serine 1 (PRSS1) gene mutations in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and the clinical features of AIP.
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A truncated Danio rerio PKZ isoform functionally interacts with eIF2? and inhibits protein synthesis.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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A protein kinase containing Z-DNA binding domains (PKZ), which resembles protein kinase R (PKR) in domain organization, was recently discovered to be a member of the eIF2? kinase family in fish. PKR has roles in antiviral immunity through inhibiting protein synthesis and activating NF-?B; therefore, it is thought that PKZ may have a similar role in fish antiviral immunity. In the present study, the roles of two Danio rerio PKZ isoforms (DrPKZ-A and DrPKZ-B) in eIF2? phosphorylation and protein synthesis regulation were explored. DrPKZ-A and DrPKZ-B possess N-terminal Z-DNA binding domains and a conserved eIF2? kinase domain; however, they have domains of differing lengths inserted between kinase subdomains IV and V. DrPKZ-A has an insert domain of 73 amino acids (aa), whereas DrPKZ-B has an insert sequence of only 10 aa, suggesting that DrPKZ-B could be a dysfunctional isoform or could interact with different substrates. Our results show that both DrPKZ-A and DrPKZ-B functionally interact with eIF2? and inhibit protein synthesis, although DrPKZ-B possesses attenuated kinase activity. Our results also show that deletion of the insert in either isoform results in the complete abrogation of kinase activity, suggesting that the insert is critical for PKZ kinase activity. Kinase activity appears to be independent of insert length but may depend on the presence of specific amino acids within the insert domain. Furthermore, the effects of the N-terminal regulatory domain on kinase activity were analyzed. Deletion of the N-terminus results in reduced kinase activity of these isoforms relative to the wild-type forms, indicating that the isolated kinase domain is sufficient for eIF2? phosphorylation and that DrPKZ-A and DrPKZ-B may be regulated in a similar manner. Overall, our results show that DrPKZ-B is a functional kinase in zebrafish and contribute to our understanding of the function of PKZ in fish.
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Exposure to multiple low-level chemicals in relation to reproductive hormones in premenopausal women involved in liquid crystal display manufacture.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturing involves three fabrication processes: array, panel and module processes, which result in different levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the potential reproductive endocrine effects of occupational exposures during LCD manufacturing predictive of menstrual cycles as subclinical markers of female reproductive dysfunction effects of low-dose exposures.
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Litopenaeus vannamei sterile-alpha and armadillo motif containing protein (LvSARM) is involved in regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated NF-?B pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM) was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-?B pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs). Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.
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Isolation and retrieval of circulating tumor cells using centrifugal forces.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Presence and frequency of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in bloodstreams of cancer patients are pivotal to early cancer detection and treatment monitoring. Here, we use a spiral microchannel with inherent centrifugal forces for continuous, size-based separation of CTCs from blood (Dean Flow Fractionation (DFF)) which facilitates easy coupling with conventional downstream biological assays. Device performance was optimized using cancer cell lines (> 85% recovery), followed by clinical validation with positive CTCs enumeration in all samples from patients with metastatic lung cancer (n = 20; 5-88?CTCs per mL). The presence of CD133? cells, a phenotypic marker characteristic of stem-like behavior in lung cancer cells was also identified in the isolated subpopulation of CTCs. The spiral biochip identifies and addresses key challenges of the next generation CTCs isolation assay including antibody independent isolation, high sensitivity and throughput (3?mL/hr); and single-step retrieval of viable CTCs.
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Study of insulin resistance in cybrid cells harboring diabetes-susceptible and diabetes-protective mitochondrial haplogroups.
Mitochondrion
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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This study aims to elucidate the independent role of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR).
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Identification and function of leucine-rich repeat flightless-I-interacting protein 2 (LRRFIP2) in Litopenaeus vannamei.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Leucine-rich repeat flightless-I-interacting protein 2 (LRRFIP2) is a myeloid differentiation factor 88-interacting protein with a positive regulatory function in toll-like receptor signaling. In this study, seven LRRFIP2 protein variants (LvLRRFIP2A-G) were identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. All the seven LvLRRFIP2 protein variants encode proteins with a DUF2051 domain. LvLRRFIP2s were upregulated in hemocytes after challenged with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Dual-luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells revealed that LvLRRFIP2 activates the promoters of Drosophila and shrimp AMP genes. The knockdown of LvLRRFIP2 by RNA interference resulted in higher cumulative mortality of L. vannamei upon V. parahaemolyticus but not S. aureus and WSSV infections. The expression of L. vannamei AMP genes were reduced by dsLvLRRFIP2 interference. These results indicate that LvLRRFIP2 has an important function in antibacterials via the regulation of AMP gene expression.
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A sandwich-type DNA biosensor based on electrochemical co-reduction synthesis of graphene-three dimensional nanostructure gold nanocomposite films.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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A novel electrochemical DNA biosensor based on graphene-three dimensional nanostructure gold nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (G-3D Au/GCE) was fabricated for detection of survivin gene which was correlated with osteosarcoma. The G-3D Au film was prepared with one-step electrochemical coreduction with graphite oxide and HAuCl4 at cathodic potentials. The active surface area of G-3D Au/GCE was 2.629cm(2), which was about 3.8 times compared to that of a Au-coated GCE under the same experimental conditions, and 8.8 times compared to a planar gold electrode with a similar geometric area. The resultant nanocomposites with high conductivity, electrocatalysis and biocompatibility were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A "sandwich-type" detection strategy was employed in this electrochemical DNA biosensor and the response of this DNA biosensor was measured by CV and amperometric current-time curve detection. Under optimum conditions, there was a good linear relationship between the current signal and the logarithmic function of complementary DNA concentration in a range of 50-5000fM with a detection limit of 3.4fM. This new biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response, high sensitivity and selectivity and has been used in a polymerase chain reaction assay of real-life sample with a satisfactory result.
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Mandarin fish caveolin 1 interaction with major capsid protein of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus and its role in early stages of infection.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the type species of the genus Megalocytivirus from the family Iridoviridae. ISKNV is one of the major agents that cause mortality and economic losses to the freshwater fish culture industry in Asian countries, particularly for mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi). In the present study, we report that the interaction of mandarin fish caveolin 1 (mCav-1) with the ISKNV major capsid protein (MCP) was detected by using a virus overlay assay and confirmed by pulldown assay and coimmunoprecipitation. This interaction was independent of the classic caveolin 1 scaffolding domain (CSD), which is responsible for interacting with several signaling proteins and receptors. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that ISKNV MCP colocalized with mCav-1 in the perinuclear region of virus-infected mandarin fish fry (MFF-1) cells, which appeared as soon as 4 h postinfection. Subcellular fractionation analysis showed that ISKNV MCP was associated with caveolae in the early stages of viral infection. RNA interference silencing of mCav-1 did not change virus-cell binding but efficiently inhibited the entry of virions into the cell. Taken together, these results suggested that mCav-1 plays an important role in the early stages of ISKNV infection.
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Characterization of Four Novel Caspases from Litopenaeus vannamei (Lvcaspase2-5) and Their Role in WSSV Infection through dsRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Apoptosis plays an important role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) pathogenesis, and caspases are central players in apoptosis. Here, we cloned four novel caspases (Lvcaspase2-5) from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and investigated their potential roles in WSSV replication using dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. Lvcaspase2-5 have the typical domain structure of caspase family proteins, with the conserved consensus motifs p20 and p10. Lvcaspase2 and Lvcaspase5 were highly expressed in muscle, while Lvcaspase3 was highly expressed in hemocytes and Lvcaspase4 was mainly expressed in intestine. Lvcaspase2-5 could also be upregulated by WSSV infection, and they showed different patterns in various tissues. When overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, Lvcaspase2-5 showed different cellular localizations. Using dsRNA-medicated gene silencing, the expression of Lvcaspase2, Lvcaspase3, and Lvcaspase5 were effectively knocked down. In Lvcaspase2-, Lvcaspase3- or Lvcaspase5-silenced L. vannamei, expression of WSSV VP28 gene was significantly enhanced, suggesting protective roles for Lvcaspase2, Lvcaspase3 and Lvcaspase5 in the host defense against WSSV infection.
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Analysis of expression, cellular localization, and function of three inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) from Litopenaeus vannamei during WSSV infection and in regulation of antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) play important roles in apoptosis and NF-?B activation. In this study, we cloned and characterized three IAPs (LvIAP1-3) from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei. LvIAP1-3 proteins shared signature domains and exhibited significant similarities with other IAP family proteins. The tissue distributions of LvIAP1-3 were studied. The expression of LvIAP1-3 was induced in the muscle after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. LvIAP1 expression in the gill, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, and intestine was responsive to WSSV and Vibrioalginolyticus infections. LvIAP2 expression in the gill, hemocytes, and hepatopancreas was also responsive to WSSV infection. The expression of LvIAP3 in the gill, hemocytes, and intestine was reduced after V. alginolyticus infection. When overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, GFP labeled-LvIAP2 was distributed in the cytoplasm and appeared as speck-like aggregates in the nucleus. Both LvIAP1 and LvIAP3 were widely distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus. The expression of LvIAP1, LvIAP2, and LvIAP3 was significantly knocked down by dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. In the gill of LvIAP1- or LvIAP3-silenced shrimp, the expression of WSSV VP28 was significantly higher than that of the dsGFP control group, suggesting that LvIAP1 and LvIAP3 may play protective roles in host defense against WSSV infection. Intriguingly, the LvIAP2-silenced shrimp all died within 48 hours after dsLvIAP2 injection. In the hemocytes of LvIAP2-silenced shrimps, the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs), including Penaeidins, lysozyme, crustins, Vibriopenaeicidae-induced cysteine and proline-rich peptides (VICPs), was significantly downregulated, while the expression of anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) was upregulated. Moreover, LvIAP2 activated the promoters of the NF-?B pathway-controlled AMPs, such as shrimp Penaeidins and Drosophila drosomycin and attacin A, in Drosophila S2 cells. Taken together, these results reveal that LvIAP1 and LvIAP3 might participate in the host defense against WSSV infection, and LvIAP2 might be involved in the regulation of shrimp AMPs.
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Activating transcription factor 4 and X box binding protein 1 of Litopenaeus vannamei transcriptional regulated white spot syndrome virus genes Wsv023 and Wsv083.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the signaling pathway termed unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. To investigate the role of UPR in Litopenaeus vannamei immunity, the activating transcription factor 4 (designated as LvATF4) which belonged to a branch of the UPR, the [protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase, (PERK)]-[eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2?)] pathway, was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvATF4 was 1972 bp long, with an open reading frame of 1299 bp long that encoded a 432 amino acid protein. LvATF4 was highly expressed in gills, intestines and stomach. For the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, LvATF4 was upregulated in the gills after 3 hpi and increased by 1.9-fold (96 hpi) compared to the mock-treated group. The LvATF4 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in a lower cumulative mortality of L. vannamei under WSSV infection. Reporter gene assays show that LvATF4 could upregulate the expression of the WSSV gene wsv023 based on the activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3, 5-monophosphate response element (ATF/CRE). Another transcription factor of L. vannamei, X box binding protein 1 (designated as LvXBP1), has a significant function in [inositol-requiring enzyme-1(IRE1) - (XBP1)] pathway. This transcription factor upregulated the expression of the WSSV gene wsv083 based on the UPR element (UPRE). These results suggest that in L. vannamei UPR signaling pathway transcription factors are important for WSSV and might facilitate WSSV infection.
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Litopenaeus vannamei Toll-interacting protein (LvTollip) is a potential negative regulator of the shrimp Toll pathway involved in the regulation of the shrimp antimicrobial peptide gene penaeidin-4 (PEN4).
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved from insects to mammals as a regulator of the expression of immune-related genes. In mammals, TLR-NF-?B signaling is tightly controlled because excessive activation of this pathway can result in severe damage to the host. The mammalian Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) has an important function in the negative regulation of this pathway, but no reports about invertebrate Tollip have been published to date. In this study, we cloned Litopenaeus vannamei Tollip (LvTollip) and investigated its function in the regulation of the NF-?B pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs). The LvTollip full-length cDNA is 1231bp long and contains an open reading frame of 813bp that encodes a 270-amino acid protein. LvTollip shares significant similarities to mammalian Tollips, which contain a centrally localized protein kinase C conserved region 2 (C2) domain and a C-terminal CUE domain. After challenges with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Vibrio alginolyticus, the expression levels of LvTollip were altered in the gill, hemocyte, hepatopancreatic, intestinal, and muscle tissues. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvTollip localized in the membrane and the cytoplasm and significantly inhibited the promoter activities of the NF-?B pathway-controlled AMP penaeidin-4 (PEN4). In LvTollip-knockdown shrimp, the expression level of AMP PEN4 was increased. However, the mortality rates of LvTollip-knockdown shrimp in response to WSSV or V. alginolyticus infections were not significantly different from those of the control group. Our results suggested that LvTollip might be involved in the negative regulation of PEN4 and that LvTollip expression was responsive to microbial infections.
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Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (a fish iridovirus) enters Mandarin fish fry cells via caveola-dependent endocytosis.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the type species of the genus Megalocytivirus from the family Iridoviridae. Megalocytiviruses have been implicated in more than 50 fish species infections and currently threaten the aquaculture industry, causing great economic losses in China, Japan, and Southeast Asia. However, the cellular entry mechanisms of megalocytiviruses remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, the main internalization mechanism of ISKNV was investigated by using mandarin fish fry (MFF-1) cells. The progression of ISKNV infection is slow, and infection is not inhibited when the cells are treated with ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl), chloroquine, sucrose, and chlorpromazine, which are inhibitors of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. The depletion of cellular cholesterol by methyl-?-cyclodextrin results in the significant inhibition of ISKNV infection; however, the infection is resumed with cholesterol replenishment. Inhibitors of caveolin-1-involved signaling events, including phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), genistein, and wortmannin, impair ISKNV entry into MFF-1 cells. Moreover, ISKNV entry is dependent on dynamin and the microtubule cytoskeleton. Cofraction analysis of ISKNV and caveolin-1 showed that ISKNV colocates with caveolin-1 during virus infection. These results indicate that ISKNV entry into MFF-1 cells proceeds via classical caveola-mediated endocytosis and is dependent on the microtubules that serve as tracks along which motile cavicles may move via a caveola-caveosome-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway. As a fish iridovirus, ISKNV entry into MFF-1 cells is different from the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of frog virus 3 entry into mammalian cells (BHK-21) at 28°C, which has been recognized as a model for iridoviruses. Thus, our work may help further the understanding of the initial steps of iridovirus infection.
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[The analysis of adverse health effects of occupational hazards factors in one solid waste landfill].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2011
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To determine occupational hazards in work sites of a large solid waste landfill and analyze their adverse health effects.
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Enhancement of mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity by curcumin results from down-regulation of MKK1/2-ERK1/2-mediated thymidine phosphorylase expression.
Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a phenolic compound obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has been found to inhibit cell proliferation in various human cancer cell lines, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is considered an attractive therapeutic target, because increased TP expression can suppress cancer cell death induced by DNA-damaging agents. Mitomycin C (MMC), a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat NSCLC, inhibits tumour growth through DNA cross-linking and breaking. Whether MMC can affect TP expression in NSCLC is unknown. Therefore, in this study, we suggested that curcumin enhances the effects of MMC-mediated cytotoxicity by decreasing TP expression and ERK1/2 activation. Exposure of human NSCLC cell lines H1975 and H1650 to curcumin decreased MMC-elicited phosphorylated MKK1/2-ERK1/2 protein levels. Moreover, curcumin significantly decreased MMC-induced TP protein levels by increasing TP mRNA and protein instability. Enhancement of ERK1/2 activation by constitutively active MKK1/2 (MKK1/2-CA) increased TP protein levels and cell viability in curcumin- and MMC-co-treated cells. In contrast, U0126, a MKK1/2 inhibitor, augmented the cytotoxic effect and the down-regulation of TP by curcumin and MMC. Specific inhibition of TP by siRNA significantly enhanced MMC-induced cell death and cell growth inhibition. Our results suggest that suppression of TP expression or administration of curcumin along with MMC may be a novel lung cancer therapeutic modality in the future.
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Inhibition of p38 MAPK-dependent excision repair cross-complementing 1 expression decreases the DNA repair capacity to sensitize lung cancer cells to etoposide.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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Etoposide (VP-16), a topoisomerase II inhibitor, is an effective anticancer drug currently used for the treatment of a wide range of cancers. Excision repair cross-complementary 1 (ERCC1) is a key protein involved in the process of nucleotide excision repair. High level of ERCC1 expression in cancers is associated with resistance to DNA damage-based chemotherapy. In this study, the effects of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal on the ERCC1 expression induced by etoposide in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines was investigated. Etoposide increased phosphorylated MAPK kinase 3/6 (MKK3/6)-p38 MAPK and ERCC1 protein and mRNA levels in A549 and H1975 cells. Moreover, SB202190, a p38 inhibitor, or knockdown of p38 expression by specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreased the etoposide-induced ERCC1 protein levels and DNA repair capacity in etoposide-exposed NSCLC cells. Enhancement of p38 activation by constitutively active MKK6 (MKK6E) increased ERCC1 protein levels. Specific inhibition of ERCC1 by siRNA significantly enhanced the etoposide-induced cytotoxicity and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) gene mutation rate. Moreover, the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) could decrease the etoposide-induced p38 MAPK-mediated ERCC1 expression and augment the cytotoxic effect and growth inhibition by etopsoside. 17-AAG and etoposide-induced synergistic cytotoxic effect and DNA repair capacity decrease could be abrogated in lung cancer cells with MKK6E or HA-p38 MAPK expression vector transfection. Our results suggest that in human NSCLC cells, ERCC1 is induced by etoposide through the p38 MAPK pathway, and this phenomenon is required for NSCLC survival and resistant DNA damage.
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[Application of quantitative temperature testing in diagnosis of neurogenic erectile dysfunction].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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To explore the application of quantitative temperature testing (QTT) in forensic identification and clinical diagnosis of neurogenic erectile dysfunction (NED).
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Antigenic identification of virion structural proteins from infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), belonging to the genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae, is one of the major agents causing mortality and economic losses to the freshwater fish culture industry in Asian countries. Currently, little information regarding the antigenic properties of Megalocytivirus (especially ISKNV) is available. Our previous study using four different workflows with systematic and comprehensive proteomic approaches led to the identification of 38 ISKNV virion-associated proteins (J. Virol. 2869-2877, 2011). Thus, in this report, the antigenicity of 31 structural proteins from ISKNV virion was investigated. A one-dimensional gel electrophoresis immunoblot profile coupled with MALDI-TOF-TOF MS/MS was applied to identify six immunogenic viral proteins, namely, ORFs major capsid protein (006L), 054L, 055L, 101L, 117L, and 125L. Then, the antigenicity of 31 structural proteins was characterized by Western blot by using pooled sera from mandarin fish that survived ISKNV infection. Of the 31 viral proteins, 22 were recognized by the fish ISKNV antiserum. Furthermore, this antiserum neutralizes MFF-1 cells ISKNV infection. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on the immunogenicity of viral proteins and characterization of the proteome of megalocytivirus infective agents. Our findings are expected to promote the development of effective vaccine candidates.
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Sequence analysis of 12 genome segments of mud crab reovirus (MCRV).
Virology
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Mud crab reovirus (MCRV) is the causative agent of a serious disease with high mortality in cultured mud crab (Scylla serrata). This study sequenced and analyzed 12 genome segments of MCRV. The 12 genome segments had a total length of 24.464 kb, showing a total G+C content of 41.29% and predicted 15 ORFs. Sequence analysis showed that the majority of MCRV genes shared low homology with the counterpart genes of other reoviruses, e.g., the amino acid identity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was lower than 13.0% compared to the RdRp sequences of other reoviruses. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of RdRp and capping enzyme suggested MCRV as a single group. Further genome-based phylogenetical analysis of conserved termini and reovirus polymerase motif indicates that this MCRV belongs to a new genus of the Reoviridae family, tentatively named as Crabreovirus.
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The shrimp NF-?B pathway is activated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) 449 to facilitate the expression of WSSV069 (ie1), WSSV303 and WSSV371.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated NF-?B pathway is essential for defending against viruses in insects and mammals. Viruses also develop strategies to utilize this pathway to benefit their infection and replication in mammal hosts. In invertebrates, the TLR-mediated NF-?B pathway has only been well-studied in insects and has been demonstrated to be important in antiviral responses. However, there are few reports of interactions between viruses and the TLR-mediated NF-?B pathway in invertebrate hosts. Here, we studied Litopenaeus vannamei Pelle, which is the central regulator of the Toll pathway, and proposed that a similar TLR/MyD88/Tube/Pelle/TRAF6/NF-?B cascade may exist in shrimp for immune gene regulation. After performing genome-wild analysis of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) encoded proteins, we found that WSSV449 shows 15.7-19.4% identity to Tube, which is an important component of the insect Toll pathway. We further found that WSSV449 activated promoters of Toll pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes, indicating WSSV449 has a similar function to host Tube in activating the NF-?B pathway. We suspected that WSSV449 activated the Toll-mediated NF-?B pathway for regulating viral gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the promoters of viral genes and found 40 promoters that possess NF-?B binding sites. A promoter screen showed that the promoter activities of WSSV069 (ie1), WSSV303 and WSSV371 can be highly induced by the shrimp NF-?B family protein LvDorsal. WSSV449 also induced these three viral promoter activities by activating the NF-?B pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a virus that encodes a protein similar to the Toll pathway component Tube to upregulate gene expression in the invertebrate host.
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A Phase II study of pazopanib in Asian patients with recurrent/metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is endemic in Asia and angiogenesis is important for growth and progression. We hypothesized that pazopanib would have antiangiogenic activity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of two novel Tolls (LvToll2 and LvToll3) and three putative Spätzle-like Toll ligands (LvSpz1-3) from Litopenaeus vannamei.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
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Toll-like receptor-mediated NF-?B pathways are essential for inducing immune related-gene expression in the defense against bacterial, fungal and viral infections in insects and mammals. Although a Toll receptor (LvToll1) was cloned in Litopenaeus vannamei, relatively little is known about other types of Toll-like receptors and their endogenous cytokine-like ligand, Spätzle. Here, we report two novel Toll-like receptors (LvToll2 and LvToll3) and three Spätzle-like proteins (LvSpz1-3) from L. vannamei. LvToll2 has 1009 residues with an extracellular domain containing 18 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain of 139 residues. LvToll3 is 1244 residues long with an extracellular domain containing 23 LRRs and a cytoplasmic TIR domain of 138 residues. The Spätzle-like proteins LvSpz1, LvSpz2 and LvSpz3 are 237, 245 and 275 residues in length, respectively, and all of them have a putative C-terminal cystine-knot domain. In Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells, LvToll1 and LvToll3 were localized to the membrane and cytoplasm, and LvToll2 was confined to the cytoplasm. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvToll2 could significantly activate the promoters of NF-?B-pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes, whereas LvToll1 and LvToll3 had no effect on them. LvSpz1 exerted some degree of inhibition on the promoter activities of Drosophila Attacin A and L. vannamei Penaeidin4. LvSpz3 also inhibited the Drosophila Attacin A promoter, but LvSpz2 could only slightly activate it. LvToll1, LvToll2 and LvToll3 were constitutive expressed in various tissues, while LvSpz1, LvSpz2 and LvSpz3 exhibited tissue-specific expression in the epithelium, eyestalk, intestine, gill and muscle. In the gill, after Vibrio alginolyticus challenge, LvToll1 was upregulated, but LvToll2 and LvToll3 showed no obvious changes. LvSpz1 and LvSpz3 were also strongly induced by V. alginolyticus challenge, but LvSpz2 only showed a slight downregulation. In the gill, after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, LvToll1, LvToll2, LvToll3, LvSpz1 and LvSpz3 were upregulated, but LvSpz2 showed no obvious change, except for a slight downregulation at 12h post-injection of WSSV. These findings might be valuable in understanding the innate immune signal pathways of shrimp and enabling future studies on the host-pathogen interactions in V. alginolyticus and WSSV infections.
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Curcumin enhances the mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity via downregulation of MKK1/2-ERK1/2-mediated Rad51 expression in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a major active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been reported to suppress the proliferation of a wide variety of tumor cells. Rad51 is a key protein in the homologous recombination (HR) pathway of DNA double-strand break repair, and HR represents a novel target for cancer therapy. A high expression of Rad51 has been reported in chemo- or radio-resistant carcinomas. Therefore, in the current study, we will examine whether curcumin could enhance the effects of mitomycin C (MMC), a DNA interstrand cross-linking agent, to induce cytotoxicity by decreasing Rad51 expression. Exposure of two human non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (A549 and H1975) to curcumin could suppress MMC-induced MKK1/2-ERK1/2 signal activation and Rad51 protein expression. Enhancement of ERK1/2 activation by constitutively active MKK1/2 (MKK1/2-CA) increased Rad51 protein levels in curcumin and MMC co-treated human lung cells. Moreover, the synergistic cytotoxic effect induced by curcumin combined with MMC was decreased by MKK1-CA-mediated enhancement of ERK1/2 activation by a significant degree. In contrast, MKK1/2 inhibitor, U0126 was shown to augment the cytotoxicity of curcumin and MMC through downregulation of ERK1/2 activation and Rad51 expression. Depletion of endogenous Rad51 expression by siRad51 RNA transfection significantly enhanced MMC and/or curcumin induced cell death and cell growth inhibition. In contrast, an overexpression of Rad51 protected lung cancer cells from synergistic cytotoxic effects induced by curcumin and MMC. We concluded that Rad51 inhibition may be an additional action mechanism for enhancing the chemosensitization of MMC by curcumin in NSCLC.
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Entry of tiger frog virus (an Iridovirus) into HepG2 cells via a pH-dependent, atypical, caveola-mediated endocytosis pathway.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Tiger frog virus (TFV), in the genus Ranavirus of the family Iridoviridae, causes high mortality of cultured tiger frog tadpoles in China. To explore the cellular entry mechanism of TFV, HepG2 cells were treated with drugs that inhibit the main endocytic pathways. We observed that TFV entry was inhibited by NH(4)Cl, chloroquine, and bafilomycin, which can all elevate the pH of acidic organelles. In contrast, TFV entry was not influenced by chlorpromazine or overexpression of a dominant-negative form of Esp15, which inhibit the assembly of clathrin-coated pits. These results suggested that TFV entry was not associated with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, but was related to the pH of acidic organelles. Subsequently, we found that endocytosis of TFV was dependent on membrane cholesterol and was inhibited by the caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide. Dynamin and actin were also required for TFV entry. In addition, TFV virions colocalized with the cholera toxin subunit B, indicating that TFV enters as caveola-internalized cargo into the Golgi complex. Taken together, our results demonstrated that TFV entry occurs by caveola-mediated endocytosis with a pH-dependent step. This atypical caveola-mediated endocytosis is different from the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of frog virus 3 (FV3) by BHK cells, which has been recognized as a model for iridoviruses. Thus, our work may help further the understanding of the initial steps of iridovirus infection in lower vertebrates.
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Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily gene, TNF receptor superfamily gene and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? factor (LITAF) gene from Litopenaeus vannamei.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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In vertebrates, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor (TNFR) system participates in diverse physiological and pathological events, such as inflammation and protective immune responses to microbial infections. There are few reports about the role of the invertebrate TNF-TNFR system in immune responses. Here, we isolated and characterized the TNF superfamily (LvTNFSF) gene, TNFR superfamily (LvTNFRSF) gene and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? factor (LvLITAF) gene from Litopenaeus vannamei. LvTNFSF consists of 472 amino acids with a conserved C-terminal TNF domain and has 89.8% identity with the Marsupenaeus japonicus TNF superfamily gene. LvTNFRSF consists of 296 amino acids with a conserved TNFR domain and has 18.0% identity with Chlamys farreri TNFR, 14.6% identity with Drosophila melanogaster Wengen and 14.6% identity with Homo sapiens TNFR1. LvLITAF consists of 124 amino acids with the LITAF domain and shows 62.6% identity with D. melanogaster LITAF and 32.3% identity with H. sapiens LITAF. The promoter region of LvTNFSF was cloned and used to construct a luciferase reporter. In Drosophila S2 cells, the promoter of LvTNFSF can be activated by LvLITAF, L. vannamei NF-?B family proteins (LvRelish and LvDorsal) and LvSTAT. Unlike its mammalian counterparts, LvTNFRSF could not activate the NF-?B pathway in Drosophila S2 cells. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we obtained expression profiles of LvTNFSF, LvTNFRSF and LvLITAF in the gill, intestine and hepatopancreas of L. vannamei after challenge with Gram-negative Vibrio alginolyticus, Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the fungus Candida albicans and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Taken together, our results reveal that LvTNFSF, LvTNFRSF and LvLITAF may be involved in shrimp immune responses to pathogenic infections.
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Synergistic effect of curcumin and cisplatin via down-regulation of thymidine phosphorylase and excision repair cross-complementary 1 (ERCC1).
Mol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a phenolic compound obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is known to have antiproliferative and antitumor properties. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP), an enzyme of the pyrimidine salvage pathway, is considered an attractive therapeutic target, and its expression could suppress cancer cell death induced by DNA damage agents. Excision repair cross-complementary 1 (ERCC1) is a protein involved the process of nucleotide excision repair. The ERCC1 gene is expressed at high levels in cancers and has been associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. In this study, the effects of curcumin on TP and ERCC1 expression induced by cisplatin in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines was investigated. Exposure of the NSCLC cells to various concentrations of curcumin (5-40 ?M) down-regulates the mRNA and protein levels of TP and ERCC1 through destabilization of the mRNA and proteins via a mechanism involving inactivation of MKK1/2-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Depletion of endogenous TP or ERCC1 expression by transfection with specific small interfering RNAs significantly decreases cell viability in curcumin-exposed NSCLC cells. Curcumin enhances the sensitivity of cisplatin treatment for NSCLC through inactivation of ERK1/2 and by decreasing the TP and ERCC1 protein levels. Enhancement of ERK1/2 signaling by constitutively active MKK1/2 causes an increase in TP and ERCC1 protein levels and promotes cell viability after cotreatment with curcumin and cisplatin. Enhancement of the cytotoxicity to cisplatin by administration of curcumin is mediated by down-regulation of the expression levels of TP and ERCC1 and by inactivation of ERK1/2.
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The viral ankyrin repeat protein (ORF124L) from infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus attenuates nuclear factor-?B activation and interacts with I?B kinase ?.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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The ankyrin (ANK) repeat is one of the most common protein-protein interaction motifs, found predominantly in eukaryotes and bacteria, but the functions of the ANK repeat are rarely researched in animal viruses, with the exception of poxviruses. Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is a typical member of the genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae and is a causative agent of epizootics in fish. The genome of ISKNV contains four putative viral ANK (vANK) repeat proteins and their functions remain largely unknown. In the present study, it was found that ORF124L, a vANK repeat protein in ISKNV, encodes a protein of 274 aa with three ANK repeats. Transcription of ORF124L was detected at 12 h post-infection (p.i.) and reached a peak at 40 h p.i. ORF124L was found to localize to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm in mandarin fish fry cells. ISKNV ORF124L interacted with the mandarin fish I?B kinase ? protein (scIKK?), and attenuated tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)- or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced activity of a nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B)-luciferase reporter but did not interfere with the activity of an activator protein 1 (AP-1)-luciferase reporter. Phosphorylation of I?B? and nuclear translocation of NF-?B were also impaired by ISKNV ORF124L. In summary, ORF124L was identified as a vANK repeat protein and its role in inhibition of TNF-?-induced NF-?B signalling was investigated through interaction with the mandarin fish IKK?. This work may help to improve our understanding of the function of fish iridovirus ANK repeat proteins.
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Up-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent thymidylate synthase and thymidine phosphorylase contributes to cisplatin resistance in human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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Chemotherapy for advanced human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes platinum-containing compound such as cisplatin in combination with a second- or third-generation cytotoxic agent. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) belongs to antimetabolite chemotherapeutics, and its mechanism of cytotoxicity is involved in the inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TS). TS and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) are key enzymes of the pyrimidine salvage pathway. In this study, we have examined the molecular mechanism of TS and TP in regulating drug sensitivity to cisplatin in NSCLC cell lines. Cisplatin could increase the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MKK1/2)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and the protein levels of TS and TP through enhancing the protein stability in A549 and H1975 cells. Blocking ERK1/2 activation by MKK1/2 inhibitor [U0126; 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(2-aminophenylthio)butadiene)] decreased TS and TP protein levels in both cell lines treated with cisplatin. Depletion of endogenous TS or TP expression by specific small interfering RNA transfection significantly increased cisplatin-induced cell death and growth inhibition. Combined treatment with 5-FU could decrease cisplatin-induced ERK1/2 activation and the induction of TS and TP, which subsequently resulted in synergistic cytotoxic effects. Enforced expression of constitutive active MKK1/2 vectors rescued the protein levels of phospho-ERK1/2, TS, and TP, and the cell viability that were decreased by cisplatin and 5-FU combination. In contrast, U0126 enhanced drug sensitivity to cisplatin and/or 5-FU in lung cancer cells. In conclusion, the up-regulation of ERK1/2-dependent TS and TP can protect human lung cancer cells from cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity.
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Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding Ars2 and Pasha homologues, two components of the RNA interference pathway in Litopenaeus vannamei.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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The RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionarily conserved protective mechanism in eukaryotes against parasitic foreign nucleic acids. Previous studies demonstrated that the RNAi mechanism is important for shrimp antiviral immunity. Here, we report the identification and functional analysis of two key components of the shrimp RNAi activity: Litopenaeus vannamei arsenite resistance gene 2 (LvArs2) and partner of drosha (LvPasha). The full-length cDNA of LvArs2 was 3470 bp, including a 5 untranslated region (UTR) of 167 bp, a 3 UTR of 639 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 2664 bp that encoded 887 amino acid residues with an estimated molecular mass of 102.5 kDa. The full-length cDNA of LvPasha was 2654 bp, including a 5 UTR of 99 bp, a 3 UTR of 560 bp, and an ORF of 1995 bp that encoded 664 amino acid residues with an estimated molecular mass of 74.2 kDa. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that LvArs2 interacted with L. vannamei Dicer2 (LvDcr2) and LvPasha in Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells, suggesting that LvArs2 may be involved in regulation of the miRNA/siRNA pathways in L.vannamei. Subcellular localization assays demonstrated both LvArs2 and LvPasha proteins mainly presented in the nucleus. After Poly(C-G) stimulation, the expression of LvArs2 was suppressed and expression of LvPasha was enhanced in shrimp gills. These results suggest that LvArs2 and LvPasha may participate in the defense against RNA viruses in crustacea.
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Identification and functional characterization of Dicer2 and five single VWC domain proteins of Litopenaeus vannamei.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Dicer (Dcr) is the key protein of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. To investigate the role of the RNAi pathway in shrimp anti-viral immunity, Litopenaeus vannamei Dcr2 (designated as LvDcr2) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvDcr2 was 5513bp long, with an open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 1502 amino acids. In addition, five proteins homologous to the single von Willebrand factor type C (VWC) domain protein (SVC) were also identified in L. vannamei and named LvSVC1-5. These LvSVCs were between 102 and 190 amino acids in length and all contained a motif similar to Drosophila melanogaster SVC proteins (DmSVCs). By co-immunoprecipitation assays and pull-down assays, we demonstrated that LvDcr2, L. vannamei Argonaute 2 (LvAgo2), and L. vannamei transactivating response RNA-binding protein isoform 1 (LvTRBP1) interacted with each other. A luciferase reporter assay indicated that the promoters of LvSVC1, LvSVC4, LvSVC5, and DmSVC Vago (DmVago) were activated by LvDcr2 as well as by Drosophila Dcr2 (DmDcr2). Real-time RT-PCR showed that LvDcr2 and LvSVCs were up-regulated in immune responses against Poly(C-G) or WSSV challenge. These results suggested that LvDcr2 formed complexes with LvAgo2 and LvTRBP1 to act as the cores of shrimp small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced silencing complex (siRISC)/siRISC-loading complex (siRLC), role in shrimp siRNA pathway. Furthermore, these results also suggested that LvDcr2 may engage in non-specific activation of anti-viral immunity.
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Tissue-specific differences in mitochondrial DNA content in type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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To investigate whether the effect of hyperglycemia on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content is tissue-specific.
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Cloning and characterization of a shrimp ML superfamily protein.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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ML superfamily proteins, including MD-1, MD-2, Niemann-Pick type C2 (Npc2) protein, GM2 activator protein, phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylglycerol transfer protein (PG/PI-TP) and mite allergen Der p 2, bind to specific lipids and play important roles in lipid-recognition and metabolism. Among these ML (MD-2-related lipid-recognition) proteins, MD-2 is essential for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling and the following secretion of proinflammatory factors. In this report, we identified the cDNA and gene of an ML protein from an important white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and named it LvML. The gene consists of four exons and three introns. The putative LvML contains 6 cysteines which may form 3 disulfide bonds that are conserved in ML proteins. Reverse transcription PCR analysis showed that in the examined tissues LvML mRNA is only expressed in the hepatopancreas, while not in hemocytes, eyestalk, gill, heart, stomach, intestine, nerve core, muscle or pyloric caecum. Its expression is positively regulated after injection of LPS. Then enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the recombinant LvML possessed activity of binding to LPS, and that the binding was inhibited by pre-incubation with LPS. We suggested that the LvML may play roles in the shrimp innate immunity.
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Global landscape of structural proteins of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), the type species of the genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae, causes severe damage to mandarin fish cultures in China. Little is known about the proteins of ISKNV virions. In this study, a total of 38 ISKNV virion-associated proteins were identified by four different workflows with systematic and comprehensive proteomic approaches. Among the 38 identified proteins, 21 proteins were identified by the gel-based workflows (one-dimensional [1-D] and two-dimensional [2-D] gel electrophoresis). Fifteen proteins were identified by 1-D gel electrophoresis, and 16 proteins were identified by 2-D gel electrophoresis, with 10 proteins identified by both methods. Another 17 proteins were identified only by liquid chromatography (LC)-based workflows (LC-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization [MALDI] and linear trap quadrupole [LTQ]-Orbitrap). Among these 17 LC-identified proteins, 5 proteins were identified uniquely by the LC-MALDI workflow, whereas another 6 proteins were identified only by the LTQ-Orbitrap workflow. These results underscore the importance of incorporation of multiple approaches in identification of viral proteins. Based on viral genomic sequence, genes encoding these 38 viral proteins were cloned and expressed in vitro. Antibodies were produced against these 38 proteins to confirm the ISKNV structural proteins by Western blotting. Of the newly identified proteins, ORF 056L and ORF 118L were identified and confirmed as two novel viral envelope proteins by Western blotting and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM). The ISKNV proteome reported here is currently the only characterized megalocytivirus proteome. The systematic and comprehensive identification of ISKNV structural proteins and their localizations in this study will facilitate future studies of the ISKNV assembly process and infection mechanism.
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Involvement of caveolin-1 in the Jak-Stat signaling pathway and infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus infection in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi).
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Caveolae, the major source of caveolin-1 protein, are specialized invaginated microdomains of the plasma membrane that act as organizing centers for signaling molecules in the immune system. In the present study, we report the cloning and characterization of caveolin-1 (mCav-1) from mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) and study on the roles of mCav-1 in the fish Jak-Stat signaling pathway and in virus infection. The cDNA sequence of mCav-1 was 707bp in size, encoding a protein of 181 amino acids, which was different from the mammalian protein (178 amino acids). The deduced amino acid sequence of mCav-1 shared similar architecture with vertebrate caveolin-1 proteins, but mCav-1 lacked a phosphorylation site (y14). The major subcellular location of mCav-1 was in the caveolae, where the protein appeared to have major functions. Real-time PCR revealed that the expression of the mandarin fish Mx, IRF-1, SOCS1, and SOCS3 genes involved in the poly(I:C)-induced Jak-Stat signaling pathway was impaired by the mCav-1 scaffolding domain peptide (mSDP). In mandarin fish fry (MFF-1) cells, the protein levels of mCav-1 were markedly up-regulated at 12 and 24h post-infection with ISKNV (infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus). In addition, ISKNV entry into MFF-1 cells was significantly inhibited by mSDP, and the inhibition was dose-dependent. Thus, ISKNV infection was apparently associated with mCav-1 protein and may utilize the caveolae-related endocytosis pathway. The findings reported here further our understanding of the function of caveolin-1 in the complex signal transduction network in fish immune systems and in the cellular entry mechanism of iridoviruses.
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Modulation of Rad51, ERCC1, and thymidine phosphorylase by emodin result in synergistic cytotoxic effect in combination with capecitabine.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the activation of capecitabine (pro-drug of fluorouracil), and as a useful predictor of tumor response to capecitabine-based chemotherapy. Overexpression of Rad51 and ERCC1 induce resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Emodin, one of the main bioactive anthraquinone derivatives in the roots and rhizomes of numerous plants, possesses potent antitumor effects. Accordingly, we aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of emodin enhances the capecitabine-induced cytotoxicity through controlling Rad51, ERCC1, and TP expression in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The results show that capecitabine increases the phosphorylation of MKK1/2-ERK1/2 and protein levels of Rad51 and ERCC1 through enhancing the protein stability. Depletion of endogenous Rad51 or ERCC1 expression by specific small interfering RNA transfection significantly increases capecitabine-induced cell death and growth inhibition. Emodin enhances the capecitabine-induced cytotoxic effects through ERK1/2 inactivation and decreasing the Rad51 and ERCC1 protein levels induced by capecitabine. Enhancement of ERK1/2 signaling by constitutively active MKK1/2 (MKK1/2-CA) results in increasing Rad51 and ERCC1 protein levels and cell viability in NSCLC cell lines treated with emodin and capecitabine. Interestingly, emodin enhances TP mRNA and protein expression in capecitabine treated NSCLC cell lines, and depletion of the TP expression decreases the cytotoxic effects induced by capecitabine and emodin. We conclude that enhancing the cytotoxicity to capecitabine by emodin is mediated by down-regulation the expression of Rad51 and ERCC1 and up-regulation TP expression.
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Proteomic analysis of zebrafish (Danio rerio) infected with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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Iridovirus infections remain a severe problem in aquaculture industries worldwide. Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), the type species of the genus Megalocytovirus in the family Iridoviridae, has caused significant economic losses among freshwater fish in different Asian countries. To investigate the molecular mechanism of iridoviral pathogenesis, we analyzed the differential proteome from the spleen of ISKNV-infected zebrafish through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Mass spectrometry revealed 35 altered cellular protein spots, including 15 upregulated proteins and 20 downregulated proteins at five days post-infection. The altered host proteins were classified into 13 categories based on their biological processes: cytoskeletal protein, stress response, lipoprotein metabolism, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction, proteolysis, ion binding, transport, metabolic process, catabolic process, biosynthesis, and oxidation reduction. Moreover, 14 corresponding genes of the differentially expressed proteins were validated by RT-PCR. Western blot analysis further demonstrated the changes in ?-tubulin, ?-actin, HSC70, and major capsid protein (MCP) during infection. ?-Actin was selected for further study via co-immunoprecipitation analyses, which confirmed that the cellular ?-actin interacts with the MCP protein of ISKNV in the infected zebrafish. These findings provide insight into the interactions between iridoviruses (especially ISKNV) and host, as well as the mechanism and pathogenesis of ISKNV infections.
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Two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB proteins interact with transcription factors LvSTAT and LvDorsal to activate the promoter of white spot syndrome virus immediate-early gene ie1.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused great economic damage to shrimp aquaculture. Previous studies have shown that WSSV successfully usurps the immunity system of the host for its own gene regulation. To investigate the role of shrimp high mobility group box (HMGB) proteins in WSSV gene regulation, two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB genes, LvHMGBa and LvHMGBb, were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Recombinant LvHMGBa/b proteins were present in the nucleus of transfected Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that LvHMGBa/b upregulated the WSSV immediate-early (IE) gene (ie1) in a NF-?B and STAT binding site-dependent manner. GST pull-down assays demonstrated that LvHMGBa/b interacted with L. vannamei Dorsal (LvDorsal) and L. vannamei STAT (LvSTAT), respectively. LvHMGBa was highly expressed in hepatopancreas while HMGBb was highly expressed in stomach, intestine, heart, antennal gland, and epidermis. Moreover, an immune challenge assay demonstrated that the expression of LvHMGBa/b was upregulated by WSSV infection and that both mRNAs reached peak values at 24 h post-infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report that invertebrate HMGB proteins participates in viral gene regulation.
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Litopenaeus vannamei tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) responds to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection and activates antimicrobial peptide genes.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2010
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Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key signaling adaptor protein not only for the TNFR superfamily but also for the Interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) superfamily. To investigate TRAF6 function in invertebrate innate immune responses, Litopenaeus vannamei TRAF6 (LvTRAF6) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvTRAF6 is 2823bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 594 amino acids, including a RING-type Zinc finger, two TRAF-type Zinc fingers, a coiled-coil region, and a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain. The overall amino acid sequence identity between LvTRAF6 and other known TRAF6s is 22.2-33.3%. Dual luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila S2 cells revealed that LvTRAF6 could activate the promoters of antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs), including Drosophila Attacin A and Drosomycin, and shrimp Penaeidins. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that LvTRAF6 was constitutively expressed in various tissues of L. vannamei. After Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, LvTRAF6 was down-regulated, though with different expression patterns in the intestine compared to other tissues. After WSSV challenge, LvTRAF6 was up-regulated 2.7- and 2.3-fold over the control at 3h in gills and hepatopancreas, respectively. These results indicated that LvTRAF6 may play a crucial role in antibacterial and antiviral responses via regulation of AMP gene expression.
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Molecular cloning of IKK? from the mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi and its up-regulation in cells by ISKNV infection.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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The I?B kinase ? (IKK?) plays crucial roles in regulating activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) in response to proinflammatory factors and microbial and viral infections. Here, we report the cloning of an IKK? cDNA (named SicIKK?) from the mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi. The full-length cDNA is 4052bp and contains an ORF that encodes a predicted protein of 743-amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of SicIKK? has the same domain organization as human IKK?, which consists of a serine/threonine kinase domain, a leucine zipper motif and a putative helix-loop-helix motif. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that SicIKK? was ubiquitously expressed in tissues of mandarin fish, and its expression in mandarin fish fry (MFF-1) cells was up-regulated during the course of ISKNV infection.
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