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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The roles of maternal-effect proteins in the maintenance of genomic imprints.
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Genomic imprinting is a mechanism of differentially epigenetic modification that restricts monoallelic expression to either the maternally or paternally inherited copy of the gene during gametogenesis. Imprinted methylation undergoes a process of erasure, acquisition, and maintenance during gametogenesis and early embryogenesis. Disruptions in any of these steps may lead to imprinting disorders, resulting in the aberrant development of embryogenesis, placentation and postnatal growth. Recent studies have shown that maternal-effect proteins are important for the regulation of imprinted gene during the development of preimplantation embryos. In order to obtain a better understanding for the mechanism of maternal-effect proteins in the maintenance of genomic imprints, the recent study progress of maternal-effect proteins, such as DPPA3, ZFP57, TRIM28 and DNMT1, are summarized, and the regulation mechanism of these maternal-effect proteins for genomic imprints are discussed.
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Global biochemical profiling identifies beta-hydroxypyruvate as a potential mediator of type 2 diabetes in mice and humans.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like pepide-1 (GLP-1) are incretins secreted by respective K and L enteroendocrine cells after eating and amplify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This amplification has been coined the "incretin response". To determine the role(s) of K cells for the incretin response and T2DM, "DT" mice lacking GIP-producing cells were backcrossed 5 to 8 times onto the diabetogenic NONcNZO10/Ltj background. Like humans with T2DM, DT mice lacked an incretin response although GLP-1 release was maintained. With high fat (HF) feeding, DT mice remained lean but developed T2DM whereas WT mice developed obesity but not diabetes. Metabolomics identified biochemicals reflecting impaired glucose handling, insulin resistance, and diabetic complications in pre-diabetic DT/HF mice. Beta-hydroxypyruvate and benzoate levels were increased and decreased, respectively, suggesting beta-hydroxypyruvate production from D-serine. In vitro, beta-hydroxypyruvate altered excitatory properties of myenteric neurons and reduced islet insulin content but not GSIS. Beta-hydroxypyruvate/D-serine ratios were lower in humans with impaired glucose tolerance compared to normal glucose tolerance and T2DM. Earlier human studies unmasked a neural relay that amplifies GIP-mediated insulin secretion in a pattern reciprocal to beta-hydroxypyruvate/D-serine ratios in all groups. Thus, K cells may maintain long-term function of neurons and beta cells by regulating beta-hydroxypyruvate levels.
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[The clinical classification of sigle pedicled double island free anterolateral thigh flaps].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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To summarize the anatomic characteristic of sigle pedicled double island free anterolateral thigh flaps and to evaluate its application and classification.
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[Patterns and risk factors of recurrence in triple-negative breast cancer].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To analyze the recurrence characteristics of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and explore their clinicopathological correlations in northern China.
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Eu-MOFs with 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f]-1,10-phenanthroline and Ditopic Carboxylates as Coligands: Synthesis, Structure, High Thermostability, and Luminescence Properties.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Hydrothermal reactions of europium(III) salt with 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f]-1,10-phenanthroline and dicarboxylic acid as coligands-benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid, 2,5-dibromoterephthalic acid, and naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid-lead to four europium fluorescent materials (1-4). Structural analyses reveal that 1-4 have binuclear 3D metal-organic frameworks with different channels, void volumes, and conjugated structures tuned by ditopic carboxylates. There are no latticed and coordinated water molecules occurring in 1-3, while the free water molecules fill in 1D channels of 4. 4' was readily obtained via water removal of 4. Thermal analyses of all compounds show the high thermal stability of the main framework up to 450 °C. Optical studies indicate that 1-4 and 4' show the characteristic red luminescence emission of the Eu(III) ion in the visible regions at room temperature. On the basis of emission spectra, their luminescence lifetimes were determined. In particular, compound 4' shows a longer lifetime (? = 0.942 ms) and significantly enhanced quantum yield (39%) compared with those of 1 (11%, 0.770 ms), 2 (4%, 0.414 ms), 3 (18%, 0.807 ms), and 4 (26%, 0.858 ms).
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Proteomic Analysis of the Defense Response of Wheat to the Powdery Mildew Fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici.
Protein J.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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Powdery mildew of wheat is caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). Although many wheat cultivars resistant to this disease have been developed, little is known about their resistance mechanisms. The aim of this study was to identify proteins showing changes in abundance during the resistance response of the wheat line N0308 infected by Bgt. In two-dimensional electrophoresis analyses, 45 spots on the gels showed significant changes in abundance at 24, 48, and 72 h after inoculation, as compared to non-inoculated plants. Of these 45 proteins, 44 were identified by mass spectrometry analysis using the NCBInr database of Triticum aestivum (26 spots) and closely related species in the Triticum genus (18 spots). These proteins were associated with the defense response, photosynthesis, metabolism, and other cellular processes in wheat. Most of the up-regulated proteins were identified as stress- and defense-related proteins. In particular, the product of a specific powdery mildew resistance gene (Pm3b and its homolog) and some other defense- and pathogenesis-related proteins were overexpressed. The resistance gene product mediates the immune response and coordinates other cellular processes during the resistance response to Bgt.
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[Comparison of temporomandibular joint changes in adolescent Class II devision 1 malocclusion patients with mandibular retrusion treated with Twin-block and Class II elastics].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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To compare the temporomandibular joint changes in adolescent Class II division 1 malocclusion patients with mandibular retrusion treated with Twin- block and Class II elastics.
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Proximal femoral nail vs. dynamic hip screw in treatment of intertrochanteric fractures: a meta-analysis.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the outcomes of proximal femoral nail (PFN) and dynamic hip screw (DHS) in treatment of intertrochanteric fractures.
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Melatonin regulates proteomic changes during leaf senescence in Malus hupehensis.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Despite the relationship between melatonin and aging, the overall changes and regulation of proteome profiling by long-term melatonin exposure during leaf senescence is not well understood. In this study, leaf senescence in Malus hupehensis plants was delayed when exogenous melatonin was regularly applied to the roots for 2 months compared with natural leaf senescence. Proteins of samples 0 and 50 day for both treatments were extracted and labeled with TMT regents before being examined via NanoLC-MS/MS. The proteomics data showed that 622 and 309 proteins were altered by senescence and melatonin, respectively. Our GO analysis by Blast2GO revealed that most of the altered proteins that are involved in major metabolic processes exhibited hydrolase activity and were mainly located in the plastids. These proteins were classified into several senescence-related functional categories, including degradation of macromolecules, redox and stress responses, transport, photosynthesis, development, and other regulatory proteins. We found that melatonin treatment led to the downregulation of proteins that are normally upregulated during senescence. The melatonin-related delay in senescence might have occurred due to the altering of proteins involved in processes associated with senescence. And as well, there are many unknown regulatory proteins possibly being involved in the melatonin's function. This study is the first to demonstrate changes at the proteome level in response to exogenous melatonin in plants. Our findings provide a set of informative and fundamental data about the role of melatonin in apple leaf senescence.
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Beta-asarone attenuates amyloid beta-induced autophagy via Akt/mTOR pathway in PC12 cells.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age related and progressive neurodegenerative disease. Autophagy is a self-degradative process and plays a critical role in removing long-lived proteins and damaged organelles. Recent evidence suggests that autophagy might be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. ?-asarone have various neuroprotective effects. However, the effect of ?-asarone on autophagy in amyloid ?-peptide (A?) induced cell injury is unclear, and little is known about the signaling pathway of ?-asarone in autophagy regulation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether ?-asarone protects cells from A?1-42 induced cytotoxicity via regulation of Beclin-1 dependent autophagy and its regulating signaling pathway. We examined effects of ?-asarone on cell morphology, cell viability, neuron specific enolase (NSE) levels, autophagosomes and regulating Beclin-1, p-Akt and p-mTOR expressions in A?1-42 treated PC12 cells. We found that ?-asarone could maintain the original morphology of cells and increase cell viability and decrease NSE levels significantly. Meanwhile, ?-asarone decreased Beclin-1 expression significantly. In addition, ?-asarone can increase levels of p-Akt and p-mTOR. These results showed that ?-asarone protected cells from A?1-42 induced cytotoxicity and attenuated autophagy via activation of Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, which could be involved in neuroprotection of ?-asarone against A? toxicity. Our findings suggest that ?-asarone might be a potential preventive drug for AD.
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Engineered oligosaccharyltransferases with greatly relaxed acceptor-site specificity.
Nat. Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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The Campylobacter jejuni protein glycosylation locus (pgl) encodes machinery for asparagine-linked (N-linked) glycosylation and serves as the archetype for bacterial N-linked glycosylation. This machinery has been functionally transferred into Escherichia coli, enabling convenient mechanistic dissection of the N-linked glycosylation process in this genetically tractable host. Here we sought to identify sequence determinants in the oligosaccharyltransferase PglB that restrict its specificity to only those glycan acceptor sites containing a negatively charged residue at the -2 position relative to asparagine. This involved creation of a genetic assay, glycosylation of secreted N-linked acceptor proteins (glycoSNAP), that facilitates high-throughput screening of glycophenotypes in E. coli. Using this assay, we isolated several C. jejuni PglB variants that could glycosylate an array of noncanonical acceptor sequences, including one in a eukaryotic N-glycoprotein. These results underscore the utility of glycoSNAP for shedding light on poorly understood aspects of N-linked glycosylation and for engineering designer N-linked glycosylation biocatalysts.
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[Epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease and genetic characterization of enterovirus A71: a survey from 2007 to 2012 in Linyi of Shandong Province, China].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To investigate the epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and the genetic characteristics of enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) in Linyi of Shandong Province, China during 2007-2012. The number of reported HFMD cases were obtained from the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NNDRS) were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology method; the VP1 region of EV-A71 isolated from HFMD patients in Linyi was amplified and sequenced. Finally, the genetic variability and phylogenecity of VP1 sequences of EV-A71 were analyzed by MEGA 5.0. The results showed that HFMD incidence was reported in each year from 2007 to 2012 in Linyi, and the highest incidence and mortality were reported in 2009, when there were total 14697 cases and 9 of death. The reported incidence was 140.28/100000, and the mortality was 0.086/100000. The peak incidence usually occurred between April and July, and the summit occurred in May. Scattered children accounted for 77.37%-92.00% of all cases. The peak age was 2.5 years during 2007-2009 and 1.5 years during 2010-2012. A total of 1365 laboratory-confirmed HFMD cases were reported in the 6 consecutive years, accounting for 2.98% of the gross number. Among these reports, the ratio of EV-A71 was 44.18%, and the ratio of coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) was 46.59%. All EV-A71 strains isolated in Linyi during 2007-2012 belonged to the C4a evolutionary branch of C4 genotype. In conclusion, HFMD outbreaks occurred every year in Linyi during 2007-2012. Incidence varied significantly among different counties. The peak incidence in each year lasted from April to July. Most of the patients were children under 3 years of age, and scattered children took the highest proportion. Co-circulation of EV-A71 and CVA16 was the major cause of HFMD in each year. Since the first report of HFMD prevalence caused by EV-A71 (C4a) in 2007, the virus has been prevalent continuously in Linyi for 6 years.
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Polyelectrolyte assisted synthesis and enhanced oxygen reduction activity of Pt nanocrystals with controllable shape and size.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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The shape control of platinum nanocrystals is significant to the enhancement of their catalytic performance in terms of activity and selectivity. However, it still remains a major challenge to prepare Pt nanocrystals with tunable shape and clean surface in an eco-friendly way. This article develops a facile and green strategy to prepare well tuned platinum nanocrystals employing poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) as the capping agent, reductant, and stabilizer simultaneously in a facile hydrothermal process. It is identified that the variation of PDDA concentration is crucial to control the growth of crystalline facets, leading to the formation of cubic, truncated cubic, and octahedral Pt nanocrystals with sizes tunable from ca. 17 nm to ca. 50 nm. The resultant Pt nanocrystals exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media compared with those of commercial Pt black and the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst. It is proposed that the preferential Pt surface and the decoration of PDDA, which modulates the electronic structures and electrooxidation of Pt nanocrystals, synergistically contribute to the enhanced catalytic performance.
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pH-responsive polymer-drug conjugates as multifunctional micelles for cancer-drug delivery.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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We developed a novel linear pH-sensitive conjugate methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-4?-aminopodophyllotoxin (mPEG-NPOD-I) by a covalently linked 4?-aminopodophyllotoxin (NPOD) and PEG via imine bond, which was amphiphilic and self-assembled to micelles in an aqueous solution. The mPEG-NPOD-I micelles simultaneously served as an anticancer drug conjugate and as drug carriers. As a drug conjugate, mPEG-NPOD-I showed a significantly faster NPOD release at a mildly acidic pH of 5.0 and 4.0 than a physiological pH of 7.4. Notably, it was confirmed that this drug conjugate could efficiently deliver NPOD to the nuclei of the tumor cells and led to much more cytotoxic effects to A549, Hela, and HepG2 cancer cells than the parent NPOD. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC??) of mPEG-NPOD-I was about one order magnitude lower than that of the NPOD. In vivo, mPEG-NPOD-I reduced the size of the tumors significantly, and the biodistribution studies indicated that this drug conjugate could selectively accumulate in tumor tissues. As drug carriers, the mPEG-NPOD-I micelles encapsulated hydrophobic PTX with drug-loading efficiencies of 57% and drug-loading content of 16%. The loaded PTX also showed pH-triggered fast release behavior, and good additive cytotoxicity effect was observed for the PEG-NPOD-I/PTX. We are convinced that these multifunctional drug conjugate micelles have tremendous potential for targeted cancer therapy.
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Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative addition of aryl bromides to arylalkynes: a simple and efficient method for chalcone synthesis.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative addition of aryl bromides to terminal arylalkynes was carried out to produce chalcones in satisfactory to excellent yields. The unprecedented carbonylation reaction proceeded smoothly under mild conditions in the presence of a simple palladium catalyst system (PdCl2/DPPB/(i)Pr2NEt) in N,N-dimethyl formamide.
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Intra-articular lidocaine versus intravenous analgesia and sedation for manual closed reduction of acute anterior shoulder dislocation: an updated meta-analysis.
J Clin Anesth
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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To compare intra-articular lidocaine (IAL) with intravenous analgesia and sedation (IVAS) for manual closed reduction of acute anterior shoulder dislocation.
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Organ transplantation from donors (cadaveric or living) with a history of malignancy: review of the literature.
Transplant Rev (Orlando)
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The evolution of organ transplantation has resulted in extended lifespan as well as better life quality of patients with end-stage diseases, which in turn causes an increased demand for organs. The persistent organ shortage requires a careful reconsideration of potential donors (living or cadaveric) that have current or historical malignancies. Donors with low-grade skin tumors, carcinomas in situ of the uterine cervix, and primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors can be considered as potential donors for recipients dying on wait list longing for organ transplantation. Recently, transplant centers have turned to other types of malignancies including low grade renal cell carcinoma, prostate, ureteral, endometrial and breast cancer, and favorable outcomes have been shown in such innovations. When considering donors with a history of malignancy, general biologic behavior of the tumor type, histology and stage at the time of diagnosis, and the length of disease-free interval should be considered (Transplantation 2002;74(12):1657-1663). With the review of literatures, we illustrate the organ utilization from donors with malignancies all around the world since earlier times and give some suggestions for decision making under the circumstance of whether to choose those marginal donors or not on the basis of reviewed literatures.
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Effects of WT1 down-regulation on oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development in pigs.
Reproduction
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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The Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1) gene originally identified as a tumour suppressor associated with WTs encodes a zinc finger-containing transcription factor that is expressed in multiple tissues and is an important regulator of cellular and organ growth, proliferation, development, migration and survival. However, there is a deficiency of data regarding the expression and function of WT1 during oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryonic development. Herein, we sought to define the expression characteristics and functions of WT1 during oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryonic development in pigs. We show that WT1 is expressed in porcine oocytes and at all preimplantation stages in embryos generated by ICSI. We then evaluated the effects of down-regulating WT1 expression at germinal vesicle and early ICSI stages using a recombinant plasmid (pGLV3-WT1-shRNA). Down-regulation of WT1 did not affect oocyte maturation but significantly decreased preimplantation embryonic development and increased apoptosis in blastocysts. These results indicate that WT1 plays important roles in the development of porcine preimplantation embryos.
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Morphology of susceptibility vessel sign predicts middle cerebral artery recanalization after intravenous thrombolysis.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of susceptibility vessel sign (SVS) burden and morphology in middle cerebral artery recanalization.
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Solvent-induced syntheses, crystal structures, magnetic properties, and single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation of azido-Cu(II) coordination polymers with 2-naphthoic acid as co-ligand.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Based on the solvent-induced effect, three new azido-copper coordination polymers--[Cu(2-na)(N3)] (1), [Cu(2-na)(N3)] (2), and [Cu(2-na)(N3)(C2H5OH)] (3) (where 2-na = 2-naphthoic acid)--have been successfully prepared. Structure analysis shows that the Cu(II) cations in compounds 1-3 present tetra-, penta-, and hexa-coordination geometries, respectively. Compound 1 is a well-isolated one-dimensional (1D) chain with the EO-azido group, while 2 is an isomer of 1 and exhibits a two-dimensional (2D) layer involving the EE-azido group. Thermodynamically, density functional theory (DFT) calculation reveals that 2 occupies the stable state and 1 locates in the metastable state. Compound 3 consists of a 1D chain with triple bridging mode, which is derived from 1, and undergoes a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation by soaking in ethanol solvent; the powdery product of 1, namely 1b, could be yielded after the dealcoholization of compound 3. Magnetic measurements indicate that compounds 1-3 perform strong intrachain ferromagnetic interactions, experiencing long-range magnetic ordering and slow magnetic relaxation. Compound 1 features the metamagnetic behavior with a transition temperature of 15 K, while 2 and 3 display spin glass behavior with the phase transition temperatures of 15 and 12 K, respectively. Magneto-structure relationships are investigated as well.
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Evidence of contribution of iPLA2?-mediated events during islet ?-cell apoptosis due to proinflammatory cytokines suggests a role for iPLA2? in T1D development.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from autoimmune destruction of islet ?-cells, but the underlying mechanisms that contribute to this process are incompletely understood, especially the role of lipid signals generated by ?-cells. Proinflammatory cytokines induce ER stress in ?-cells and we previously found that the Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2? (iPLA2?) participates in ER stress-induced ?-cell apoptosis. In view of reports of elevated iPLA2? in T1D, we examined if iPLA2? participates in cytokine-mediated islet ?-cell apoptosis. We find that the proinflammatory cytokine combination IL-1?+IFN?, induces: a) ER stress, mSREBP-1, and iPLA2?, b) lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) generation, c) neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (NSMase2), d) ceramide accumulation, e) mitochondrial membrane decompensation, f) caspase-3 activation, and g) ?-cell apoptosis. The presence of a sterol regulatory element in the iPLA2? gene raises the possibility that activation of SREBP-1 after proinflammatory cytokine exposure contributes to iPLA2? induction. The IL-1?+IFN?-induced outcomes (b-g) are all inhibited by iPLA2? inactivation, suggesting that iPLA2?-derived lipid signals contribute to consequential islet ?-cell death. Consistent with this possibility, ER stress and ?-cell apoptosis induced by proinflammatory cytokines are exacerbated in islets from RIP-iPLA2?-Tg mice and blunted in islets from iPLA2?-KO mice. These observations suggest that iPLA2?-mediated events participate in amplifying ?-cell apoptosis due to proinflammatory cytokines and also that iPLA2? activation may have a reciprocal impact on ER stress development. They raise the possibility that iPLA2? inhibition, leading to ameliorations in ER stress, apoptosis, and immune responses resulting from LPC-stimulated immune cell chemotaxis, may be beneficial in preserving ?-cell mass and delaying/preventing T1D evolution.
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Neuroprotective Effects of ?-Asarone Against 6-Hydroxy Dopamine-Induced Parkinsonism via JNK/Bcl-2/Beclin-1 Pathway.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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?-asarone, a major component of Acorus tatarinowii Schott, has positive effects in neurodegeneration disease, however, its effect on the Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear. In this study, the effects of ?-asarone on behavioral tests, neurotransmitters, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and ?-synuclein (?-syn) were investigated in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced rats. Furthermore, the JNK/Bcl-2/Beclin-1 autophagy pathway was also studied. The results showed that ?-asarone improved the behavioral symptoms of rats in the open field, rotarod test, initiation time, and stepping time. And it increased the HVA, Dopacl, and 5-HIAA levels in striatum but not the DA and 5-HT levels. After administration of ?-asarone, the TH level was elevated but the ?-syn was declined in rats. It inhibited the expressions of LC3-II, but increased the p62 expression in SN4741 cells. Moreover, it affected the expressions of Beclin-1, Bcl-2, JNK, and p-JNK in vivo. We deduced that ?-asarone may firstly downregulate expressions of JNK and p-JNK, and then indirectly increase the expression of Bcl-2. And the function of Beclin-1 could be inhibited, which could inhibit autophagy activation. Collectively, all data indicated that ?-asarone may be explored as a potential therapeutic agent in PD therapy.
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Pancreatic T cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase deficiency affects beta cell function in mice.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP, encoded by PTPN2) regulates cytokine-induced pancreatic beta cell apoptosis and may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. However, the role of TCPTP in pancreatic endocrine function and insulin secretion remains largely unknown.
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Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in gastric cancer: Recommendations of an Asia-Pacific Task Force.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing in gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer is an evolving area in clinical practice that has particular relevance to Asia-Pacific countries, which face a high incidence of these diseases. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that HER2-targeted therapy improves survival for patients with HER2-positive advanced disease, and drives the need for high-quality testing procedures to identify patients who will respond to treatment. However, various factors challenge day-to-day testing of gastric specimens in these countries, to a degree greater than that observed for breast specimens. Recommendations for HER2 testing of gastric cancer specimens were published as a result of the Trastuzumab for Gastric Cancer (ToGA) trial. The guidelines proposed in this manuscript build on these recommendations and emphasize local testing environments, particularly in Asia-Pacific countries. A multidisciplinary task force comprising experts from Asia-Pacific who actively work and provide education in the area was convened to assess the applicability of existing recommendations in the Asia-Pacific region. The resulting recommendations reported here highlight and clarify aspects of testing that are of particular relevance to the region, and notably emphasize multidisciplinary collaborations to optimize HER2 testing quality.
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Nanoassemblies driven by cyclodextrin-based inclusion complexation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Nanoscaled supramolecular systems have attracted significant attention because of their promising applications in many fields. This review focuses on recent advances in the construction of nanoassemblies driven by cyclodextrin (CD)-based inclusion complexation and their application in biomedical and biomimetic fields. As a result of the reversibility of the CD-based host-guest interactions, CD-based driving forces provide the opportunity to generate complex and sophisticated nanoassemblies with tunable properties.
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Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the MTN gene during adventitious root development in IBA-induced tetraploid black locust.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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5'-Methylthioadenosine (MTA) nucleosidase (MTN) plays a key role in the methionine (Met) recycling pathway of plants. Here, we report the isolation of the 1158bp full-length, cDNA sequence encoding tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) MTN (TrbMTN), which contains an open reading frame of 810bp that encodes a 269 amino acid protein. The amino acid sequence of TrbMTN has more than 88% sequence identity to the MTNs from other plants, with a closer phylogenetic relationship to MTNs from legumes than to MTNs from other plants. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the TrbMTN gene localizes mainly to the cell membrane and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-treated cuttings showed higher TrbMTN transcript levels than untreated control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. TrbMTN and key Met cycle genes showed differential expression in shoots, leaves, stems, and roots, with the highest expression observed in stems. IBA-treated cuttings also showed higher TrbMTN activity than control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. These results indicate that TrbMTN gene might play an important role in the regulation of IBA-induced adventitious root development in tetraploid black locust cuttings.
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Copper-catalyzed enantioselective hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of Danishefsky's diene with ?,?-unsaturated ?-ketoesters.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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A highly enantioselective hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of Danishefsky's diene with ?,?-unsaturated ?-ketoesters was developed for the first time by virtue of chiral copper complexes. This protocol provided a facile access to optically active dihydropyranones bearing a quaternary center with high enantioselectivities and good yields. Furthermore, on the basis of the isolated intermediate analysis, the reaction pathway was substrate-dependent.
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Molecular basis of gain-of-function LEOPARD syndrome-associated SHP2 mutations.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) is a critical signal transducer downstream of growth factors that promotes the activation of the RAS-ERK1/2 cascade. In its basal state, SHP2 exists in an autoinhibited closed conformation because of an intramolecular interaction between its N-SH2 and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) domains. Binding to pTyr ligands present on growth factor receptors and adaptor proteins with its N-SH2 domain localizes SHP2 to its substrates and frees the active site from allosteric inhibition. Germline mutations in SHP2 are known to cause both Noonan syndrome (NS) and LEOPARD syndrome (LS), two clinically similar autosomal dominant developmental disorders. NS-associated SHP2 mutants display elevated phosphatase activity, while LS-associated SHP2 mutants exhibit reduced catalytic activity. A conundrum in how clinically similar diseases result from mutations to SHP2 that have opposite effects on this enzyme's catalytic functionality exists. Here we report a comprehensive investigation of the kinetic, structural, dynamic, and biochemical signaling properties of the wild type as well as all reported LS-associated SHP2 mutants. The results reveal that LS-causing mutations not only affect SHP2 phosphatase activity but also induce a weakening of the intramolecular interaction between the N-SH2 and PTP domains, leading to mutants that are more readily activated by competing pTyr ligands. Our data also indicate that the residual phosphatase activity associated with the LS SHP2 mutant is required for enhanced ERK1/2 activation. Consequently, catalytically impaired SHP2 mutants could display gain-of-function properties because of their ability to localize to the vicinity of substrates for longer periods of time, thereby affording the opportunity for prolonged substrate turnover and sustained RAS-ERK1/2 activation.
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Copper-catalyzed enantioselective Friedel-Crafts alkylation of pyrrole with isatins.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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The highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts alkylation of pyrrole with isatins catalyzed by the tridentate Schiff base/Cu catalyst was developed. Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) was used as a crucial additive to improve the enantioselectivity. In the case of N-unprotected isatins, an innovative substrate slow-releasing strategy was applied by virtue of a Henry/retro-Henry reaction.
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Effects of celecoxib on proliferation and tenocytic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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NSAIDs are often ingested to reduce the pain and improve regeneration of tendon after tendon injury. Although the effects of NSAIDs in tendon healing have been reported, the data and conclusions are not consistent. Recently, tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) have been isolated from tendon tissues and has been suggested involved in tendon repair. Our study aims to determine the effects of COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) on the proliferation and tenocytic differentiation of TDSCs. TDSCs were isolated from mice Achilles tendon and exposed to celecoxib. Cell proliferation rate was investigated at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ?g/ml) of celecoxib by using hemocytometer. The mRNA expression of tendon associated transcription factors, tendon associated collagens and tendon associated molecules were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of Collagen I, Collagen III, Scleraxis and Tenomodulin were determined by Western blotting. The results showed that celecoxib has no effects on TDSCs cell proliferation in various concentrations (p>0.05). The levels of most tendon associated transcription factors, tendon associated collagens and tendon associated molecules genes expression were significantly decreased in celecoxib (10 ?g/ml) treated group (p<0.05). Collagen I, Collagen III, Scleraxis and Tenomodulin protein expression were also significantly decreased in celecoxib (10 ?g/ml) treated group (p<0.05). In conclusion, celecoxib inhibits tenocytic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells but has no effects on cell proliferation.
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Integrin-mediated type II TGF-? receptor tyrosine dephosphorylation controls SMAD-dependent profibrotic signaling.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Tubulointerstitial fibrosis underlies all forms of end-stage kidney disease. TGF-? mediates both the development and the progression of kidney fibrosis through binding and activation of the serine/threonine kinase type II TGF-? receptor (T?RII), which in turn promotes a T?RI-mediated SMAD-dependent fibrotic signaling cascade. Autophosphorylation of serine residues within T?RII is considered the principal regulatory mechanism of T?RII-induced signaling; however, there are 5 tyrosine residues within the cytoplasmic tail that could potentially mediate T?RII-dependent SMAD activation. Here, we determined that phosphorylation of tyrosines within the T?RII tail was essential for SMAD-dependent fibrotic signaling within cells of the kidney collecting duct. Conversely, the T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP) dephosphorylated T?RII tail tyrosine residues, resulting in inhibition of T?R-dependent fibrotic signaling. The collagen-binding receptor integrin ?1?1 was required for recruitment of TCPTP to the T?RII tail, as mice lacking this integrin exhibited impaired TCPTP-mediated tyrosine dephosphorylation of T?RII that led to severe fibrosis in a unilateral ureteral obstruction model of renal fibrosis. Together, these findings uncover a crosstalk between integrin ?1?1 and T?RII that is essential for T?RII-mediated SMAD activation and fibrotic signaling pathways.
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Polyethylenimine-enhanced electrocatalytic reduction of CO? to formate at nitrogen-doped carbon nanomaterials.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are selective and robust electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction to formate in aqueous media without the use of a metal catalyst. Polyethylenimine (PEI) functions as a co-catalyst by significantly reducing catalytic overpotential and increasing current density and efficiency. The co-catalysis appears to help in stabilizing the singly reduced intermediate CO2(•-) and concentrating CO2 in the PEI overlayer.
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A pilot randomized clinical study of the additive treatment effect of photodynamic therapy in breast cancer patients with chest wall recurrence.
J Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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This study investigated the additive effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) plus traditional radiotherapy (RT) for patients with breast cancer and chest wall recurrence.
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The effects of methylphenidate on resting-state striatal, thalamic and global functional connectivity in healthy adults.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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By blocking dopamine and norepinephrine transporters, methylphenidate affects cognitive performance and regional brain activation in healthy individuals as well as those with neuropsychiatric disorders. Resting-state connectivity evaluates the functional integrity of a network of brain regions. Here, we examined how methylphenidate effects resting-state functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum and thalamus, areas each with dense dopaminergic and noradrenergic innervations, as well as global cerebral connectivity. We administered a single, oral dose (45 mg) to 24 healthy adults and compared resting-state connectivity to 24 demographically matched adults who did not receive any medication. The results showed that methylphenidate alters seed-based and global connectivity between the thalamus/dorsal striatum with primary motor cortex, amygdala/hippocampus and frontal executive areas (p < 0.05, corrected). Specifically, while methylphenidate at this dosage enhances connectivity to the motor cortex and memory circuits, it dampens prefrontal cortical connectivity perhaps by increasing catecholaminergic signalling past the 'optimal' level. These findings advance our understanding of a critical aspect of the multifaceted effects of methylphenidate on brain functions. The results may also facilitate future studies of the aetiology and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders that implicate catecholaminergic dysfunction.
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A Meta-analysis of thyroid imaging reporting and data system in the ultrasonographic diagnosis of 10,437 thyroid nodules.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Background: The meta-analysis was preformed to review the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound reporting and data system in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Methods: We identified the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound reporting and data system in five databases. Meta-analyses were used in selected studies to obtain pooled sensitivity, specificity, and summary receiver operating characteristic curves. Fixed or random-effects models were performed to analyze our data. Results: Twelve eligible studies were identified, including 10,437 thyroid nodules. A pooled sensitivity of 0.79 (95% confidence interval:0.77-0.81) and a pooled specificity of 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.72) of ultrasound reporting system in differentiated diagnosis of thyroid nodules were showed in meta-analyses. Subgroup analyses showed the most important factor of heterogeneity in studies was final diagnostic references (histological and cytological standards or only histological results). Conclusion: The thyroid imaging reporting and data system has a good sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of patients with thyroid nodules. Head Neck, 2014.
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Rapid selective electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to formate by an iridium pincer catalyst immobilized on carbon nanotube electrodes.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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An iridium pincer dihydride catalyst was immobilized on carbon nanotube-coated gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) by using a non-covalent binding strategy. The as-prepared GDEs are efficient, selective, durable, gas permeable electrodes for electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to formate. High turnover numbers (ca. 54,000) and turnover frequencies (ca. 15?s(-1)) were enabled by the novel electrode architecture in aqueous solutions saturated in CO2 with added HCO3(-).
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Diagnostic value of elastosonography for thyroid microcarcinoma.
Ultrasonics
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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To assess the diagnostic value of elastosonography for thyroid microcarcinoma (TMC), particularly with regard to elasticity score (ES) and strain ratio (SR).
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[Quantitative classification-based occupational health management for electroplating enterprises in Baoan District of Shenzhen, China].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To improve the occupational health management levels in electroplating enterprises with quantitative classification measures and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational hazards in electroplating enterprises and the protection of workers' health.
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Prediction of thyroid extracapsular extension with cervical lymph node metastases (ECE-LN) by CEUS and BRAF expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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The aim of our study was to find a specific imaging (contrast-enhanced ultrasound, CEUS) to detect extracapsular extension and cervical lymph node metastases (ECE-LNM) that associated with BRAF protein expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Preoperative utrasonography (US) or CEUS was performed in the diagnosis of extracapsular extension (ECE) in 317 patients with 369 PTC. BRAF protein status was tested on the primary tumor and lymph node involvement. The diagnostic accuracy of CEUS and US was evaluated after thyroid surgery. The association between CEUS and BRAF expression were then analyzed to investigate the diagnostic value of ECE-LNM in PTC. The sensitivity and specificity of CEUS were higher than those in US in the diagnosis of ECE in patients with PTC (91.1, 86.5 vs 49, 55 %). BRAF protein overexpression were significantly associated with ECE (P?=?0.0003) and lymph node metastasis (LNM) positive cases (P?=?0.0014). The results of CEUS, not US, have a significant correlation with BRAF expression status in PTC samples (P?
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Comparison of depressive behaviors induced by three stress paradigms in rats.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Depression is a severe psychiatric disorder, which is a huge burden on both the individual and society as a whole. Neurobiological studies of depression on humans are limited by ethics. Animal models established by stressor stimulation are currently effective tools for the neurobiological study of depression. In this study, we comparatively analyzed behavioral heterogeneity, gender, and individual differences in animal models reflecting early life stress, adverse events in adulthood, or combined early life stress and stressful events in adulthood. Results demonstrated that these three different stressors induced dissimilar depressive behaviors. Maternal deprivation (MD) induced severe anhedonia. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUPS) induced the most severe decrease in desperation behavior, moderate anhedonia, and moderate loss of interest in exploration of the surroundings. Dural stress (DS) exposure caused the most severe decline in interest in exploring the surroundings. Male rats all exhibited some form of depressive behavior after they were exposed to MD, CUPS and DS. In contrast, no depressive performance was observed in female rats after they were exposed to MD, and the CUPS only decreased the total distance the rats crawled in the open field test. Rats exhibited more obvious individual differences in floating time than in the vertical activity, total distance and sucrose preference rate when experiencing stress. Our study suggests that different stressors may induce different depression subtypes and that the observed differences in the prevalence of depression between genders in the clinic may be due to effect of psychosocial factors which affects humans more strongly than rats. Our study also suggests that individual difference is more obvious in desperation behaviors than that in exploratory interest and anhedonia when the individual experienced stress.
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A new strategy for storage and transportation of sensitive high-energy materials: guest-dependent energy and sensitivity of 3D metal-organic-framework-based energetic compounds.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Reaction of Co(II) with the nitrogen-rich ligand N,N-bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)-amine (H2bta) leads to a mixed-valence, 3D, porous, metal-organic framework (MOF)-based, energetic material with the nitrogen content of 51.78%, [Co9(bta)10(Hbta)2(H2O)10]n?(22?H2O)n (1). Compound 1 was thermohydrated to produce a new, stable, energetic material with the nitrogen content of 59.85% and heat of denotation of 4.537?kcal?cm(-3), [Co9(bta)10(Hbta)2(H2O)10]n (2). Sensitivity tests show that 2 is more sensitivity to external stimuli than 1, reflecting guest-dependent energy and sensitivity of 3D, MOF-based, energetic materials. Less-sensitive 1 can be regarded as a more safe form for storage and transformation to sensitive 2.
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Coadministration of ?-asarone and levodopa increases dopamine in rat brain by accelerating transformation of levodopa: A different mechanism from Madopar.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of coadministration of ?-asarone and levodopa (l-dopa) on increasing dopamine (DA) in the striatum of healthy rats. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: (i) a normal group, administered normal saline; (ii) a Madopar group, administered 75 mg/kg Madopar (l-dopa : benserazide, 4 : 1); (iii) an l-dopa group, administered 60 mg/kg l-dopa; and (iv) a group coadministered 15 mg/kg ?-asarone and 60 mg/kg l-dopa. All drugs (or normal saline) were administered intragastrically twice a day for 7 days. Then, plasma and striatum concentrations of DA, l-dopa, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), homovanillic acid (HVA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) were determined. In the group coadministered ?-asarone and l-dopa, there was a decline in plasma and striatal concentrations of l-dopa; however, DA and DOPAC concentrations increased in the striatum and plasma and plasma HVA concentrations increased, whereas there was no significant change in striatal levels. Concentrations of 5-HT in the striatum and plasma were similar in the coadministered and Madopar-treated groups. In addition, plasma and striatal COMT levels decreased after coadministration of ?-asarone and l-dopa, whereas there were no significant differences in MAO-B concentrations among groups. Furthermore, coadministration of ?-asarone and l-dopa increased plasma TH concentrations. Altogether, ?-asarone affects the conversion of l-dopa to DA by modulating COMT activity and DA metabolism. The mechanism of coadministration is different from that of Madopar in Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment. Thus, the coadministration of ?-asarone and l-dopa may be beneficial in the treatment of PD.
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Impeded Nedd4-1-mediated Ras degradation underlies Ras-driven tumorigenesis.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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RAS genes are among the most frequently mutated proto-oncogenes in cancer. However, how Ras stability is regulated remains largely unknown. Here, we report a regulatory loop involving the E3 ligase Nedd4-1, Ras, and PTEN. We found that Ras signaling stimulates the expression of Nedd4-1, which in turn acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates Ras levels. Importantly, Ras activation, either by oncogenic mutations or by epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling, prevents Nedd4-1-mediated Ras ubiquitination. This leads to Ras-induced Nedd4-1 overexpression, and subsequent degradation of the tumor suppressor PTEN in both human cancer samples and cancer cells. Our study thus unravels the molecular mechanisms underlying the interplay of Ras, Nedd4-1, and PTEN and suggests a basis for the high prevalence of Ras-activating mutations and EGF hypersignaling in cancer.
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Preparation of thermosensitive polymer magnetic particles and their application in protein separations.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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This paper presents a kind of thermoresponsive polymeric magnetic particles for protein separations. The magnetofluids were directly encapsulated in hollow particles constructed by self-assembly of rod-coil poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/?-cyclodextrin (PEG-PNIPAM/?-CD) complexes. The resulting particles showed reversible protein absorption/desorption capacity because the reversible thermo-sensitivity of PNIPAM. Above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM, these particles showed high absorptive capacities and adsorption was done at lower temperature. The protein-laden particles are readily removed from the feed solution in a magnetic field.
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Transcriptional profiling in dioecious plant Populus cathayana reveals potential and sex-related molecular adaptations to solar UV-B radiation.
Physiol Plant
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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There is increasing evidence confirming that dioecious plants have evolved a series of sex-related physiological mechanisms allowing acclimation to environmental stresses, but few studies have attempted to thoroughly uncover the potential molecular regulation underlying these responses. Recently, we found in the dioecious plant, Populus cathayana, that males possess a greater tolerance to enhanced UV-B radiation than do females. To continue this work further, comparative transcriptome analyses were carried out. A total of 362 and 296 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in males and females, respectively. Similarly, as shown in previous studies, these DEGs were involved in a set of conserved functions and pathways related to UV-B stress, regardless of the sex. On the other hand, sex-related responses via transcriptome remodeling were detected, as changes in sex-related gene expression occurred in some pathways. For example, many DEGs involved in amino acid metabolism were mainly upregulated in males but downregulated in females. In some pathways, DEGs were expressed predominantly or exclusively in one sex. This may directly contribute to sex-related physiological responses. Taken together, our results not only provide strong evidence that males and females have adopted sex-related molecular strategies in response to solar UV-B radiation but also suggest many new insights, in particular into molecular regulation, via sex-biased gene expression. We conclude that these results can further enhance the sustainable exploitation and management of P. cathayana plants.
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Application of anteromedial thigh flap for the reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial defects.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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To discuss the vascular anatomy of the anteromedial thigh (AMT) flap and to evaluate the feasibility of the AMT flap for the reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial defects.
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Anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps as the preferred flaps for reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial defects.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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The anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flap is one of the most commonly used flaps in reconstructive procedures, but its application in oral and maxillofacial defects has not been fully determined. Herein, we summarize the application of 1212 anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps in the repair of oral and maxillofacial defects and examine their benefits in maxillofacial reconstruction of these defects.
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ATR/Chk1/Smurf1 pathway determines cell fate after DNA damage by controlling RhoB abundance.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR)/Chk1 and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/Chk2 signalling pathways play critical roles in the DNA damage response. Here we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf1 determines cell apoptosis rates downstream of DNA damage-induced ATR/Chk1 signalling by promoting degradation of RhoB, a small GTPase recognized as tumour suppressor by promoting death of transformed cells. We show that Smurf1 targets RhoB for degradation to control its abundance in the basal state. DNA damage caused by ultraviolet light or the alkylating agent methyl methanesulphonate strongly activates Chk1, leading to phosphorylation of Smurf1 that enhances its self-degradation, hence resulting in a RhoB accumulation to promote apoptosis. Suppressing RhoB levels by overexpressing Smurf1 or blocking Chk1-dependent Smurf1 self-degradation significantly inhibits apoptosis. Hence, our study unravels a novel ATR/Chk1/Smurf1/RhoB pathway that determines cell fate after DNA damage, and raises the possibility that aberrant upregulation of Smurf1 promotes tumorigenesis by excessively targeting RhoB for degradation.
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Dynamic of neurochemical alterations in striatum, hippocampus and cortex after the 6-OHDA mesostriatal lesion.
Int. J. Dev. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Immediate neurochemical alterations produced by 6-OHDA could explain the general toxic pattern in the central nervous system. However, no evidences describe the effects of 6-OHDA on early changes of neurotransmitters in rats' striatum, cortex and hippocampus. In our study, unilateral 6-OHDA injection into medial forebrain bundle (MFB) was used in rats, then five neurotransmitters were analyzed at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Results showed that 6-OHDA injection caused a sharp decline of striatal dopamine (DA) levels in the first 12h followed by a further reduction between 12 and 48 h. However, striatal levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) were stable in the first 12h and showed a marked reduction between 12 and 24h. Striatal levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) decreased linearly for 72 h, whereas levels of norepinephrine (NE) showed a slight reduction in the first 48 h, and returned back to normal afterwards. Striatal HVA/DA ratio increased significantly in the first 12h, but 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio showed a sharp increase between 12 and 72 h. Besides, neurochemical alterations were also found in hippocampus and cortex, and the correlations of neurotransmitters were analyzed. Our study indicated that NE system had little influence in the early phase of 6-OHDA injection, moreover, early neurochemical alterations were involved with striatum, hippocampus and cortex.
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Gr-1+CD11b+ cells facilitate Lewis lung cancer recurrence by enhancing neovasculature after local irradiation.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Studies have shown that bone marrow-derived cells play an important role in tumor recurrence after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we examined the relationship between the accumulation of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells and tumor recurrence after irradiation in tumor-bearing mice. By transplanting bone marrow cells into whole body-irradiated mice depleted of bone marrow, we assessed the role of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells in lung carcinoma models after local irradiation (LI). 20?Gy local irradiation could recruit CD11b+CXCR4+ cells into the irradiated tissues, and the recruited CD11b+CXCR4+ cells could promote tumor recurrence. Further 6?Gy whole body irradiation (WBI6Gy) could decrease tumor recurrence by inhibiting the accumulation of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells and then suppressing tumor vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Our results suggest that the accumulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells promote tumor re-growth after local irradiation by enhancing tumor neovascularization, and low dose of whole body irradiation or irradiation of enlarged spleen may provide a new alternative for anti-angiogenesis therapies.
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Solitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis of frontal lobe: a case report and literature review.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The brain parenchymal Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) without systemic disease or lytic skull lesions is extremely rare. We report a 23-year-old male presenting with new onset 1 hour seizure with loss of consciousness 20 days prior to admission, and recurrent seizure 2 weeks later. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an irregularly mass with enhancement involving the right frontal lobe. Microscopically, the lesion was characterized by sheets of Langerhans cells in addition to reactive inflammatory elements. Immunohistochemically, Langerhans cells were positive for Langerin, CD1a and S-100 protein. The patient received no chemotherapy or radiotherapy after surgery. After 24 months of follow-up, no recurrence or other systemic lesions were observed. Although there is no standard treatment for solitary cerebral LCH, the prognosis generally appears to be good.
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The application of graphene in lithium ion battery electrode materials.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Graphene is composed of a single atomic layer of carbon which has excellent mechanical, electrical and optical properties. It has the potential to be widely used in the fields of physics, chemistry, information, energy and device manufacturing. In this paper, we briefly review the concept, structure, properties, preparation methods of graphene and its application in lithium ion batteries. A continuous 3D conductive network formed by graphene can effectively improve the electron and ion transportation of the electrode materials, so the addition of graphene can greatly enhance lithium ion battery's properties and provide better chemical stability, higher electrical conductivity and higher capacity. In this review, some recent advances in the graphene-containing materials used in lithium ion batteries are summarized and future prospects are highlighted.
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Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the SAMS Gene during Adventitious Root Development in IBA-Induced Tetraploid Black Locust.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a precursor for ethylene and polyamine biosynthesis. Here, we report the isolation of the 1498 bp full-length cDNA sequence encoding tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) SAMS (TrbSAMS), which contains an open reading frame of 1179 bp encoding 392 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of TrbSAMS has more than 94% sequence identity to SAMSs from other plants, with a closer phylogenetic relationship to SAMSs from legumes than to SAMS from other plants. The TrbSAMS monomer consists of N-terminal, central, and C-terminal domains. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the TrbSAMS protein localizes mainly to in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis mesophyll cell protoplasts. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-treated cuttings showed higher levels of TrbSAMS transcript than untreated control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. TrbSAMS and its downstream genes showed differential expression in shoots, leaves, bark, and roots, with the highest expression observed in bark. IBA-treated cuttings also showed higher SAMS activity than control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. These results indicate that TrbSAMS might play an important role in the regulation of IBA-induced adventitious root development in tetraploid black locust cuttings.
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Error-related functional connectivity of the thalamus in cocaine dependence.
Neuroimage Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Error processing is a critical component of cognitive control, an executive function that has been widely implicated in substance misuse. In previous studies we showed that error related activations of the thalamus predicted relapse to drug use in cocaine addicted individuals (Luo et al., 2013). Here, we investigated whether the error-related functional connectivity of the thalamus is altered in cocaine dependent patients (PCD, n = 54) as compared to demographically matched healthy individuals (HC, n = 54). The results of a generalized psychophysiological interaction analysis showed negative thalamic connectivity with the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), in the area of perigenual and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, in HC but not PCD (p < 0.05, corrected, two-sample t test). This difference in functional connectivity was not observed for task-residual signals, suggesting that it is specific to task-related processes during cognitive control. Further, the thalamic-vmPFC connectivity is positively correlated with the amount of cocaine use in the prior month for female but not for male PCD. These findings add to recent literature and provide additional evidence for circuit-level biomarkers of cocaine dependence.
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Berberine radiosensitizes human nasopharyngeal carcinoma by suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor-1? expression.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Abstract Conclusion: Berberine confers radiosensitivity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and this is associated with the down-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Berberine could be a promising radiosensitizer for NPC radiotherapy. Objectives: NPC has a poor prognosis. Radiotherapy as first-line therapy significantly increases patient survival but radioresistance is a problem. This study aimed to investigate the radiosensitizing effects of berberine on NPC and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods: CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells were exposed to hypoxia and treated with berberine at different concentrations. The MTT assay, clonogenic assay, and flow cytometry were performed to analyze cell proliferation, colony formation, and apoptosis. The expression of HIF-1? and VEGF was assessed by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Male nude mice inoculated subcutaneously with CNE-2 cells were used to examine the sensitizing effects of berberine in vivo. Results: Berberine efficiently radiosensitized NPC cells and xenografts in mice, and inhibited hypoxia/radiation-induced up-regulation of HIF-1? and VEGF expression.
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Clinical features and survival analysis of very young (age<35) breast cancer patients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Objectives: To compare the clinicalpathological features and prognosis between premenopausal breast cancer patients aged of <35 and ?35 years old. Methods: The clinical data and survival status of 1498 cases premenopausal operable breast cancer treated in our hospital from 2002.1 to 2004. 12 were collected, 118 cases were aged <35. They were divided into 4 groups: Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-positive, Triple-negative. The disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were identified. Results: The 5-year DFS and OS rates were significantly lower in age<35 than in age?35 patients. In the Luminal B, HER2-positive, Triple-negative group, the 5-year recurrence risk was higher in age<35 than in age?35 patients, and age<35 patients 5-year death risk was higher only in Luminal B, Triple-negative group. Regardless of whether lymph node involved, age<35 patients had a bad prognosis in both DFS and OS. Conclusions: Compared with premenopausal age ?35 breast cancer, age<35 patients had a worse outcome.
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Flavin reduction activates Drosophila cryptochrome.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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Entrainment of circadian rhythms in higher organisms relies on light-sensing proteins that communicate to cellular oscillators composed of delayed transcriptional feedback loops. The principal photoreceptor of the fly circadian clock, Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY), contains a C-terminal tail (CTT) helix that binds beside a FAD cofactor and is essential for light signaling. Light reduces the dCRY FAD to an anionic semiquinone (ASQ) radical and increases CTT proteolytic susceptibility but does not lead to CTT chemical modification. Additional changes in proteolytic sensitivity and small-angle X-ray scattering define a conformational response of the protein to light that centers at the CTT but also involves regions remote from the flavin center. Reduction of the flavin is kinetically coupled to CTT rearrangement. Chemical reduction to either the ASQ or the fully reduced hydroquinone state produces the same conformational response as does light. The oscillator protein Timeless (TIM) contains a sequence similar to the CTT; the corresponding peptide binds dCRY in light and protects the flavin from oxidation. However, TIM mutants therein still undergo dCRY-mediated degradation. Thus, photoreduction to the ASQ releases the dCRY CTT and promotes binding to at least one region of TIM. Flavin reduction by either light or cellular reductants may be a general mechanism of CRY activation.
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Vesicular gold assemblies based on host-guest inclusion and its controllable release of doxorubicin.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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We have developed a kind of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) in which polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) are attached on the surface of a gold nanocrystal through the host-guest inclusion between adamantane groups (ADA) and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD). The resulting AuNPs become amphiphilic in water above body temperature and self-assemble into vesicles. It is found that these vesicles can load doxorubicin (Dox) effectively. With a decrease in temperature, the PNIPAM shifted from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, causing Au vesicles to disassemble into stable small AuNPs, triggering the release of Dox. These hybrid vesicles, combining polymer functionality with the intriguing properties of AuNPs, can first release free Dox and AuNP/Dox at a site of a tumor through the application of either simple ice packs or deeply penetrating cryoprobes, then the AuNP/Dox can be taken in by tumor cells and destroy them like miniature munitions. Furthermore, these vesicles showed other therapeutic possibilities due to the presence of gold. We believe that the development of such multi-functional vesicles will provide new and therapeutically useful means for medical applications.
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A Comparative Study of Lectin Affinity Based Plant N-Glycoproteome Profiling Using Tomato Fruit as a Model.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) can provide a valuable front-end enrichment strategy for the study of N-glycoproteins and has been used to characterize a broad range eukaryotic N-glycoproteomes. Moreover, studies with mammalian systems have suggested that the use of multiple lectins with different affinities can be particularly effective. A multi-lectin approach has also been reported to provide a significant benefit for the analysis of plant N-glycoproteins; however, it has yet to be determined whether certain lectins, or combinations of lectins are optimal for plant N-glycoproteome profiling; or whether specific lectins show preferential association with particular N-glycosylation sites or N-glycan structures. We describe here a comparative study of three mannose-binding lectins, concanavalin A (ConA), snowdrop lectin (GNA) and lentil lectin (LCH), to profile the N-glycoproteome of mature green stage tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit pericarp. Through coupling LAC with a shotgun proteomics strategy, we identified 448 putative N-glycoproteins, while a parallel LAC plus hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) analysis revealed 318 putative N-glycosylation sites on 230 N-glycoproteins, of which 100 overlapped with the shotgun analysis, as well as 20 N-glycan structures. The use of multiple lectins substantially increased N-glycoproteome coverage and while there were no discernible differences in the structures of N-glycans, or the charge, isoelectric point (pI) or hydrophobicity of the glycopeptides that differentially bound to each lectin, differences were observed in the amino acid frequency at the -1 and +1 subsites of the N-glycosylation sites. We also demonstrated an alternative and complementary in planta recombinant expression strategy followed by affinity MS analysis to identify the putative N-glycan structures of glycoproteins whose abundance is too low to be readily determined by shotgun approach and/or combined with deglycosylation for predicted deamidated sites, using a tomato xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase inhibitor protein (XEGIP) as an example.
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The Effects of Methylphenidate on Cerebral Activations to Salient Stimuli in Healthy Adults.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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Detection of a salient stimulus is critical to cognitive functioning. A stimulus is salient when it appears infrequently, carries high motivational value, and/or when it dictates changes in behavior. Individuals with neurological conditions that implicate altered catecholaminergic signaling, such as those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, are impaired in detecting salient stimuli, a deficit that can be remediated by catecholaminergic medications. However, the effects of these catecholaminergic agents on cerebral activities during saliency processing within the context of the stop-signal task are not clear. Here, we examined the effects of a single oral dose (45 mg) of methylphenidate in 24 healthy adults performing the stop-signal task during functional MRI (fMRI). Compared to 92 demographically matched adults who did not receive any medications, the methylphenidate group showed higher activations in bilateral caudate head, primary motor cortex, and the right inferior parietal cortex during stop as compared to go trials (p < .05, corrected for family-wise error of multiple comparisons). These results show that methylphenidate enhances saliency processing by promoting specific cerebral regional activities. These findings may suggest a neural basis for catecholaminergic treatment of attention disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Contrast enhanced ultrasonography prediction of cystic renal mass in comparison to histopathology.
Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in histologic subtype prediction of cystic renal mass.
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Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy in diagnosis of abdominal and pelvic neoplasm in pediatric patients.
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of abdominal and pelvic masses in adults has gained tremendous popularity. However, the application of the same treatment in children is not as popular because of apprehensions regarding inadequate tissues for the biopsy and accidental puncture of vital organs.
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[Clinicopathological features and prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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This study was conducted to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics and patient survival factors in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).
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Menin promotes hepatocellular carcinogenesis and epigenetically up-regulates Yap1 transcription.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Menin is a scaffold protein encoded by the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene in humans, and it interacts with a variety of transcriptional proteins to control active or repressive cellular processes. Here, we show that heterozygous ablation of Men1 in female mice reduces chemical carcinogen-induced liver carcinogenesis and represses the activation of the inflammation pathway. Using ChIP-on-chip screens and ChIP assays, we find that menin occupancy frequently coincides with H3K4me3 at the promoter of many liver cancer-related genes, such as Yes-associated protein (Yap1). Increased menin and Yap1 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma specimens was associated with poor prognosis. Our findings reveal that menin plays an important epigenetic role in promoting liver tumorigenesis, and support the notion that H3K4me3, which is regulated by the menin-mixed-lineage leukemia complex, is a potential therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma.
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[Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant renal neoplasms].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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To investigate the value of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant renal neoplasms.
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Cyclodextrin-based microcapsules as bioreactors for ATP biosynthesis.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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A biomimetic energy converter was fabricated via the assembly of CF0F1-ATPase on lipid-coated hollow nanocapsules composed of ?-cyclodextrins/chitosan-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate. Upon entrapped GOD into these capsules, the addition of glucose could trigger proton-motive force and then drive the rotation of ATPase to synthesize ATP.
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Anticancer activity of SAHA, a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor, in NCI-H460 human large-cell lung carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2013
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Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a potent pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been clinically approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). SAHA has also been shown to exert a variety of anticancer activities in many other types of tumors, however, few studies have been reported in large-cell lung carcinoma (LCC). Our study aimed to investigate the potential antitumor effects of SAHA on LCC cells. Here, we report that SAHA was able to inhibit the proliferation of the LCC cell line NCI-H460 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, induced cell apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest, decreased AKT and ERK phosphorylation, inhibited the expression of pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF, HIF-1?) in vitro, and suppressed tumor progression in an NCI-H460 cell nude mouse xenograft model in vivo. These results indicate that SAHA can exert its strong antitumor effects in LCC patient.
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[Bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen components in the lake sediment to alage].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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Samples in the sediments of Wuliangsuhai and Erhai Lake were selected, and the technologies of XAD-8 resins separation and three dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) spectra were applied, in order to study the bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen components to alage under the room cultivation. The obtained results showed that: (1) Average loss of DON and DOC from sediments was below 5% after dividing DON into different groups, which means the technology of XAD- 8 resins separation could be used in the study of DON components in the lake sediment. (2) Through 3DEEM analysis, hydrophilic and hydrophobic DON was dominated by protein-like and humic-like materials in the lake sediment, respectively. (3) Under the hydrophilic component condition, growth curves of algae tended to show an "S" shape with a straight upward trend in the sediments of Wuliangsuhai and Erhai lake,with the maximum algal density reaching 535.5 x 10(4) and 709.5 x 10(4) per milliliter, respectively. Meanwhile, the DON concentrations were significantly reduced after cultivation to 2.46 and 2.98 mg x L(-1), respectively, which suggests that hydrophilic DON in the lake sediment was the bioavailable organic nitrogen for alage. (4) Under the hydrophbic component conditions, growth curves of algae tended to show a "unimodal" shape in the sediments of Wuliangsuhai and Erhai lake,with the maximum algal density reaching 113.5 x 10(4) and 275.5 x 10(4) per milliliter,respectively. The DON concentrations were significantly reduced during the early cultivation period, and then kept stable in the late period, which suggests that the hydrophobic DON component bioavailable to alage was low in short-term, and the hydrophobic DON component had hardly any positive effect on the growth of algae.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.