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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Two Strandberg-type organophosphomolybdates: synthesis, crystal structures and catalytic properties.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Two novel Strandberg-type organophosphomolybdate hybrid compounds [(Cu(H2O))2(?-bipy)2(C6H5PO3)2Mo5O15]n () and [(Cu(H2O)2)2(?-bipy)(C6H5PO3)2Mo5O15]n () (bipy = 4,4'-bipyridyl) were prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compounds and are polyoxometalate-based Cu-coordination polymers with a three-dimensional framework. In , the Cu(2+) ions not only link [(C6H5PO3)2Mo5O15](4-) (abbreviated as {(C6H5P)2Mo5}) polyanions, but also act as connectors of bipy ligands to produce two symmetrical 1-D chains, all 1-D chains are further held together by polyanions to generate a 3-D network. In , each {(C6H5P)2Mo5} polyanion acting as a hexadentate ligand links four Cu(ii)-bipy/H2O units, forming 2-D plane structures, which are further bridged by Cu(ii)-bipy-Cu(ii) fragments to generate a 3-D network. Their fluorescence properties and catalytic properties for the synthesis of cyclohexanone ethylene ketal were also investigated.
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Four New Polycyclic Meroterpenoids from Ganoderma cochlear.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Four pairs of new polycyclic-meroterpenoid enantiomers, ganocins A-C (1-3) possessing a spiro[4,5]decane ring system, along with ganocin D (4) with an eight-membered ring, were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma cochlear. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data and X-ray diffraction crystallography. Their anti-AChE activities were evaluated, and a possible biogenetic pathway was also proposed.
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The Transcription Factor FOXA2 Suppresses Gastric Tumorigenesis In Vitro and In Vivo.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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The transcription factor forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) plays a central role in the development of endoderm-derived organs. It has been reported that FOXA2 acts as a suppressor in many kinds of tumor. However, little is known about the role of FOXA2 in gastric cancer.
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Combination Treatment with Gua Sha and blood-letting causes attenuation of systemic Inflammation, Activated Coagulation, Tissue Ischemia and Injury during Heatstroke in Rats.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Gua Sha and Blood-letting at the acupoints were Chinese traditional therapies for heatstroke. The purpose of present study was to assess the therapeutic effect of Gua Sha on the DU Meridian and Bladder Meridian combined with Blood-letting acupoints at Shixuan (EX-UE 11) and Weizhong (BL 40) on heatstroke.
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Fingerprint analysis of Zhimu-Huangbai herb pair and simultaneous determination of its alkaloids, xanthone glycosides and steroidal saponins by HPLC-DAD-ELSD.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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To develop and validate a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array and evaporative light scattering detectors (DAD-ELSD) method for the quantitative determination and fingerprint analysis of ten active constituents in three chemical classes (namely, xanthone glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids) in Zhimu-Huangbai herb pair (ZB).
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[Effects of erythropoietin on serum NSE and S-100B levels in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To study the effects of erythropoietin (EPO) on serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S-100B in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and the underlying mechanism.
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Electroacupuncture and A-317491 depress the transmission of pain on primary afferent mediated by the P2X3 receptor in rats with chronic neuropathic pain states.
J. Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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P2X is a family of ligand-gated ion channels that act through adenosine ATP. The P2X3 receptor plays a key role in the transmission of neuropathic pain at peripheral and spinal sites. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been used to treat neuropathic pain effectively. To determine the role of EA in neuropathic pain mediated through the P2X3 receptor in dorsal root ganglion neurons and the spinal cord, a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model was used. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham CCI, CCI, CCI plus contralateral EA, and CCI plus ipsilateral EA. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) were recorded. Furthermore, the expression of the P2X3 receptor was evaluated through Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The effects of EA and A-317491 were investigated through the whole-cell patch-clamp method and intrathecal administration. Our results show that the MWT and TWL of EA groups were higher than those in the CCI group, whereas the expression of the P2X3 receptor was lower than that in the CCI group. However, no significant difference was detected between the two EA groups. EA depressed the currents created by ATP and the upregulation of the P2X3 receptor in CCI rats. Additionally, EA was more potent in reducing mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia when combined with A-317491 through intrathecal administration. These results show that both contralateral and ipsilateral EA might inhibit the primary afferent transmission of neuropathic pain induced through the P2X3 receptor. In addition, EA and A-317491 might have an additive effect in inhibiting the transmission of pain mediated by the P2X3 receptor. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Complement C3a binding to its receptor as a negative modulator of Th2 response in liver injury in trichloroethylene-sensitized mice.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a major occupational health hazard and causes occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis (OMLDT) and liver damage. Recent evidence suggests immune response as a distinct mode of action for TCE-induced liver damage. This study aimed to explore the role of the key complement activation product C3a and its receptor C3aR in TCE-induced immune liver injury. A mouse model of skin sensitization was induced by TCE in the presence and absence of the C3aR antagonist SB 290157. Liver function was evaluated by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in conjunction with histopathological characterizations. C3a and C3aR were detected by immunohistochemistry and C5b-9 was assessed by immunofluorescence. IFN-? and IL4 expressions were determined by flow cytometry and ELISA. The total sensitization rate was 44.1%. TCE sensitization caused liver cell necrosis and inflammatory infiltration, elevated serum ALT and AST, expression of C3a and C3aR, and deposition of C5b-9 in the liver. IFN-? and IL-4 expressions were up-regulated in spleen mononuclear cells and their serum levels were also increased. Pretreatment with SB 290157 resulted in more inflammatory infiltration in the liver, higher levels of AST, reduced C3aR expression on Kupffer cells, and decreased IL-4 levels while IFN-? remained unchanged. These data demonstrate that blocking of C3a binding to C3aR reduces IL4, shifts IFN-? and IL-4 balance, and aggravates TCE-sensitization induced liver damage. These findings reveal a novel mechanism whereby modulation of Th2 response by C3a binding to C3a receptor contributes to immune-mediated liver damage by TCE exposure.
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Significance of the mass-compression effect of postlaminectomy/laminotomy fibrosis on histological changes on the dura mater and nerve root of the cauda equina: an experimental study in rats.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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The precise mechanism and pathological role of postlaminectomy/laminotomy fibrosis (PLF) in postoperative neurological deficits have not been established. Many studies use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to prove that there is no consistent correlation between PLF and postoperative neurological deficits and back pain (PNDBP). Therefore, we assumed that the direct-compression effect may not be the only factor but that other neurological deficits associated with pathological mechanisms should exist and need more investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare over time the differences and changes in histopathological properties of PLF in rats.
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Phragmalin-type limonoids with NF-?B inhibition from Chukrasia tabularis var. velutina.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Chemical investigation on Chukrasia tabularis var. velutina led to the identification of eight new phragmalin-type limonoids (1-8), as well as 20 known analogues. Compounds 1-4 are a rare class of C-15-acyl phragmalin-type limonoids, and particularly compounds 2-4 also possess a ?-lactone ring formed between C-16 and C-30. All the isolates were evaluated for inhibitory effects on NF-?B production, and four of which showed significant inhibitions.
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Xanthone glycosides from Swertia bimaculata with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Seven new xanthone glycosides (1-7) were isolated from the n-butanol extract of Swertia bimaculata, together with six known compounds (8-13). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D- and 2D-NMR, HRESIMS, UV, and IR) and comparison with data reported in the literature. All the compounds were evaluated for their ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities in vitro, and compounds 3, 4, and 7 exhibited significant activities to inhibit ?-glucosidase. Meanwhile the effects of different substitutions on the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of xanthone glycosides from S. bimaculata are also discussed.
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Bleomycin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in sclerotic skin of mice: possible role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) derived myofibroblasts are partly responsible for the increased collagen synthesis and deposition that occur in tissue fibrosis; however EMT occurrence in skin fibrosis and its mechanism remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether epithelial cells undergo EMT and determine the role of oxidative stress in this process. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected with bleomycin (BLM) or phosphate buffer saline (PBS) into the shaved back daily for 2, 3, and 4weeks. Skin collagen deposition was evaluated by histopathology and Western blotting. EMT characteristics in the skin were determined by histopathology and immunofluorescent staining for E-cadherin and vimentin, which were further evaluated by Western blotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To investigate the role of oxidative stress in EMT, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was intraperitoneally (100mg/kg body weight/day) injected daily for 3weeks. The epithelial suprabasal cells were detached from the basement membrane zone (BMZ) in the sclerotic skin treated with BLM. Immunofluorescent staining indicated vimentin-positive epithelial cells frequently occurring in the thickened epidermis of BLM-treated mice. Western blotting and RT-PCR showed that the expression of E-cadherin was significantly decreased but that of vimentin significantly increased in the skin treated with BLM. NAC attenuated BLM induced oxidative damage, changes in E-cadherin and vimentin expressions and collagen deposition in the sclerotic skin of mice. This study provides the first evidence that BLM induces the EMT of the epithelial cells superficial to the basement membrane zone in the skin fibrosis. Oxidative stress may contribute, at least in part, to BLM induced EMT and skin fibrosis in mice.
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Triterpenoids and Sterols from the Leaves and Twigs of Melia azedarach.
Nat Prod Bioprospect
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Two new triterpenoids (1 and 2) and a new sterol (3), together with six known constituents (4-9), were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Melia azedarach. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.
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An HPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitative determination of platycodin D in rat plasma and its application to the pharmacokinetics of Platycodi Radix extract.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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To develop an HPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of platycodin D (PD) in rat plasma, and to acquire the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PD after oral administration of pure PD or of Platycodi Radix extract (PRE) containing PD.
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Characterization of diterpenoid glucosides in roasted puer coffee beans.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Five new diterpenoid glucosides, named mascaroside I (1), mascaroside II (2), paniculoside VI (3), cofaryloside I (4), and villanovane I (5), along with seven known ent-kaurane diterpenoid glucosides (6-12) were isolated from acetone extracts of the roasted coffee beans of Coffea arabica var. yunnanensis. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, and ROESY) and by comparison with published data. Cytotoxicities evaluation of the isolates showed that they were inactive against HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480 cells.
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Modification of marine natural product ningalin B and SAR study lead to potent P-glycoprotein inhibitors.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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In this study, new marine ningalin B analogues containing a piperazine or a benzoloxy group at ring C have been synthesized and evaluated on their P-gp modulating activity in human breast cancer and leukemia cell lines. Their structure-activity relationship was preliminarily studied. Compounds 19 and 20 are potent P-gp inhibitors. These two synthetic analogues of permethyl ningalin B may be potentially used as effective modulators of P-gp-mediated drug resistance in cancer cells.
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Worldwide patterns of ancestry, divergence, and admixture in domesticated cattle.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation.
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Three molybdophosphates based on Strandberg-type anions and Zn(II)-H2biim/H(2)O subunits: syntheses, structures and catalytic properties.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Three new inorganic-organic hybrid compounds based on Strandberg-type anions and Zn(ii)-H2biim/H2O subunits, namely {H4(H2biim)3}[Zn(H2biim)(H3biim)(H2O)(HP2Mo5O23)]2·3H2O (1), {H9(H2biim)7}[(?-biim){(Zn(H2O)2)0.5(HP2Mo5O23)}2]·7H2O (2) and {H7(H2biim)7}[Zn(H2biim)(H2O)2(HP2Mo5O23)][H2P2Mo5O23]·8H2O (3) (H2biim = 2,2'-biimidazole), have been synthesized in aqueous solutions and characterized. They were also used as efficient and reusable catalysts for the protection of carbonyl compounds. Their fascinating structural features are that mono Zn(ii)-supporting biphosphopentamolybdate ({P2Mo5}) clusters exist in their crystal structures, and the nitrogen donor ligand H2biim exhibits three different coordination modes in these three compounds, respectively: for 1, two 2,2'-biimidazole molecules, as mono- and bidentate ligands coordinate to the same Zn(ii) ion; for 2, one bi-negative tetradentate ligand ?-biim bridges two Zn(ii) ions, while for 3, one neutral bidentate H2biim ligand links one Zn(ii) ion. Most importantly, compounds 1-3 represent the first example where Strandberg-type POMs are used as acid-catalysts in an organic reaction.
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Copy number variations of the extensively amplified Y-linked genes, HSFY and ZNF280BY, in cattle and their association with male reproductive traits in Holstein bulls.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed at least six multi-copy protein coding gene families, including TSPY, HSFY and ZNF280BY, on the male-specific region (MSY). Previous studies indicated that the copy number variations (CNVs) of the human and bovine TSPY were associated with male fertility in men and cattle. However, the relationship between CNVs of the bovine Y-linked HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families and bull fertility has not been investigated.
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Neuroprotective effects of different modalities of acupuncture on traumatic spinal cord injury in rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) can induce a series of histological, biochemical, and functional changes. Acupuncture is commonly used for SCI patients. Using male rats of spinal cord injury with the New York University (NYU) Impactor, we investigated the response of electroacupuncture (EA), manual acupuncture (MA), and transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TAES) at Shuigou (DU26) and Fengfu (DU16) acupoints to understand the effects and mechanisms of acupuncture in neuroprotection and neuronal function recovery after SCI. Histological study showed a restored neural morphology and an increase in the quantity of neurons after EA, MA, and TAES administrations. Acupuncture's antioxidation effects were demonstrated by alleviation of the post-SCI superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increase and malondialdehyde (MDA) level decrease. The anti-inflammation effect of acupuncture was shown as the reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 ? (IL-1 ? ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor- ? (TNF- ? ) when SCI was treated. And the antiapoptosis role was approved by TUNEL staining. Our data confirmed that the role of acupuncture in neuroprotection and dorsal neuronal function recovery after rat SCI, especially, EA stimulating at Shuigou (DU26) and Fengfu (DU16) can greatly promote neuronal function recovery, which may result from antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and antiapoptosis effects of acupuncture.
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Chemical profile- and pharmacokinetics-based investigation of the synergistic property of platycodonis radix in traditional Chinese medicine formula Shengxian decoction.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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To investigate the synergistic property of Platycodonis radix (PG) in a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription Shengxian decoction (SXT) by combining chemical profile with pharmacokinetic analysis strategy. The synergized prescription consisted of Astragali radix, Anemarrhenae rhizoma, Bupleuri radix, and Cimicifuage rhizoma.
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Three new olean-type triterpenoid saponins from aerial parts of Eclipta prostrata (L.).
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Three new olean-type triterpenoid saponins, namely 3-O-(2-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl) oleanolic acid-28-O-(?-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1), 3-O-(6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl) oleanolic acid-28-O-(?-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (2) and 3-O-(?-D-glucopyranosyl) oleanolic acid-28-O-(6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (3), were isolated from the aerial parts of Eclipta prostrata (L.). Their structures were elucidated based on 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectroscopic data.
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IL-7 inhibits tumor growth by promoting T cell-mediated antitumor immunity in Meth A model.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Immune suppression is well documented during tumor progression, which includes loss of effect of T cells and expansion of T regulatory (Treg) cells. IL-7 plays a key role in the proliferation, survival and homeostasis of T cells and displays a potent antitumor activity in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of IL-7 in Meth A model. IL-7 inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice with corresponding increases in the frequency of CD4 and CD8 T cells, Th1 (CD4(+)IFN-?(+)), Tc1 (CD8(+)IFN-?(+)) and T cells cytolytic activity against Meth A cells. Neutralization of CD4 or CD8 T cells reversed the antitumor benefit of IL-7. Furthermore, IL-7 decreased regulatory T Foxp3 as well as cells suppressive activity with a reciprocal increase in SMAD7. In addition, we observed an increase of the serum concentrations of IL-6 and IFN-?, and a significant decrease of TGF-? and IL-10 after IL-7 treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that IL-7 augments T cell-mediated antitumor immunity and improves the effect of antitumor in Meth A model.
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[Effects of batroxobin and electric cauterization on vascular remodeling of rabbit with a removal of carotid arterial adventitia].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To explore the topical hemostatic effects of batroxobin (BX) and electric cauterization (EC) on capillary hemorrhage of rabbit with a removal of carotid arterial adventitia.
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Structure-activity relationship study of permethyl ningalin B analogues as p-glycoprotein chemosensitizers.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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A novel series of permethyl ningalin B analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-modulating activities in a P-gp-overexpressing breast cancer cell line (LCC6MDR). Compounds 35 and 37, which possess one methoxy group and one benzyloxy group at aryl ring C, displayed the most potent P-gp-modulating activity. A 1 ?M concentration of 35 and 37 resensitized LCC6MDR cells toward paclitaxel by 42.7-fold, with respective EC50 values of 93.5 and 110.0 nM. Their mechanism of P-gp modulation is associated with an increase in intracellular drug accumulation. Their advantages also include low cytotoxicity (IC50 for L929 fibroblast >100 ?M) and high therapeutic indexes (>909 after normalization with their EC50 values). 35 is not a substrate of P-gp. They are potentially dual-selective modulators for both P-gp and breast cancer resistance protein transporters. The present study demonstrates that these new compounds can be employed as effective and safe modulators of P-gp-mediated drug resistance in cancer cells.
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[Significance of erythrocytes phosphatidylserine exposure on occurrence of anemia in sepsis].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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To investigate the role of phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure of erythrocytes in the development of anemia in sepsis patients.
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[Prognostic significance of serum anti-Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in nasopharyngeal carcinoma].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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This study was aimed to investigate the association between serum against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies levels and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients prognosis.
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[A randomized controlled study of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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To compare the clinical effects of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.
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Dissociation of the H3K36 demethylase Rph1 from chromatin mediates derepression of environmental stress-response genes under genotoxic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Cells respond to environmental signals by altering gene expression through transcription factors. Rph1 is a histone demethylase containing a Jumonji C (JmjC) domain and belongs to the C(2)H(2) zinc-finger protein family. Here we investigate the regulatory network of Rph1 in yeast by expression microarray analysis. More than 75% of Rph1-regulated genes showed increased expression in the rph1-deletion mutant, suggesting that Rph1 is mainly a transcriptional repressor. The binding motif 5-CCCCTWA-3, which resembles the stress response element, is overrepresented in the promoters of Rph1-repressed genes. A significant proportion of Rph1-regulated genes respond to DNA damage and environmental stress. Rph1 is a labile protein, and Rad53 negatively modulates Rph1 protein level. We find that the JmjN domain is important in maintaining protein stability and the repressive effect of Rph1. Rph1 is directly associated with the promoter region of targeted genes and dissociated from chromatin before transcriptional derepression on DNA damage and oxidative stress. Of interest, the master stress-activated regulator Msn2 also regulates a subset of Rph1-repressed genes under oxidative stress. Our findings confirm the regulatory role of Rph1 as a transcriptional repressor and reveal that Rph1 might be a regulatory node connecting different signaling pathways responding to environmental stresses.
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[Current status and urban-rural comparison of clinical agency of detection, management, and health insurance for hypertensive patients in communities of five provinces in China in 2010].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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To investigate the status of the clinical agency of detection, management, and health insurance for hypertensive patients in urban and rural communities of five provinces in China in 2010, in order to provide fundamental data for implementation and evaluation of community health management of hypertensive patients in basic public health service.
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Systematic review of montelukasts efficacy for preventing post-bronchiolitis wheezing.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Infants often develop reactive airway diseases subsequent to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis. Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs), a class of lipid mediators that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis and asthma, are released during RSV infection, thereby contributing to the pathogenic changes in airway inflammation. Many pediatric patients, especially those of very young age, continue to have recurrent episodes of lower airway obstruction after bronchiolitis treatment. This study was to systematically review and assessed the efficacy of montelukast for preventing wheezing in patients with post-bronchiolitis. The Cochrane library, PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) periodical databases were screened for studies related to use of montelukast for preventing post-bronchiolitis wheezing published up to 31 December 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs using montelukast alone as an active intervention in infants up to 24 months of age with post-bronchiolitis were selected. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using the recommendations published by the Cochrane Collaboration. The meta-analyses were performed using the Cochrane statistical package RevMan5.0.0. Four trials, containing 1430 infants with confirmed diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis, were analyzed. Patients were administered montelukast at post-bronchiolitis. Three trials showed no effects of montelukast on reducing the incidence of recurrent wheezing risk ratios (RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.55-1.12, p = 0.17), while two trials found that montelukast did reduce the frequency of recurrent wheezing and another two trials demonstrated no effects of montelukast on symptom-free days. The pooled montelukast treatment group showed no significant effect on reducing the usage of corticosteroids, as compared to the placebo group (RR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.85-1.44, p = 0.45). Two trials showed that montelukast significantly decreased serum eosinophil-derived neurotoxin levels, as compared to the control group. In general, the side effects of rash, vomiting, and insomnia caused by montelukast occurred in 1.5% of patients analyzed. The recent evidences indicate that montelukast may reduce the frequency of post-bronchiolitic wheezing without causing significant side effects but that it has no effects on decreasing incidences of recurrent wheezing, symptom-free days, or the associated usage of corticosteroid in post-bronchiolitis patients. The small number of enrolled participants and the inability to pool all clinical outcomes precludes us from making solid recommendations.
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Graphene encapsulated Fe3O4 nanospindles as a superior anode material for lithium-ion batteries.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Graphene encapsulated Fe3O4 nanospindles were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. From field-emission and transmission electron microscopy results, the Fe3O4 nanospindles with the length of about 260 nm are highly encapsulated in graphene matrix. The reversible Li-cycling properties of graphene encapsulated Fe3O4 nanospindles have been evaluated by galvanostatic discharge-charge cycling and cyclic voltammetry. Results show that graphene encapsulated Fe3O4 nanospindles exhibits a high reversible capacity about 745 mA h g(-1) for the first cycle and a stable capacity of about 558 mA h g(-1) for up to 200th cycle in the voltage range of 0.01-3.0 V at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), indicating excellent cycling stability. The graphene in the composite materials could act not only as lithium storage active materials, but also as an electronically conductive matrix to improve the electrochemical performance of Fe3O4.
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Male-specific region of the bovine Y chromosome is gene rich with a high transcriptomic activity in testis development.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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The male-specific region of the mammalian Y chromosome (MSY) contains clusters of genes essential for male reproduction. The highly repetitive and degenerative nature of the Y chromosome impedes genomic and transcriptomic characterization. Although the Y chromosome sequence is available for the human, chimpanzee, and macaque, little is known about the annotation and transcriptome of nonprimate MSY. Here, we investigated the transcriptome of the MSY in cattle by direct testis cDNA selection and RNA-seq approaches. The bovine MSY differs radically from the primate Y chromosomes with respect to its structure, gene content, and density. Among the 28 protein-coding genes/families identified on the bovine MSY (12 single- and 16 multicopy genes), 16 are bovid specific. The 1,274 genes identified in this study made the bovine MSY gene density the highest in the genome; in comparison, primate MSYs have only 31-78 genes. Our results, along with the highly transcriptional activities observed from these Y-chromosome genes and 375 additional noncoding RNAs, challenge the widely accepted hypothesis that the MSY is gene poor and transcriptionally inert. The bovine MSY genes are predominantly expressed and are differentially regulated during the testicular development. Synonymous substitution rate analyses of the multicopy MSY genes indicated that two major periods of expansion occurred during the Miocene and Pliocene, contributing to the adaptive radiation of bovids. The massive amplification and vigorous transcription suggest that the MSY serves as a genomic niche regulating male reproduction during bovid expansion.
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Hippolachnin A, a new antifungal polyketide from the South China Sea sponge Hippospongia lachne.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Hippolachnin A (1), a polyketide possessing an unprecedented carbon skeleton with a four-membered ring, was isolated from the South China Sea sponge Hippospongia lachne. The structure was elucidated using MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configuration was determined using a calculated ECD method. Hippolachnin A demonstrated potent antifungal activity against three pathogenic fungi, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum gypseum, with a MIC value of 0.41 ?M for each fungus.
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Xanthone glycoside constituents of Swertia kouitchensis with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Ten new xanthone glycosides, kouitchensides A-J (1-10), and 11 known analogues were isolated from an n-butanol fraction of Swertia kouitchensis. The structures of these glycosides were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data interpretation and comparison with data reported in the literature. In an in vitro test, compounds 2, 4, 5, 6, 11, 12, and 13 (IC50 values in the range 126 to 451 ?M) displayed more potent inhibitory effects against ?-glucosidase activity than the positive control, acarbose (IC50 value of 627 ?M).
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Investigation into the mechanical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube heterojunctions.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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The mechanical properties of finite-length (6,0)/(8,0) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) heterojunctions with respect to different kinds of connection segments, either coaxial or bias, are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation calculations. It is found that the resulting significant deformation of structure and significant drop of stress under yielding strain is due to the strain localization. Moreover, the deformation is occurred below the heptagon ring in the thinner segment of the heterojunctions under tension at different temperatures, whereas under compression it occurs on the heptagon ring. The computed atomic bond number distribution and radius distribution function are applied to determine the deformed atomic structure. Finally, with increasing temperature, the yielding stresses decrease for both coaxial and bias heterojunctions under tension and compression, while the dependence of temperature on the Youngs modulus of the heterojunctions is only observed in the case of tension.
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Two new chiratane-type triterpenoids from Swertia kouitchensis.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Two rare new chiratane-type triterpenoids, kouitchenoids A and B (1, 2), together with oleanolic acid (3) and ursolic acid (4), were isolated from ethanol extract of Swertia kouitchensis. The new structures were determined by the analysis of MS and NMR data. In addition, compounds 1-4 showed moderate inhibitory activity against the ?-glucosidase (with IC?? values ranging from 1,812 to 2,027 ?M).
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[Impact of chronic intermittent hypoxia upon rat liver lipid metabolism and interventional effect of Tempol].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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To explore the impact of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) upon rat liver lipid metabolism and effect of anti-oxidant Tempol.
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Digital three-dimensional model of lumbar region 4-5 and its adjacent structures based on a virtual Chinese human.
Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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To study the methods for constructing a digitized three-dimensional (3D) model of a virtual lumbar region and its adjacent structures in order to assist anatomical study and virtual surgery.
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Preventive effects of polysaccharides from Liriope spicata var. prolifera on diabetic nephropathy in rats.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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This study was undertaken to investigate preventive effects of polysaccharides (LSP) from Liriope spicata var. prolifera on diabetic nephropathy in rats, which were induced by high fat-fed and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ). The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetic rats were significantly decreased after treated with LSP for 28 days. Additional, the glucose tolerance of diabetes rats showed improvement after administration of LSP. The results also indicated that LSP were able to normalize hyperlipidemia, ameliorate oxidative stress, improve renal function parameters, inhibit the structural damages of kidney tissue and down-regulate the system of advanced glycation end products - receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGE-RAGE). In conclusion, LSP had potential preventive effects on diabetic nephropathy in diabetic rats.
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[Treatment of the distal fibula fractures with intramedullary Kirschner fixation].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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Objective: To analyze the clinical effects of intramedullary fixation of Kirschner pin for the treatment of distal fibula fractures.
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iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics reveals myoferlin as a novel prognostic predictor in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Histological differentiation is a major pathological parameter associated with poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) and the molecular signature underlying PAC differentiation may involve key proteins potentially affecting the malignant characters of PAC. We aimed to identify the proteins which could be implicated in PAC prognosis. We used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to compare protein expression in PAC tissues with different degrees of histological differentiation. A total of 1623 proteins were repeatedly identified by performing the iTRAQ-based experiments twice. Of these, 15 proteins were differentially expressed according to our defined criteria. Myoferlin (MYOF) was selected to validate the proteomic results by western blotting. Immunohistochemistry in a further 154 PAC cases revealed that myoferlin significantly correlated with the degree of histological differentiation (P=0.004), and univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that MYOF is an independent prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio, 1.540; 95% confidence interval, 1.061-2.234; P=0.023) of patients with PAC after curative surgery. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of MYOF alleviated malignant phenotypes of both primary and metastatic PAC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Thus, ITRAQ-based quantitative proteomics revealed the prognostic value of MYOF in PAC.
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Antidiabetic effects of Swertia macrosperma extracts in diabetic rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Swertia macrosperma is a traditional folk medicine used for its anti-hepatitis, antipyretic and antidotal effects as "Dida" or "Zangyinchen" in Tibet, Yunnan and Guizhou province for a long time, and it has been reported for its anti-diabetic effects in a Chinese patent. Swertia macrosperma was reported rich in xanthones, iridoids, seco-iridoids and their glycosides, several of which had been documented as potential antidiabetic agents. The objective of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic effect of Swertia macrosperma in diabetic rats.
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A chemical genetics approach reveals a role of brassinolide and cellulose synthase in hypocotyl elongation of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings.
Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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The development of juvenile seedlings after germination is critical for the initial establishment of reproductive plants. Ethylene plays a pivotal role in the growth of seedlings under light or dark during early development. Previously, we identified small molecules sharing a quinazolinone backbone that suppressed the constitutive triple response phenotype in dark-grown eto1-4 seedlings. We designated these small molecules as ACSinhibitor quinazolinones (acsinones), which were uncompetitive inhibitors of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase. To explore the additional roles of acsinones in plants, we screened and identified 19 Arabidopsis mutants with reduced sensitivity to acsinone7303, which were collectively named revert to eto1 (ret) because of their recovery of the eto1 phenotype. A map-based cloning approach revealed that CELLULOSE SYNTHASE6 (CESA6) and DE-ETIOLATED2 (DET2) were mutated in ret8 (cesa6(ret8);eto1-4) and ret41 (det2(ret41);eto1-5), respectively. Etiolated seedlings of both ret8 and ret41 exhibit short hypocotyls and roots. Ethylene levels were similar in etiolated cesa6(ret8) and det2-1 and in eto1 mutants treated with acsinone7303. Chemical inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception did not significantly suppress the etiolated phenotype of cesa6(ret8) and det2(ret41). However, together with eto1, cesa6(ret8) and det2(ret41) exhibited an enhanced phenotype in the hypocotyls and apical hooks of etiolated seedlings. These results confirm that, in addition to ethylene, cellulose synthesis and brassinolides can independently contribute to modulate hypocotyl development in young seedlings.
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Gonadogenesis and expression pattern of the vasa gene in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during early development.
Mol. Reprod. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Vasa has been extensively used as a germ-line marker to trace the origin and migration pathway of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in many organisms, but little work has been reported on vasa genes and the origin of PGCs in holothurians. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, vasa mRNA and protein of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-vasa) was detected in the cytoplasm of the unfertilized egg and was equally distributed in the cytoplasm of early embryos, from the two-cell embryo to the blastula, indicating that Aj-vasa mRNA is maternally supplied. Later, expression of both Aj-vasa mRNA and protein centralizes gradually in newly organized structures from blastula to five-tentacle larva, and then is restricted to PGC-like cells of the original gonad in juveniles with 0.1-cm body length. The structure of the gonad develops further from a simple tubular gonad in 0.5-cm-length juveniles to a branched gonad in 3-cm-length juveniles. Our findings showed that the maternal supply of the vasa gene products in A. japonicus is different from that in sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, of echinoderm, and suggested that the specialization of PGCs is an epigenesis mechanism in A. japonicus.
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Identification of proteins implicated in the development of pancreatic cancer-associated diabetes mellitus by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Studies have revealed that pancreatic cancer (PC) may lead to diabetes mellitus (DM). We aimed to identify the proteins implicated in the development of PC-associated DM in PC tissues with DM. We used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to compare protein expression in PC tissues with DM with that in PC tissues without DM and in adjacent nontumor tissues with or without DM. A total of 80 surgically resected fresh tissues from 40 PC patients were included to identify differential protein expression. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were then applied to evaluate the differential expression of selected proteins. A total of 1611 proteins were repeatedly identified and quantified by performing the iTRAQ-based experiments twice. Of these, 23 proteins were differentially expressed according to our defined criteria (12 upregulated and 11 downregulated). The S100 calcium binding protein A9 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family were selected to validate the proteomic results by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The identification of key proteins implicated in the development of PC-associated DM could serve as a foundation to better understand and further explore the etiology and pathogenesis of PC-associated DM.
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In vitro and in vivo anti-diabetic activity of Swertia kouitchensis extract.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Swertia kouitchensis has long been used as a folk medicine to treat hepatitis and diabetes in central-western China. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the plant ethanol extract.
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Effect of electroacupuncture on the pathomorphology of the sciatic nerve and the sensitization of P2X? receptors in the dorsal root ganglion in rats with chronic constrictive injury.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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To explore the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the pathomorphology of the sciatic nerve and the role of P2X3 receptors in EA analgesia.
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Heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability under visible light.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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A heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalyst was prepared by a rational in situ ion exchange reaction between Ag3PO4 micro-cubes and Br(-) in aqueous solution followed by photoreduction. The photocatalytic activities of obtained photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation (?? 400 nm). Compared to AgBr/Ag, Ag3PO4/AgBr heterocrystals and pure Ag3PO4 crystals, the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalysts exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity and stability. This enhanced photocatalytic activity suggests that the synergetic effects of the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag and the strong SPR of Ag NPs on the surface result in the high efficiencies of the photocatalytic activity and the improved stability. With the assistance of Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag heterostructures, only 8 min and 12 min are taken to completely decompose MO and MB molecules under visible-light irradiation, respectively. Furthermore, the photodegradation rate does not show an obvious decrease during ten successive cycles, indicating that our heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalysts are extremely stable under visible-light irradiation.
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Anti-inflammatory secondary metabolites from the leaves of Rosa laevigata.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Bioassay-guided fractionation of a n-BuOH-soluble extract of the leaves of Rosa laevigata led to the isolation of three new 19-oxo-18,19-seco-ur-sane-type triterpenoids, laevigins A-C (1-3), a new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin, laevigin D (4), a new geranylmethylbenzoate, 5-[(2?E,6?S)-6?,7?-dihydroxy-3?,7?-dimethyl-2?-octen-1?-yl]-2-(?-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-methyl benzoate (5), together with 9 known compounds (6-14). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Compounds 4, 9, 11, and 12 significantly suppressed the LPS-stimulated NF-?B transcriptional activity and the release of TNF?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-10 in mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. The compound 12 exhibited moderate inhibition on NF-?B transcriptional activity with an IC50 value of 23.21 ?M. The IC50 values of compound 12 were measured as 14.32, 8.53, 8.04, and 10.38 ?M for the inhibitory activity on TNF?-release, IL-1?-release, IL-6-release, and IL-10-release, respectively.
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Differential expression of PRAMEL1, a cancer/testis antigen, during spermatogenesis in the mouse.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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PRAME belongs to a group of cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) that are characterized by their restricted expression in normal gametogenic tissues and a variety of tumors. The PRAME family is one of the most amplified gene families in the mouse and other mammalian genomes. Members of the PRAME gene family encode leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins functioning as transcription regulators in cancer cells. However, the role of PRAME in normal gonads is unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize the temporal and spatial expression of the mouse Pramel1 gene, and to determine the cellular localization of the PRAMEL1 protein during the mouse spermatogenesis. Our results indicated that the mouse Pramel1 was expressed in testis only. The mRNA and protein expression level was low in the newborn testes, and gradually increased from 1- to 3-week-old testes, and then remained constant after three weeks of age. Immunofluorescent staining on testis sections with the mouse PRAMEL1 antibody revealed that PRAMEL1 was localized in the cytoplasm of spermatocytes and the acrosomal region of round, elongating and elongated spermatids. Further analyses on the testis squash preparation and spermatozoa at a subcellular level indicated that the protein localization patterns of PRAMEL1 were coordinated with morphological alterations during acrosome formation in spermatids, and were significantly different in connecting piece, middle piece and principal piece of the flagellum between testicular and epididymal spermatozoa. Collectively, our results suggest that PRAMEL1 may play a role in acrosome biogenesis and sperm motility.
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Combined serum CA19-9 and miR-27a-3p in peripheral blood mononuclear cells to diagnose pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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MicroRNAs are potentially very useful biomarkers in the diagnosis of cancer. We sought to identify specific microRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) whose levels might facilitate diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. We investigated PBMC microRNA expression in three independent cohorts [healthy, benign pancreatic/peripancreatic diseases (BPD), and pancreatic cancer], comprising a total of 352 participants. First, we used sequencing technology to identify differentially expressed microRNAs in PBMC of pancreatic cancer, BPD, and healthy controls (n = 20 in each group). Then the selected microRNAs were analyzed using the quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assays in the remaining 292 samples. The predictive value of the microRNAs was evaluated by logistic regression models and the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We found that miR-27a-3p level in PBMCs could discriminate pancreatic cancer from BPD with a sensitivity of 82.2% and specificity of 76.7% (AUC = 0.840; 95% CI, 0.787-0.885%). Combination of PBMC miR-27a-3p and serum CA19-9 levels provided a higher diagnostic accuracy with a sensitivity of 85.3% and specificity of 81.6% (AUC = 0.886; 95% CI, 0.837-0.923%). The satisfactory diagnostic performance of the panel persisted regardless of disease status (AUCs for tumor-node-metastasis stages I-III were 0.881, 0.884, and 0.893, respectively). PBMC miR-27a-3p level represents a potential marker for pancreatic cancer screening. A panel combining serum CA19-9 and PBMC miR-27a-3p level could have considerable clinical value in diagnosing pancreatic cancer.
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Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4? reverses malignancy of hepatocellular carcinoma through regulating miR-134 in the DLK1-DIO3 region.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4? (HNF4?) is a dominant transcriptional regulator of hepatocyte differentiation and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. There is striking suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by HNF4?, although the mechanisms by which HNF4? reverses HCC malignancy are largely unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that HNF4? administration to HCC cells resulted in elevated levels of 28 mature microRNAs (miRNAs) from the miR-379-656 cluster, which is located in the delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) -iodothyronine deiodinase 3 (DIO3) locus on human chromosome 14q32. Consistent with the reduction of HNF4?, these miRNAs were down-regulated in human HCC tissue. HNF4? regulated the transcription of the miR-379-656 cluster by directly binding to its response element in the DLK1-DIO3 region. Interestingly, several miRNAs in this cluster inhibited proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells in vitro. As a representative miRNA in this cluster, miR-134 exerted a dramatically suppressive effect on HCC malignancy by down-regulating the oncoprotein, KRAS. Moreover, miR-134 markedly diminished HCC tumorigenicity and displayed a significant antitumor effect in vivo. In addition, inhibition of endogenous miR-134 partially reversed the suppressive effects of HNF4? on KRAS expression and HCC malignancy. Furthermore, a positive correlation between HNF4? and miR-134 levels was observed during hepatocarcinogenesis in rats, and decreases in miR-134 levels were significantly associated with the aggressive behavior of human HCCs. Conclusion: Our data highlight the importance of the miR-379-656 cluster in the inhibitory effect of HNF4? on HCC, and suggest that regulation of the HNF4?-miRNA cascade may have beneficial effects in the treatment of HCC. (Hepatology 2013; 58:1964-1976).
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Heracleifolinosides A-F, new triterpene glycosides from Cimicifuga heracleifolia, and their inhibitory activities against hypoxia and reoxygenation.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Six new 9,19-cycloartane triterpene glycosides, heracleifolinosides A-F (1-6), and one new chromone, norkhelloside (7), were isolated from the rhizome of Cimicifuga heracleifolia, together with 15 known compounds (8-22). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR and mass spectrometry. The extracts of C. heracleifolia and all the isolated compounds were tested for activities against hypoxia and reoxygenation injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Heracleifolinoside B (2) is effectively resistant to hypoxia and reoxygenation-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell injury, with cell viabilities of 61.95 ± 2.04 %, 77.04 ± 4.44 %, and 83.65 ± 3.29 % at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 µM, respectively.
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New inhibitors of ?-glucosidase in Salacia hainanensis Chun et How.
J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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The methanol extract from roots of Salacia hainanensis Chun et How afforded three new compounds, 24,26-dihydroxy-25-methoxy-tirucall-9-en-3-one (1), 2?,3?,22?-trihydroxy-lup-20(29)-ene (2) and 3?-hydroxy-2-carbonyl-lupan-29-oic acid (3), along with six known triterpenoids (4-9). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis, in particular according to the data obtained by two-dimensional-NMR and high-resolution mass spectra experiments. Some of them showed much stronger inhibitory activity towards ?-glucosidase than the positive control (acarbose, IC?? 10.2 ?M).
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Hemocoagulase atrox reduces vascular modeling in rabbit carotid artery adventitia.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This study aimed to compare the effects of hemocoagulase atrox and cauterization hemostasis on intimal hyperplasia and explore the effect of hemocoagulase atrox on vascular modeling in rabbit carotid artery adventitia.
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[The analysis of drug cost and direct medical expense in community health management of hypertensive patients].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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To investigate the current situation of drug cost, hospitalization cost and direct medical expense in community health management of hypertensive patients, in order to lay foundation for evaluating whether the community health management in basic public health service has cost-effect in Health Economics.
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Time-dependent inflammatory factor production and NF?B activation in a rodent model of intermittent hypoxia.
Swiss Med Wkly
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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To study the systemic production of inflammatory factors and activation of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in response to different levels of intermittent hypoxia and time.
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Dysidavarones A-D, new sesquiterpene quinones from the marine sponge Dysidea avara.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Dysidavarones A-D (1-4), four new sesquiterpene quinones possessing the unprecedented "dysidavarane" carbon skeleton, were isolated from the South China Sea sponge Dysidea avara. The structures were established by spectroscopic methods, and the absolute configurations were determined using quantum mechanical calculation of the electronic circular dichroic (ECD) spectrum and exciton chirality CD method. Their cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines and PTP1B inhibitory activity were also evaluated.
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[Progressive increase of serum circulating immune complexes and its significance in patients during the progression from chronic hepatitis B to hepatocellular carcinoma].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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To investigate the significance of increasing circulating immune complex (CIC) in patients during the progression from chronic hepatitis B to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Sensitizing human multiple myeloma cells to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib by novel curcumin analogs.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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The proteasome plays a vital role in the degradation of proteins involved in several pathways including the cell cycle, cellular proliferation and apoptosis and is a validated target in cancer treatment. Bortezomib (Velcade®, PS-341) is the first US FDA approved proteasome inhibitor anticancer drug used in the treatment of refractory multiple myeloma. In spite of its improved efficacy compared to alternative therapies, about 60% of patients do not respond to bortezomib due to the emergence of resistance. We hypothesized that novel small molecules could enhance the proteasome-inhibitory and anticancer activities of bortezomib in resistant multiple myeloma cells in vitro and in vivo. The dietary polyphenol curcumin has been shown to exert anti-cancer activity in several cancer cell lines, but the effects of curcumin in solid tumors have been modest primarily due to poor water solubility and poor bioavailability in tissues remote from the gastrointestinal tract. Here we show that the water-soluble analog of curcumin #12, but not curcumin, in combination with bortezomib could enhance the proteasome-inhibitory effect in multiple myeloma cells. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the myeloma cells to cytotoxic killing in the presence of otherwise sublethal concentrations of bortezomib was enhanced by incubation with the curcumin analog #12. These findings justify further investigation into those combinations that may yield potential therapeutic benefit.
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A randomized experiment to examine unintended consequences of dietary supplement use among daily smokers: taking supplements reduces self-regulation of smoking.
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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We examined whether smokers use of dietary supplements (e.g. vitamin C, multi-vitamins) induces illusory invulnerability that in turn disinhibits smoking. Such supplement use may be perceived as conferring health credentials.
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Regional selection acting on the OFD1 gene family.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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The OFD1 (oral-facial-digital, type 1) gene is implicated in several developmental disorders in humans. The X-linked OFD1 (OFD1X) is conserved in Eutheria. Knowledge about the Y-linked paralog (OFD1Y) is limited. In this study, we identified an OFD1Y on the bovine Y chromosome, which is expressed differentially from the bovine OFD1X. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that: a) the eutherian OFD1X and OFD1Y were derived from the pair of ancestral autosomes during sex chromosome evolution; b) the autosomal OFD1 pseudogenes, present in Catarrhini and Murinae, were derived from retropositions of OFD1X after the divergence of primates and rodents; and c) the presence of OFD1Y in the ampliconic region of the primate Y chromosome is an indication that the expansion of the ampliconic region may initiate from the X-degenerated sequence. In addition, we found that different regions of OFD1/OFD1X/OFD1Y are under differential selection pressures. The C-terminal half of OFD1 is under relaxed selection with an elevated Ka/Ks ratio and clustered positively selected sites, whereas the N-terminal half is under stronger constraints. This study provides some insights into why the OFD1X gene causes OFD1 (male-lethal X-linked dominant) and SGBS2 & JSRDs (X-linked recessive) syndromes in humans, and reveals the origin and evolution of the OFD1 family, which will facilitate further clinical investigation of the OFD1-related syndromes.
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Ironic effects of dietary supplementation: illusory invulnerability created by taking dietary supplements licenses health-risk behaviors.
Psychol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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The use of dietary supplements and the health status of individuals have an asymmetrical relationship: the growing market for dietary supplements appears not to be associated with an improvement in public health. Building on the notion of licensing, or the tendency for positive choices to license subsequent self-indulgent choices, we argue that because dietary supplements are perceived as conferring health advantages, use of such supplements may create an illusory sense of invulnerability that disinhibits unhealthy behaviors. In two experiments, participants who took placebo pills that they believed were dietary supplements exhibited the licensing effect across multiple forms of health-related behavior: They expressed less desire to engage in exercise and more desire to engage in hedonic activities (Experiment 1), expressed greater preference for a buffet over an organic meal (Experiment 1), and walked less to benefit their health (Experiment 2) compared with participants who were told the pills were a placebo. A mediational analysis indicated that perceived invulnerability was an underlying mechanism for these effects. Thus, a license associated with the use of dietary supplements may operate within cycles of behaviors that alternately protect and endanger health.
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Simplextones A and B, unusual polyketides from the marine sponge Plakortis simplex.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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Two novel polyketides, simplextones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the sponge Plakortis simplex. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations were assigned by modified Moshers method, X-ray crystallographic analysis, and quantum mechanical calculation of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectrum. Compounds 1 and 2 featured an unprecedented polyketide skeleton via the connection of a single carbon-carbon bond to form a cyclopentane. These compounds also exhibited moderate cytotoxicity.
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Hippolides A-H, acyclic manoalide derivatives from the marine sponge Hippospongia lachne.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Eight new acyclic manoalide-related sesterterpenes, hippolides A-H (1-8), together with two known manoalide derivatives, (6E)-neomanoalide (9) and (6Z)-neomanoalide (10), were isolated from the South China Sea sponge Hippospongia lachne. The absolute configurations of 1-8 were established by the modified Moshers method and CD data. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against A549, HeLa, and HCT-116 cell lines with IC50 values of 5.22×10(-2), 4.80×10(-2), and 9.78 ?M, respectively. Compound 1 also showed moderate PTP1B inhibitory activitiy with an IC50 value of 23.81 ?M, and compound 2 showed moderate cytotoxicity against the HCT-116 cell line and PTP1B inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 35.13 and 39.67 ?M, respectively. In addition, compounds 1 and 5 showed weak anti-inflammatory activity, with IC50 values of 61.97 and 40.35 ?M for PKC? and PKC?, respectively.
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Antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of timosaponin B-II, an extract of Anemarrhena asphodeloides.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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1. Antithrombotic agents are effective in the treatment of ischaemic stroke. Timosaponin B-II (TB-II) is a major active component of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge (Liliaceae; rhizome) that has protective effects against cerebral ischaemic damage. The present study examined the antiplatelet and antithrombotic actions of TB-II. 2. In in vitro experiments, TB-II (20, 40 and 80 mg/mL) potently and dose-dependently inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, 1, 3 and 6 mg/kg TB-II prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time by 9.29, 16.86 and 25.50%, respectively, but had no effect on the prothrombin time. Furthermore, 1, 3 and 6 mg/kg TB-II significantly reduced the wet weight, dry weight and length of the thrombi (%inhibition (based on wet weight): 13.6, 19.8 and 24.7%, respectively). 3. In a rabbit arteriovenous shunt model, 1, 3 and 6 mg/kg, i.v., TB-II had no effect on thrombus formation. Plasma euglobulin lysis time and fibrin degradation product were not affected by 1, 3 and 6 mg/kg TB-II, but plasminogen levels were decreased significantly by 14.4, 18.3 and 29.0%, respectively. 4. The results of the present study demonstrate significant antiplatelet and anticoagulation effects of TB-II and suggest that these actions could contribute to its neuroprotective effect against damage following cerebral ischaemia damage.
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Limonoids and Diterpenoids from Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Three new limonoids (toonaciliatins N-P, 1-3)and four new pimaradiene-type diterpenoids(toonacilidins A-D, 4-7) were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis.Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Toonacilidin B(5)showed moderate inhibitory activity against H. pylori-SS1 with an MIC of 50 ?g/mL.
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EGCG, green tea polyphenols and their synthetic analogs and prodrugs for human cancer prevention and treatment.
Adv Clin Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Cancer-preventive effects of tea polyphenols, especially epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have been demonstrated by epidemiological, preclinical, and clinical studies. Green tea polyphenols such as EGCG have the potential to affect multiple biological pathways, including gene expression, growth factor-mediated pathways, the mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway, and the ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathway. Therefore, identification of the molecular targets of EGCG should greatly facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying its anticancer and cancer-preventive activities. Performing structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies could also greatly enhance the discovery of novel tea polyphenol analogs as potential anticancer and cancer-preventive agents. In this chapter, we review the relevant literature as it relates to the effects of natural and synthetic green tea polyphenols and EGCG analogs on human cancer cells and their potential molecular targets as well as their antitumor effects. We also discuss the implications of green tea polyphenols in cancer prevention.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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