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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Role of Slow and Persistent TTX-resistant Sodium Currents in Acute Tumor Necrosis Factor ? - Mediated Increase in Nociceptors Excitability.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channels are key players in determining the input-output properties of peripheral nociceptive neurons. Changes in gating kinetics or in expression of these channels by proinflammatory mediators are likely to cause the hyperexcitability of nociceptivors and pain hypersensitivity observed during inflammation. Proinflammatory mediator, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), is secreted during inflammation and is associated with the early onset, as well as long lasting, inflammation-mediated increase in excitability of peripheral nociceptive neurons. Here we studied the underlying mechanisms of the rapid component of TNF?-mediated nociceptive hyperexcitability and acute pain hypersensitivity. We showed that TNF? leads to rapid onset, cyclooxygenase-independent pain hypersensitivity in adult rats. Furthermore, TNF? rapidly and substantially increases nociceptive excitability in-vitro, by decreasing action potential threshold, increasing neuronal gain and decreasing accommodation. We extended on previous studies entailing p38 MAPK-dependent, increase in TTX-resistant sodium currents by showing that TNF? via p38 MAPK, leads to increased availability of TTX-r sodium channels by partial relief of voltage dependence of their slow inactivation, thereby contributing to increase in neuronal gain. Moreover, we showed that TNF? also in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner, increases persistent TTX-r current by shifting the voltage dependence of activation to a hyperpolarized direction, thus producing an increase in inward current at functionally critical subthreshold voltages. Our results suggest that rapid modulation of the gating of TTX-r sodium channels plays a major role in TNF?'s-mediated nociceptive hyperexcitability during acute inflammation and may lead to development of effective treatments for inflammatory pain, without modulating the inflammation-induced healing processes.
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Signal-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate without activation of phospholipase C: implications on gating of Drosophila TRPL (transient receptor potential-like) channel.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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In Drosophila, a phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated signaling cascade, couples photo-excitation of rhodopsin to the opening of the transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL) channels. A lipid product of PLC, diacylglycerol (DAG), and its metabolites, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may function as second messengers of channel activation. However, how can one separate between the increase in putative second messengers, change in pH, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) depletion when exploring the TRPL gating mechanism? To answer this question we co-expressed the TRPL channels together with the muscarinic (M1) receptor, enabling the openings of TRPL channels via G-protein activation of PLC. To dissect PLC activation of TRPL into its molecular components, we used a powerful method that reduced plasma membrane-associated PI(4,5)P(2) in HEK cells within seconds without activating PLC. Upon the addition of a dimerizing drug, PI(4,5)P(2) was selectively hydrolyzed in the cell membrane without producing DAG, inositol trisphosphate, or calcium signals. We show that PI(4,5)P(2) is not an inhibitor of TRPL channel activation. PI(4,5)P(2) hydrolysis combined with either acidification or application of DAG analogs failed to activate the channels, whereas PUFA did activate the channels. Moreover, a reduction in PI(4,5)P(2) levels or inhibition of DAG lipase during PLC activity suppressed the PLC-activated TRPL current. This suggests that PI(4,5)P(2) is a crucial substrate for PLC-mediated activation of the channels, whereas PUFA may function as the channel activator. Together, this study defines a narrow range of possible mechanisms for TRPL gating.
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Constitutive activity of TRP channels methods for measuring the activity and its outcome.
Meth. Enzymol.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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TRP channels participate in many cellular processes including cell death. These channels mediate these effects mainly by changing the cellular concentration of Ca(2+), a prominent cellular second messenger. Measuring the current-voltage relationship and state of activation of TRP channels is of utmost importance for evaluating their contribution to a cellular process within a spatial and temporal context. The study of TRP channels and characterization of their mode of activation will benefit and progress our understanding of each channels role in specific cellular mechanisms. Many TRP channels exhibit constitutive activity, which is mostly observed in cell-based expression systems. This constitutive activity can lead, in many cases, to cellular degeneration, which can be readily observed morphologically and by biochemical assays. This chapter describes in brief different modes of TRP channel activity and their current-voltage relationships. The chapter outlines methods for visualizing this activity and methods to correlate between TRP channel activity and cell death, and it illustrates mechanisms that prevent cell death in spite of constitutive activity. Finally, it describes methods for qualitatively and quantitatively measuring the accompanied cellular degeneration.
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Heteromultimeric TRPML channel assemblies play a crucial role in the regulation of cell viability models and starvation-induced autophagy.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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The mucolipin (TRPML) subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels consists of three members that play various roles in the regulation of membrane and protein sorting along endo-lysosomal pathways. Loss-of-function mutations in TRPML1 cause the neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder, mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV), whereas a gain-of-function mutation in TRPML3 is principally implicated in the hearing-impaired and abnormally pigmented varitint-waddler mouse. Currently, TRPML2 is not implicated in any pathological disorder, but we have recently shown that it is a functional cation channel that physically interacts with TRPML1 and TRPML3 to potentially regulate lysosomal integrity. Here, we show that mutant TRPMLs heteromultimerize with other mutant and wild-type TRPMLs to regulate cell viability and starvation-induced autophagy, a process that mediates macromolecular and organellar turnover under cell starvation conditions. Heteromultimerization of dominant-negative TRPMLs with constitutively active TRPMLs rescues cells from the cytotoxic effects of TRPML constitutive activity. Moreover, dominant-negative TRPML1 channels, including a mutant channel directly implicated in MLIV pathology, also inhibit starvation-induced autophagy by interacting with and affecting native TRPML channel function. Collectively, our results indicate that heteromultimerization of TRPML channels plays a role in various TRPML-regulated mechanisms.
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Constitutive activity of the human TRPML2 channel induces cell degeneration.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2009
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The mucolipin (TRPML) ion channel proteins represent a distinct subfamily of channel proteins within the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of cation channels. Mucolipin 1, 2, and 3 (TRPML1, -2, and -3, respectively) are channel proteins that share high sequence homology with each other and homology in the transmembrane domain with other TRPs. Mutations in the TRPML1 protein are implicated in mucolipidosis type IV, whereas mutations in TRPML3 are found in the varitint-waddler mouse. The properties of the wild type TRPML2 channel are not well known. Here we show functional expression of the wild type human TRPML2 channel (h-TRPML2). The channel is functional at the plasma membrane and characterized by a significant inward rectification similar to other constitutively active TRPML mutant isoforms. The h-TRPML2 channel displays nonselective cation permeability, which is Ca(2+)-permeable and inhibited by low extracytosolic pH but not Ca(2+) regulated. In addition, constitutively active h-TRPML2 leads to cell death by causing Ca(2+) overload. Furthermore, we demonstrate by functional mutation analysis that h-TRPML2 shares similar characteristics and structural similarities with other TRPML channels that regulate the channel in a similar manner. Hence, in addition to overall structure, all three TRPML channels also share common modes of regulation.
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Membrane lipid modulations remove divalent open channel block from TRP-like and NMDA channels.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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Open channel block is a process in which ions bound to the inside of a channel pore block the flow of ions through that channel. Repulsion of the blocking ions by depolarization is a known mechanism of open channel block removal. For the NMDA channel, this mechanism is necessary for channel activation and is involved in neuronal plasticity. Several types of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, including the Drosophila TRP and TRP-like (TRPL) channels, also exhibit open channel block. Therefore, removal of open channel block is necessary for the production of the physiological response to light. Because there is no membrane depolarization before the light response develops, it is not clear how the open channel block is removed, an essential step for the production of a robust light response under physiological conditions. Here we present a novel mechanism to alleviate open channel block in the absence of depolarization by membrane lipid modulations. The results of this study show open channel block removal by membrane lipid modulations in both TRPL and NMDA channels of the photoreceptor cells and CA1 hippocampal neurons, respectively. Removal of open channel block is characterized by an increase in the passage-rate of the blocking cations through the channel pore. We propose that the profound effect of membrane lipid modulations on open channel block alleviation, allows the productions of a robust current in response to light in the absence of depolarization.
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Carvacrol is a novel inhibitor of Drosophila TRPL and mammalian TRPM7 channels.
Cell Calcium
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are essential components of biological sensors that detect changes in the environment in response to a myriad of stimuli. A major difficulty in the study of TRP channels is the lack of pharmacological agents that modulate most members of the TRP superfamily. Notable exceptions are the thermoTRPs, which respond to either cold or hot temperatures and are modulated by a relatively large number of chemical agents. In the present study we demonstrate by patch clamp whole cell recordings from Schneider 2 and Drosophila photoreceptor cells that carvacrol, a known activator of the thermoTRPs, TRPV3 and TRPA1 is an inhibitor of the Drosophila TRPL channels, which belongs to the TRPC subfamily. We also show that additional activators of TRPV3, thymol, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and menthol are all inhibitors of the TRPL channel. Furthermore, carvacrol also inhibits the mammalian TRPM7 heterologously expressed in HEK cells and ectopically expressed in a primary culture of CA3-CA1 hippocampal brain neurons. This study, thus, identifies a novel inhibitor of TRPC and TRPM channels. Our finding that the activity of the non-thermoTRPs, TRPL and TRPM7 channels is modulated by the same compound as thermoTRPs, suggests that common mechanisms of channel modulation characterize TRP channels.
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Expression of TRPV1 channels after nerve injury provides an essential delivery tool for neuropathic pain attenuation.
PLoS ONE
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Increased expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels, following nerve injury, may facilitate the entry of QX-314 into nociceptive neurons in order to achieve effective and selective pain relief. In this study we hypothesized that the level of QX-314/capsaicin (QX-CAP)--induced blockade of nocifensive behavior could be used as an indirect in-vivo measurement of functional expression of TRPV1 channels. We used the QX-CAP combination to monitor the functional expression of TRPV1 in regenerated neurons after inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) transection in rats. We evaluated the effect of this combination on pain threshold at different time points after IAN transection by analyzing the escape thresholds to mechanical stimulation of lateral mental skin. At 2 weeks after IAN transection, there was no QX-CAP mediated block of mechanical hyperalgesia, implying that there was no functional expression of TRPV1 channels. These results were confirmed immunohistochemically by staining of regenerated trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. This suggests that TRPV1 channel expression is an essential necessity for the QX-CAP mediated blockade. Furthermore, we show that 3 and 4 weeks after IAN transection, application of QX-CAP produced a gradual increase in escape threshold, which paralleled the increased levels of TRPV1 channels that were detected in regenerated TG neurons. Immunohistochemical analysis also revealed that non-myelinated neurons regenerated slowly compared to myelinated neurons following IAN transection. We also show that TRPV1 expression shifted towards myelinated neurons. Our findings suggest that nerve injury modulates the TRPV1 expression pattern in regenerated neurons and that the effectiveness of QX-CAP induced blockade depends on the availability of functional TRPV1 receptors in regenerated neurons. The results of this study also suggest that the QX-CAP based approach can be used as a new behavioral tool to detect dynamic changes in TRPV1 expression, in various pathological conditions.
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The activity of the TRP-like channel depends on its expression system.
Channels (Austin)
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The Drosophila light activated TRP and TRPL channels have been a model for TRPC channel gating. Several gating mechanisms have been proposed following experiments conducted on photoreceptor and tissue cultured cells. However, conclusive evidence for any mechanism is still lacking. Here, we show that the Drosophila TRPL channel expressed in tissue cultured cells is constitutively active in S2 cells but is silent in HEK cells. Modulations of TRPL channel activity in different expression system by pharmacology or specific enzymes, which change the lipid content of the plasma membrane, resulted in conflicting effects. These findings demonstrate the difficulty in elucidating TRPC gating, as channel behavior is expression system dependent. However, clues on the gating mechanism may arise from understanding how different expression systems affect TRPC channel activation.
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