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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Hypusine-eIF5A-PEAK1 Switch Regulates the Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Deregulation of protein synthesis is a hallmark of cancer cell proliferation, survival, and metastatic progression. eIF5A1 and its highly related isoform eIF5A2 are translation initiation factors that have been implicated in a range of human malignancies, but how they control cancer development and disease progression is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated how eIF5A proteins regulate pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) pathogenesis. eIF5A proteins are the only known proteins regulated by a distinct posttranslational modification termed hypusination, which is catalyzed by two enzymes, deoxyhypusine synthase (DHPS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). The highly selective nature of the hypusine modification and its amenability to pharmacologic inhibition make eIF5A proteins attractive therapeutic targets. We found that the expression and hypusination of eIF5A proteins are upregulated in human PDAC tissues and in premalignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia tissues isolated from Pdx-1-Cre: LSL-KRAS(G12D) mice. Knockdown of eIF5A proteins in PDAC cells inhibited their growth in vitro and orthotopic tumor growth in vivo, whereas amplification of eIF5A proteins increased PDAC cell growth and tumor formation in mice. Small-molecule inhibitors of DHPS and DOHH both suppressed eIF5A hypusination, preventing PDAC cell growth. Interestingly, we found that eIF5A proteins regulate PDAC cell growth by modulating the expression of PEAK1, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase essential for PDAC cell growth and therapy resistance. Our findings suggest that eIF5A proteins utilize PEAK1 as a downstream effector to drive PDAC pathogenesis and that pharmacologic inhibition of the eIF5A-hypusine-PEAK1 axis may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to combat this deadly disease. Cancer Res; 74(22); 6671-81. ©2014 AACR.
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Ratiometric Activatable Cell-Penetrating Peptides Label Pancreatic Cancer, Enabling Fluorescence-Guided Surgery, Which Reduces Metastases and Recurrence in Orthotopic Mouse Models.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)-cleavable ratiometric activatable cell-penetrating peptides (RACPPs) conjugated to Cy5 and Cy7 fluorophores to accurately label pancreatic cancer for fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) in an orthotopic mouse model.
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Advantages of fluorescence-guided laparoscopic surgery of pancreatic cancer labeled with fluorescent anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies in an orthotopic mouse model.
J. Am. Coll. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Our laboratory has previously developed fluorescence-guided surgery of pancreatic and other cancers in orthotopic mouse models. Laparoscopic surgery is being used more extensively in surgical oncology. This report describes the efficacy of laparoscopic fluorescence-guided surgery of pancreatic cancer in an orthotopic mouse model.
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Fluorescence-guided surgery with a fluorophore-conjugated antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), that highlights the tumor, improves surgical resection and increases survival in orthotopic mouse models of human pancreatic cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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We have developed a method of distinguishing normal tissue from pancreatic cancer in vivo using fluorophore-conjugated antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) with a fluorophore-conjugated antibody to CEA, to highlight the tumor, can improve surgical resection and increase disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in orthotopic mouse models of human pancreatic cancer.
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Comparison of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated with visible or near-infrared fluorescent dyes for imaging pancreatic cancer in orthotopic nude mouse models.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate a set of visible and near-infrared dyes conjugated to a tumor-specific chimeric antibody for high-resolution tumor imaging in orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer was orthotopically implanted into pancreata of nude mice. Mice received a single intravenous injection of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated to one of the following fluorophores: 488-nm group (Alexa Fluor 488 or DyLight 488); 550-nm group (Alexa Fluor 555 or DyLight 550); 650-nm group (Alexa Fluor 660 or DyLight 650), or the 750-nm group (Alexa Fluor 750 or DyLight 755). After 24 h, the Olympus OV100 small-animal imaging system was used for noninvasive and intravital fluorescence imaging of mice. Dyes were compared with respect to depth of imaging, resolution, tumor-to-background ratio (TBR), photobleaching, and hemoglobin quenching. The longer wavelength dyes had increased depth of penetration and ability to detect the smallest tumor deposits and provided the highest TBRs, resistance to hemoglobin quenching, and specificity. The shorter wavelength dyes were more photostable. This study showed unique advantages of each dye for specific cancer imaging in a clinically relevant orthotopic model.
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Fluorescently labeled chimeric anti-CEA antibody improves detection and resection of human colon cancer in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse model.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate a new fluorescently labeled chimeric anti-CEA antibody for improved detection and resection of colon cancer.
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A dual-color genetically engineered mouse model for multispectral imaging of the pancreatic microenvironment.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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To develop a mouse model for multispectral fluorescence imaging of the pancreas and pancreatic microenvironment.
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In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Using Fluorophore-Conjugated Anti-KIT Antibody.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are frequently characterized by KIT overexpression. Tumor-free margins and complete cytoreduction of disease are mainstays of treatment. We hypothesized that fluorescently labeled anti-KIT antibodies can label GIST in vivo.
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In vivo serial selection of human pancreatic cancer cells in orthotopic mouse models produces high metastatic variants irrespective of Kras status.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Kras mutations have been thought to play an important role in pancreatic cancer progression. In this study, we evaluated how serially passaging primary pancreatic tumors with and without Kras mutations, in nude mice, can generate more aggressive variants of human pancreatic cancer.
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Submillimeter-resolution fluorescence laparoscopy of pancreatic cancer in a carcinomatosis mouse model visualizes metastases not seen with standard laparoscopy.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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Staging laparoscopy can visualize peritoneal and liver metastases in pancreatic cancer otherwise undetectable by preoperative imaging. However, false-negative rates may be as high as 18%-26%. The aim of the present study was to improve detection of metastatic pancreatic cancer with the use of fluorescence laparoscopy (FL) in a nude-mouse model with the tumors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP).
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Imaging of the interaction of cancer cells and the lymphatic system.
Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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A thorough understanding of the lymphatic system and its interaction with cancer cells is crucial to our ability to fight cancer metastasis. Efforts to study the lymphatic system had previously been limited by the inability to visualize the lymphatic system in vivo in real time. Fluorescence imaging can address these limitations and allow for visualization of lymphatic delivery and trafficking of cancer cells and potentially therapeutic agents as well. Here, we review recent articles in which antibody-fluorophore conjugates are used to label the lymphatic network and fluorescent proteins to label cancer cells in the evaluation of lymphatic delivery and imaging.
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Knockdown of the ?(1) integrin subunit reduces primary tumor growth and inhibits pancreatic cancer metastasis.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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To address the role of ?(1) integrins in pancreatic cancer progression, we stably knocked down ?(1) integrin subunit expression in human FG-RFP pancreatic cancer cells using lentiviral-based RNA interference. We then examined the effects of ?(1) integrin subunit knockdown on pancreatic cancer cell adhesion, migration and proliferation on tumor microenvironment-specific extracellular matrix proteins in vitro and on tumor progression in vivo using a clinically relevant fluorescent orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Knockdown of the ?(1) integrin subunit inhibited cell adhesion, migration and proliferation on types I and IV collagen, fibronectin and laminin in vitro. In vivo, knockdown of the ?(1) integrin subunit reduced primary tumor growth by 50% and completely inhibited spontaneously occurring metastasis. These observations indicate a critical role for the ?(1) integrin subunit in pancreatic cancer progression and metastasis in particular. Our results suggest the ?(1) integrin subunit as a therapeutic target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, especially in the adjuvant setting to prevent metastasis of this highly aggressive cancer.
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Real-time imaging of tumor progression in a fluorescent orthotopic mouse model of thyroid cancer.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2010
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There is a need for a clinically relevant mouse model of thyroid cancer that enables real-time, non-invasive monitoring of tumor growth, progression, and drug response over time. Human thyroid cancer cell lines NPA (papillary) and KAK-1 (anaplastic) were stably transfected to express either red or green fluorescent protein. Cancer cells were injected into the thyroid glands of 8-week-old athymic mice. The animals were imaged with whole-body fluorescence imaging weekly and sacrificed when premorbid. At necropsy, the primary tumor was resected en bloc with the respiratory system for processing and analysis. Histology was performed on fixed tissue specimens for review of morphologic findings. Both anaplastic and papillary thyroid cancer cell lines led to robust development of orthotopic fluorescent tumors in nude mice. Injection of 5×10(5) cancer cells was sufficient for tumor development. Tumors were visualized for both cell lines via non-invasive imaging as early as 3 weeks post-implantation and were monitored over time. Time to premorbid condition varied between mice and was associated with a primary tumor growth pattern (early local compression of the esophagus vs. late metastatic disease) rather than tumor size. At necropsy, tumor fluorescence demonstrated metastases in the lungs, lymph nodes and vessels that were not visible under white light. Thus an orthotopic mouse model of thyroid cancer has been developed that replicates the major clinical features of thyroid cancer and enables real-time, non-invasive monitoring of tumor progression. This model should permit preclinical evaluation of novel thyroid cancer therapeutics.
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Enhancing magnetic resonance imaging tumor detection with fluorescence intensity and lifetime imaging.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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Early detection is important for many solid cancers but the images provided by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography applied alone or together, are often not sufficient for decisive early screening ? diagnosis. We demonstrate that MRI augmented with fluorescence intensity (FI) substantially improves detection. Early stage murine pancreatic tumors that could not be identified by blinded, skilled observers using MRI alone, were easily identified with MRI along with FI images acquired with photomultiplier tube detection and offset laser scanning. Moreover, we show that fluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging enables positive identification of the labeling fluorophore and discriminates it from surrounding tissue autofluorescence. Our data suggest combined-modality imaging with MRI, FI, and FLT can be used to screen and diagnose early tumors.
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Metronomic gemcitabine in combination with sunitinib inhibits multisite metastasis and increases survival in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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Metronomic chemotherapy suppresses growth of primary tumors and established metastases. However, its effect on metastatic progression is essentially unknown. We report the treatment of a metastatically competent model of pancreatic cancer with metronomic gemcitabine and sunitinib. Mice with orthotopic, red fluorescent protein-expressing, pancreatic cancer tumorgrafts were treated with gemcitabine on a metronomic (1 mg/kg daily, METG) or maximum tolerated dose (150 mg/kg twice weekly, MTDG) schedule with or without sunitinib (SU). Rates of primary tumor growth, metastasis, ascites, and survival were calculated. Gemcitabine at a daily dose of 2 mg or greater led to toxicity within 1 month in mice without tumors but METG at 1 mg/kg/d was well tolerated. Mice with pancreatic cancer tumorgrafts died with metastatic disease at a median of 25 days. METG/SU significantly prolonged median overall survival (44 days) compared with control or either regimen alone (P < 0.05). Primary tumor growth was inhibited by METG/SU (P = 0.03) but neither METG nor sunitinib alone. In contrast, treatment with METG suppressed metastasis at multiple sites, an effect enhanced by sunitinib. MTDG with or without sunitinib had the most favorable effect on primary tumor growth and survival, but its antimetastatic efficacy was similar to that of METG/SU. von Willebrand factor expression was inhibited by METG. Antimetastatic activity approaching that of MTDG is achieved with a total dose reduced 42 times using METG and is further enhanced by sunitinib. Our results suggest the potential of this therapeutic paradigm against pancreatic cancer in the adjuvant and maintenance settings.
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Pseudopodium-enriched atypical kinase 1 regulates the cytoskeleton and cancer progression [corrected].
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Regulation of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton plays a central role in cell migration and cancer progression. Here, we report the discovery of a cytoskeleton-associated kinase, pseudopodium-enriched atypical kinase 1 (PEAK1). PEAK1 is a 190-kDa nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that localizes to actin filaments and focal adhesions. PEAK1 undergoes Src-induced tyrosine phosphorylation, regulates the p130Cas-Crk-paxillin and Erk signaling pathways, and operates downstream of integrin and epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) to control cell spreading, migration, and proliferation. Perturbation of PEAK1 levels in cancer cells alters anchorage-independent growth and tumor progression in mice. Notably, primary and metastatic samples from colon cancer patients display amplified PEAK1 levels in 81% of the cases. Our findings indicate that PEAK1 is an important cytoskeletal regulatory kinase and possible target for anticancer therapy.
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Half-antibody functionalized lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to carcinoembryonic antigen presenting pancreatic cancer cells.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
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Current chemotherapy regimens against pancreatic cancer are met with little success as poor tumor vascularization significantly limits the delivery of oncological drugs. High-dose targeted drug delivery, through which a drug delivery vehicle releases a large payload upon tumor localization, is thus a promising alternative strategy against this lethal disease. Herein, we synthesize anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) half-antibody conjugated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles and characterize their ligand conjugation yields, physicochemical properties, and targeting ability against pancreatic cancer cells. Under the same drug loading, the half-antibody targeted nanoparticles show enhanced cancer killing effect compared to the corresponding nontargeted nanoparticles.
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Fluorescence laparoscopy imaging of pancreatic tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2010
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The use of fluorescent proteins to label tumors is revolutionizing cancer research, enabling imaging of both primary and metastatic lesions, which is important for diagnosis, staging, and therapy. This report describes the use of fluorescence laparoscopy to image green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing tumors in an orthotopic mouse model of human pancreatic cancer.
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Upregulation of thrombospondin-1 and angiogenesis in an aggressive human pancreatic cancer cell line selected for high metastasis.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2009
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Pancreatic cancer remains a leading cause of death despite its relatively low incidence. As in many other solid tumors, angiogenesis is critical to the growth and metastasis of this cancer. Through serial in vivo passages in mice, we have developed a highly aggressive variant of human pancreatic cancer cell line XPA-1 which shows more rapid primary tumor growth, faster time to metastasis, and more rapid lethality than the parental cell line. The high-metastatic variant developed a much denser tumor vasculature early during growth within the pancreas. Interestingly, examination of the in vitro growth of this aggressive variant yielded no significant difference from the parental cell line. Real-time PCR evaluation of genes involved in angiogenesis revealed a 24-fold increase in Thrombospondin-1 expression in cells derived from the high-metastatic variant when compared with the parental cell line. These findings provide direct evidence that elevated capability for angiogenesis, mediated by specific changes in gene expression, can lead to a large increase in cancer aggressiveness and resulting metastasis. These findings have important implications for the treatment of metastatic disease.
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Complementarity of ultrasound and fluorescence imaging in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease characterized by dismal 5-year survival rates and limited treatment options. In an effort to provide useful models for preclinical evaluation of new experimental therapeutics, we and others have developed orthotopic mouse models of pancreatic cancer. The utility of these models for pre-clinical testing is dependent upon quantitative, noninvasive methods for monitoring in vivo tumor progression in real time. Toward this goal, we performed whole-body fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging to evaluate and to compare these noninvasive imaging modalities for assessing tumor burden and tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.
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Development of the transgenic cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-expressing nude mouse for "Technicolor" cancer imaging.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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A major goal for in vivo biology is to develop models which can express multiple colors of fluorescent proteins in order to image many processes simultaneously in real time. Towards this goal, the cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) nude mouse was developed by crossing non-transgenic nude mice with the transgenic CK/ECFP mouse in which the beta-actin promoter drives expression of CFP in almost all tissues. In crosses between nu/nu CFP male mice and nu/+ CFP female mice, approximately 50% of the embryos fluoresced blue. In the CFP nude mice, the pancreas and reproductive organs displayed the strongest fluorescent signals of all internal organs which vary in intensity. Orthotopic implantation of XPA-1 human pancreatic cancer cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP); or green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm, was performed in female nude CFP mice. Color-coded fluorescence imaging of these human pancreatic cancer cells implanted into the bright blue fluorescent pancreas of the CFP nude mouse afforded novel insight into the interaction of the pancreatic tumor and the normal pancreas, in particular the strong desmoplastic reaction of the tumor. The naturally enhanced blue fluorescence of the pancreas in the CFP mouse serves as an ideal background for color-coded imaging of the interaction of implanted cancer cells and the host. The CFP nude mouse will provide unique understanding of the critical interplay between the cancer cells and their microenvironment.
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The cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) transgenic mouse as a model for imaging pancreatic exocrine cells.
JOP
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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The use of fluorescent proteins for in vivo imaging has opened many new areas of research. Among the important advances in the field have been the development of transgenic mice expressing various fluorescent proteins.
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Fluorescent LYVE-1 antibody to image dynamically lymphatic trafficking of cancer cells in vivo.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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The lymphatic system is a major route for cancer cell dissemination, and a potential target for antitumor therapy. Despite ongoing interest in this area of research, the real-time behavior of cancer cells trafficking in the lymphatic system is poorly understood due to lack of appropriate tools to image this process.
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Fluorescence-guided surgery of human colon cancer increases complete resection resulting in cures in an orthotopic nude mouse model.
J. Surg. Res.
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We inquired if fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) could improve surgical outcomes in fluorescent orthotopic nude mouse models of human colon cancer.
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Fluorescence-guided surgery allows for more complete resection of pancreatic cancer, resulting in longer disease-free survival compared with standard surgery in orthotopic mouse models.
J. Am. Coll. Surg.
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Negative surgical margins are vital to achieve cure and prolong survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. We inquired if fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) could improve surgical outcomes and reduce recurrence rates in orthotopic mouse models of human pancreatic cancer.
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PLGA nanoparticle-mediated delivery of tumor antigenic peptides elicits effective immune responses.
Int J Nanomedicine
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The peptide vaccine clinical trials encountered limited success because of difficulties associated with stability and delivery, resulting in inefficient antigen presentation and low response rates in patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel delivery approach for tumor antigenic peptides in order to elicit enhanced immune responses using poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) encapsulating tumor antigenic peptides. PLGA-NPs were made using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Artificial antigen-presenting cells were generated by human dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating tumor antigenic peptide(s). The efficiency of the antigen presentation was measured by interferon-? ELISpot assay (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA). Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were generated and evaluated by CytoTox 96(®) Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay (Promega, Fitchburg, WI). The efficiency of the peptide delivery was compared between the methods of emulsification in incomplete Freunds adjuvant and encapsulation in PLGA-NPs. Our results showed that most of the PLGA-NPs were from 150 nm to 500 nm in diameter, and were negatively charged at pH 7.4 with a mean zeta potential of -15.53 ± 0.71 mV; the PLGA-NPs could be colocalized in human DCs in 30 minutes of incubation. Human DCs loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating peptide induced significantly stronger CTL cytotoxicity than those pulsed with free peptide, while human DCs loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating a three-peptide cocktail induced a significantly greater CTL response than those encapsulating a two-peptide cocktail. Most importantly, the peptide dose encapsulated in PLGA-NPs was 63 times less than that emulsified in incomplete Freunds adjuvant, but it induced a more powerful CTL response in vivo. These results demonstrate that the delivery of peptides encapsulated in PLGA-NPs is a promising approach to induce effective antitumor CTL responses in vivo.
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KRas induces a Src/PEAK1/ErbB2 kinase amplification loop that drives metastatic growth and therapy resistance in pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Res.
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Early biomarkers and effective therapeutic strategies are desperately needed to treat pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which has a dismal 5-year patient survival rate. Here, we report that the novel tyrosine kinase PEAK1 is upregulated in human malignancies, including human PDACs and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). Oncogenic KRas induced a PEAK1-dependent kinase amplification loop between Src, PEAK1, and ErbB2 to drive PDAC tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Surprisingly, blockade of ErbB2 expression increased Src-dependent PEAK1 expression, PEAK1-dependent Src activation, and tumor growth in vivo, suggesting a mechanism for the observed resistance of patients with PDACs to therapeutic intervention. Importantly, PEAK1 inactivation sensitized PDAC cells to trastuzumab and gemcitabine therapy. Our findings, therefore, suggest that PEAK1 is a novel biomarker, critical signaling hub, and new therapeutic target in PDACs.
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An LED light source and novel fluorophore combinations improve fluorescence laparoscopic detection of metastatic pancreatic cancer in orthotopic mouse models.
J. Am. Coll. Surg.
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The aim of this study was to improve fluorescence laparoscopy of pancreatic cancer in an orthotopic mouse model with the use of a light-emitting diode (LED) light source and optimal fluorophore combinations.
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Tumor-specific fluorescence antibody imaging enables accurate staging laparoscopy in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology
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Laparoscopy is important in staging pancreatic cancer, but false negatives remain problematic. Making tumors fluorescent has the potential to improve the accuracy of staging laparoscopy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.