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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rhizobium yantingense sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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A Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, H66T, was isolated from the surfaces of weathered rock (purple siltstone) which was found in Yanting, Sichuan Province of China. Cells of strain H66T were motile with peritrichous flagella. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain H66T belongs to the genus Rhizobium. It closely relates to Rhizobium huautlense SO2T (98.1 %), Rhizobium alkalisoli CCBAU 01393T (98.0 %), and Rhizobium cellulosilyticum ALA10B2T (98.0 %). Analysis of housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD showed low levels of sequence similarity (<92.0 %) between strain H66T and other recognized Rhizobium species. The predominant components of cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18:1 ?7c and/or C18:1 ?6c) and C16:0. The G + C content of strain H66T was 60.3 mol%. Strain H66T is described as a novel species of the genus Rhizobium based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 14.3 % to 40.0 %) to these type strains of species of the genus Rhizobium and unique phenotypic characteristics. The name Rhizobium yantingense sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species. The type strain is H66T (=CCTCCAB 2014007T= LMG 28229T).
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Chitinophaga longshanensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium isolated from weathered rock.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, Z29T, was isolated from the surface of weathered rock (potassic trachyte) from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that strain Z29T belongs to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. The similarities of the 16S rRNA gene sequence between strain Z29T and other type strains of established species in the genus Chitinophaga ranged from 92.7 to 98.2%. The main fatty acids of strain Z29T were iso-C15:0, C16:0, iso-C13:0 and iso-C17:0. It also contained menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the major respiratory quinone and homospermidine as the main polyamine. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids, unknown phospholipids, and unknown glycolipids. The total DNA G+C content of strain Z29T was 51.3 mol%. Phenotypic properties and chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain Z29T with the genus Chitinophaga. The low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 14.6% to 29.8%) to other species of the genus Chitinophaga and the many phenotypic properties demonstrated that strain Z29T should represent a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga longshanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Z29T (= CCTCC AB 2014066 T= LMG 28237 T).
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Arthrobacter nanjingensis sp. nov., a mineral weathering bacterium isolated from forest soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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A Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, rod- or coccoid-shaped actinobacterium, designated strain A33(T), was isolated from a forest soil sample from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. The strain grew optimally at 30 ºC, pH 7.0 and with 3% NaCl (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis of the strain based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed it was most closely related to Arthrobacter woluwensis (98.4%), Arthrobacter humicola (97.5%), Arthrobacter globiformis (97.4%), Athrobacter oryzae (97.3%) and Arthrobacter cupressi (97.0%). The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C15:0 and MK-9(H2) was the predominant respiratory quinone. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and three glycolipids. Cell-wall analysis revealed peptidoglycan type A3?, based on L-Lys-L-Ala, and cell-wall sugars were galactose and mannose. The genomic G+C content of strain A33(T) was 66.8 mol%. The low DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain A33(T) and recognized species of the genus Arthrobacter and many phenotypic properties supported the classification of strain A33(T) as a representative of a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter nanjingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A33(T) (=CCTCC AB 2014069(T) =DSM 28237(T)).
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Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to ulcerative colitis in patients from Southeast China.
J. Recept. Signal Transduct. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Abstract The association studies from different ethnic groups showed that vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms might be connected with the susceptibility to ulcerative colitis (UC); however, the conclusions were less consistent. Our study aimed to analyze the associations of UC with common mutations of VDR in Chinese patients. A total of 382 UC patients and 489 healthy controls were recruited. The genotypes of VDR FokI (rs2228570), BsmI (rs1544410), ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236) were examined by SNaPshot assays. Haplotype analysis was performed in all study subjects. After Bonferroni correction, the mutant alleles and genotypes of VDR FokI, BsmI, ApaI and TaqI did not statistically differ between UC patients and the controls (all p?>?0.0125). However, the mutant allele C and genotype TC?+?CC of FokI gene were significantly increased in patients with mild and moderate UC compared to those with severe UC (C allele: 54.1% versus 39.3%, OR?=?1.83, 95% CI: 1.21-2.75, p?=?0.004; TC?+?CC genotype: 81.6% versus 57.1%, OR?=?3.32, 95% CI: 1.83-6.06, p?
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Chitinophaga qingshengii sp. nov., isolated from weathered rock surface.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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A novel type of mineral-weathering bacterium was isolated from weathered rock (potassic trachyte) surfaces collected from Nanjing (Jiangsu, China). Cells of strain JN246T were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, and non-motile. Strain JN246T was aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and grew optimally at 28 °C and pH 7.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain JN246T belonged to the genus Chitinophaga and the closest phylogenetic relatives were Chitinophaga eiseniae YC6729T (98.5 %), Chitinophaga terrae KP01T (96.8 %), and Chitinophaga jiangningensis JN53T (96.3 %). The major respiratory quinine was MK-7 and the major polyamine was homospermidine. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, C16:1?5c, C16:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, iso-C15:0 3-OH, C14:O, C16:0 3-OH, C16:1?7c and/or C16:1?6c (summed feature 3), and C13:1. The polar lipid profile of strain JN246T consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain JN246T was 48.8 mol%. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 22.6 % to 42.4 %) to these type strains of species of the genus Chitinophaga and unique phenotypic characteristics, strain JN246T represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga qingshengii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JN246T (= CCTCC AB 2014201 T= JCM 30026 T).
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Rutile TiO2 nanowire-based perovskite solar cells.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Different lengths of rutile TiO2 nanowires (NW) with wide-open space for effective material filling were used as photoanodes for perovskite solar cells. Cells with 900 nm nanowires as photoanodes exhibit a current density of 22 mA cm(-2) and an efficiency of 11.7%, outperforming the reported TiO2 nanowire-based perovskite solar cells.
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Non-pulmonary vein foci induced before and after pulmonary vein isolation in patients undergoing ablation therapy for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: incidence and clinical outcome.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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To evaluate the incidence and clinical outcome of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plus isoproterenol (ISP)-induced non-pulmonary vein (PV) foci before and after circumferential PV isolation (CPVI) during index ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF).
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Paenibacillus susongensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, and aerobic bacterial strain, designated M327T, was isolated from the weathered surfaces of rock (mica schist) from Susong, Anhui Province, PR China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain M327T belonged to the genus Paenibacillus in the family Bacillaceae. It was most closely related to Paenibacillus terrigena A35T (98.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Paenibacillus selenitireducens ES3-24T (98.3%). Strain M327T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall and MK-7 as the major menaquinone. The main fatty acids of strain M327T were anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C16:0. The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminophospholipid, and unknown lipid. The total DNA G+C content of strain M327T was 48.6 mol%. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 26.6 % to 33.1 %) to these type strains of species of the genus Paenibacillus and unique phenotypic characteristics, strain M327T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus susongensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is M327T (=CCTCC AB 2014058T =LMG 28236 T =JCM 19951 T).
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Papillary breast lesions on contrast-enhanced ultrasound: morphological enhancement patterns and diagnostic strategy.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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To identify features which determine the papillary nature of breast lesions by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) based on morphological and pathological correlations, and predict which papillomas are malignant.
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Phase conjugation of vector fields by degenerate four-wave mixing in a Fe-doped LiNbO?.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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We propose a method to generate the phase-conjugate wave of the vector field by degenerate four-wave mixing in a c-cut Fe-doped LiNbO3 crystal. We demonstrate experimentally that the phase-conjugate wave of the vector field can be generated. In particular, the phase-conjugate vector field has also the peculiar function of compensating the polarization distortion, as the traditional phase-conjugate scaler field can compensate the phase distortion.
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Secretion of adipocytes and macrophages under conditions of inflammation and/or insulin resistance and effect of adipocytes on preadipocytes under these conditions.
Biochemistry Mosc.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to examine changes in preadipocytes following the coculture of preadipocytes and adipocytes and the effects on the secretion of adipocytes and macrophages following induction of inflammation and insulin resistance. Mature adipocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide and insulin to establish models of inflammation and insulin resistance, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-? in all adipocyte treatment groups were significantly greater compared with the control, and that of adiponectin was less (P<0.05). In the RAW264.7 macrophages, the mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-? were greater than those in the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, the results of this study confirmed that adipocytes and macrophages increased the secretion of inflammatory factors under conditions of induced inflammation and insulin resistance. In addition, 3T3-L1 adipocytes inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes when cocultured with adipocytes under conditions of inflammation and/or insulin resistance, and the phenotype of preadipocytes did not change.
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Methylation?associated inactivation of LATS1 and its effect on demethylation or overexpression on YAP and cell biological function in human renal cell carcinoma.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Large tumor suppressor 1 (LATS1) gene is one of the key factors in Hippo signaling pathway. Inactivation of LATS1 by promoter methylation was found in colorectal cancer (CRC), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), astrocytoma, breast cancer and it was proved to be a tumor suppressor. However, its role is unclear in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this study, the expression of LATS1 was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT?PCR) and immunohistochemistry in 30 pairs of RCC tissues and matched normal kidney tissues and RCC cells. We found that the expression of LATS1 was markedly reduced in RCC tissues and cells, in the RCC tissue in 46.7% (14/30), while in the normal kidney tissues in 76.7% (23/30), and was associated with pathological grade and clinical stage of RCC. We detected methylation status of LATS1 by bisulfite sequence?PCR (BSP) in renal cancer cell line 786?O which lowers expression of LATS1, and we found it hypermethy-lated (in 97.5%). In addition, pharmacological demethylation using 5?Aza?2'?deoxycytidine (5?Aza) restored the expression of LATS1 mRNA and protein in 786?O cells, both LATS1 demethylation and overexpression of LATS1 downregulated the expression of Yes?associated protein (YAP), inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle G1 arrest in 786?O cells. Thus, this report for the first time demonstrates the inactivation of LATS1 by promoter methy-lation and it is a tumor suppressor in kidney cancer. LATS1 may serve as a biomarker for possible early diagnosis and as a potential therapeutic target for human RCC.
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YAP is overexpressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and its knockdown reduces cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Yes-associated protein (YAP) has been reported to be an oncogene in a number of malignancies. It constitutes an important regulatory mechanism for the Hippo pathway, a key regulator of cell growth and apoptosis. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance and the role of YAP in the development of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). YAP expression levels were compared between ccRCC and adjacent normal renal tissues by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. YAP expression levels were then detected in ccRCC cell lines 786-0 and ACHN, as well as in human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293) using western blotting. Three specific YAP-shRNA lentiviral vectors were constructed and transfected into 786-0 cells, and then the mRNA and protein levels of YAP and downstream transcription factor TEAD1 were detected. Finally, the effects of YAP silencing on proliferation and the cell cycle distribution of 786-0 cells were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry (FCM), respectively. The apoptosis rate was also analyzed by FCM. It was observed that the expression levels of YAP mRNA and protein in ccRCC tissues were higher than these levels in the adjacent normal renal tissues. The expression of YAP protein in ccRCC tissues was significantly correlated with clinical stage and differentiation. The YAP protein levels in the two ccRCC cell lines 786-0 and ACHN were significantly higher than that in the HEK-293 cells. Additionally, treatment of 786-0 cells with YAP-shRNA lentiviral vectors significantly reduced the expression levels of YAP and TEAD1 mRNA and protein. Further analyses in 786-0 cells in which YAP was decreased, revealed that cell proliferation was inhibited, cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and apoptosis was increased. These results indicate that YAP is an underlying oncogene in ccRCC and it may be a promising biomarker and therapeutic target of ccRCC.
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Cohnella nanjingensis sp. nov., an extracellular polysaccharide-producing bacterium isolated from soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium, strain D45(T), was isolated from soil in Nanjing, China. The organism grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7.0 and with 0?% NaCl (w/v). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate showed similarities lower than 97?% with respect to species of the genus Cohnella. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7, with MK-6 present as a minor component; anteiso-C15?:?0 and iso-C16?:?0 were the major fatty acids. The polar lipids of strain D45(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two aminophospholipids, four phospholipids, two glycolipids, one aminolipid and two lipids. The DNA G+C content was 59.5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization of the isolate with two reference strains showed relatedness values of 33.4?% with Cohnella ginsengisoli DSM 18997(T) and 25.8?% with Cohnella thermotolerans DSM 17683(T). The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data supported the classification of strain D45(T) as a representative of a novel species of the genus Cohnella, for which the name Cohnella nanjingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D45(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2014067(T)?=?DSM 28246(T)).
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Gene therapy in pancreatic cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal disease and notoriously difficult to treat. Only a small proportion of PC patients are eligible for surgical resection, whilst conventional chemoradiotherapy only has a modest effect with substantial toxicity. Gene therapy has become a new widely investigated therapeutic approach for PC. This article reviews the basic rationale, gene delivery methods, therapeutic targets and developments of laboratory research and clinical trials in gene therapy of PC by searching the literature published in English using the PubMed database and analyzing clinical trials registered on the Gene Therapy Clinical Trials Worldwide website (http://www. wiley.co.uk/genmed/ clinical). Viral vectors are main gene delivery tools in gene therapy of cancer, and especially, oncolytic virus shows brighter prospect due to its tumor-targeting property. Efficient therapeutic targets for gene therapy include tumor suppressor gene p53, mutant oncogene K-ras, anti-angiogenesis gene VEGFR, suicide gene HSK-TK, cytosine deaminase and cytochrome p450, multiple cytokine genes and so on. Combining different targets or combination strategies with traditional chemoradiotherapy may be a more effective approach to improve the efficacy of cancer gene therapy. Cancer gene therapy is not yet applied in clinical practice, but basic and clinical studies have demonstrated its safety and clinical benefits. Gene therapy will be a new and promising field for the treatment of PC.
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Sophocarpine Attenuates Toll-like Receptor 4 in Steatotic Hepatocytes to Suppress Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Synthesis.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Sophocarpine, a tetracyclic quinolizidine alkaloid derived from Sophora alopecuroides L, has been documented that it can suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesis in alleviating non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in vivo. TLR4 is a pattern recognition receptor whose activation results in the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines. It has been reported that TLR4 is up-regulated in NAFLD and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of NASH. This study aimed to examine the changes of TLR4 and its signaling pathways in sophocarpine's anti-inflammatory process on experimental NASH in vitro.
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Downregulation of Runx3 is closely related to the decreased Th1-associated factors in patients with gastric carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Runt-related transcription factor 3 (Runx3) is a tumor-suppressor gene and plays an important role in immune regulation, whose reduced expression may play an important role in the development and progression of gastric carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Runx3 on the levels of transcription factors in patients with gastric carcinoma and analyze the relationship between the expression of Runx3 and Th1-type cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Our results showed that the expression levels of Runx3, T-bet, and IFN-? in patients with gastric carcinoma were obviously lower than those in control groups, and there was a positive correlation between the expression of Runx3 and T-bet or IFN-? in patients (p?
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Comparison of iodinated trihalomethanes formation during aqueous chlor(am)ination of different iodinated X-ray contrast media compounds in the presence of natural organic matter.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) formation during chlorination and chloramination of five iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) compounds (iopamidol, iopromide, iodixanol, histodenz, and diatrizoate) in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) was evaluated and compared. Chlorination and chloramination of ICM in the absence of NOM yielded only a trace amount of I-THMs, while levels of I-THMs were enhanced substantially in raw water samples. With the presence of NOM, the order with respect to the maximum yield of I-THMs observed during chlorination was iopamidol > histodenz > iodixanol > diatrizoate > iopromide. During chloramination, I-THM formation was enhanced for hisodenz, iodixanol, diatrizoate, and iopromide. The order with respect to the maximum yield of I-THMs observed during chloramination was iopamidol > diatrizoate > iodixanol > histodenz > iopromide. With the exception of iopamidol, I-THM formation was favored at relatively low chlorine doses (?100 ?M) during ICM chlorination, and significant suppression was observed with high chlorine doses applied (?100 ?M). However, during chloramination, increasing monochloramine dose monotonously increased the yield of I-THMs for the five ICM. During chlorination of iodixanol, histodenz, and diatrizoate, the yields of I-THMs exhibited three distinct trends as the pH increased from 5 to 9, while peak I-THM formation was found at circumneutral pH for chloramination. Increasing bromide concentration not only considerably enhanced the yield of I-THMs but also shifted the I-THMs towards bromine-containing ones and increased the formation of higher bromine-incorporated species (e.g., CHBrClI and CHBr2I), especially in chloramination. These results are of particular interest to understand I-THM formation mechanisms during chlorination and chloramination of waters containing ICM.
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Rapid Screening of Different types of Antitumor Compound Groups from Traditional Chinese Medicine by Hollow Fiber Cell Fishing with High Performance Liquid Chromatography.
Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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A novel hollow fiber cell fishing with high performance liquid chromatography (HFCF-HPLC) was extended and used to screen flavonoid and anthraquinone active compound groups simultaneously from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In this study, three cells (MCF-7, SGC7901, and MADB-106) were seeded on the inner wall of the hollow fiber employed to screen bioactive components from TCM water decoction. The variables influencing HFCF-HPLC, such as cell seeding time, screening stirring rate and time, and active compound concentration, were investigated and optimized. The surface property of the hollow fiber seeded with cells, the cell survival rate under different conditions, the nonspecific binding between active centers in the fiber and the target compounds, and the repeatability and recovery of HFCF-HPLC were analyzed and validated. Certain structures of the compounds fished by HFCF-HPLC were identified after comparing the retention times of the reference substances. To verify preliminarily the binding site between the bioactive components and cells, we separated the cell membrane and cell organelle from live MCF-7 cells. We then employed the cell membrane, cell organelle, and the whole cells to screen simultaneously the active compounds. The cell fishing factor of the active compound was calculated and discussed as the index of cell-drug binding ability in HFCF-HPLC. Tamoxifen as a positive control and indomethacin as a negative control were screened by HFCF-HPLC to verify the method. The results indicate that HFCF-HPLC is an effective and reliable method for the screening and analysis of bioactive components. Moreover, this method can be applied to predict bioactive candidates in TCMs.
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Enhanced proliferation in colorectal epithelium of patients with type 2 diabetes correlates with ?-catenin accumulation.
J. Diabetes Complicat.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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?-Catenin accumulation promotes proliferation. However, the correlation between proliferation of colorectal epithelium and ?-catenin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients remains unclear.
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Bacillus qingshengii sp. nov., a rock-weathering bacterium isolated from weathered rock surface.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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A novel type of rock-weathering bacterium was isolated from weathered rock (tuff) surface collected from Dongxiang (Jiangxi, eastern China). Cells of strain G19(T) were Gram-reaction-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and non-motile. The strain was aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain G19(T) was shown to belong to the genus Bacillus and the closest phylogenetic relatives were Bacillus aryabhattai B8W22(T) (97.4%) and Bacillus megaterium IAM 13418(T) (97.1%). The DNA G+C content was 36.7 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acids were iso-C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The polar lipid profile of strain G19(T) contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified lipid. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 49.4% to 55.0%) to these type strains of species of the genus Bacillus and unique phenotypic characteristics, strain G19(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus qingshengii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G19(T) (?= CCTCC AB 2013273(T)?= JCM 19454(T)).
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Dimeric 1,3-propanediaminetetraacetato lanthanides as the precursors of catalysts for the oxidative coupling of methane.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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From neutral solutions, dimeric 1,3-propanediaminetetraacetato lanthanides (NH4)2[Ln2(1,3-pdta)2(H2O)4]·8H2O [Ln = La, 1; Ce, 2] and K2[Ln2(1,3-pdta)2(H2O)4]·11H2O [Ln = La, 3; Ce, 4] (1,3-H4pdta = 1,3-propanediaminetetraacetic acid, C11H18N2O8) were isolated in high yields. The reaction of excess strontium nitrate with 1 resulted in the formation of a two dimensional coordination polymer [La2(1,3-pdta)2(H2O)4]n·[Sr2(H2O)6]n·[La2(1,3-pdta)2(H2O)2]n·18nH2O (5) at 70 °C. Complexes 1-4 show a similar central molecular structure. The lanthanide ions are coordinated by two nitrogen atoms, four carboxy oxygen atoms from one 1,3-pdta ligand, two from the neighboring 1,3-pdta ligand forming a four-membered ring and two water molecules. Complex 5 has two kinds of dimeric lanthanum unit and extends into a 2D coordination polymer through strontium ions and bridged oxygen atoms, and forms a fourteen membered ring linked by oxygen atoms from carboxy groups of pdta. Complexes 1-4 are soluble in water. The (13)C{(1)H} NMR experiments for complex 1 were tested in solution. Thermal products from 1 and 5 show good catalytic activities towards the oxidative coupling reaction of methane (OCM). The conversion of methane and selectivity to C2 reached 29.7% and 51.7% at 750 °C for the product of 5. From TGA, XRD and SEM analyses, the thermal products from 1 and 5 are rod- and poly-shaped, which are assigned as lanthanum oxocarbonate and a mixture of La2O3, SrCO3 and La2O2CO3 for 1 and 5, respectively. The precursor method is favorable for the formation of regular shaped mixed oxides.
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Association of Serum Levels of CEA, CA199, CA125, CYFRA21-1 and CA72-4 and Disease Characteristics in Colorectal Cancer.
Pathol. Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Identifying predictive biomarkers for colorectal cancer would facilitate diagnosis and treatment of the disease. This study aimed to investigate the association of the serological biomarkers CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CYFRA21-1 and CA72-4 with patient characteristics and disease outcomes in colorectal cancer. Patients (N?=?373) with colorectal cancer were evaluated for the association of CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CYFRA21-1, and CA72-4 pre and post-surgery and at disease recurrence with demographics, disease characteristics including pathological types, degree of differentiation, invasion depth, abdominal lymph node metastasis, TMN stage, Dukes stage, location of cancer and metastasis, and disease outcomes. It was more common for a patient to express these markers prior to surgery and at disease recurrence than following surgery. Overall, the serum levels of CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CYFRA21-1, and CA72-4 were not associated with age, gender, pathological type and location of cancer (all P-values >0.05), but were associated with the poor tumor differentiation, higher tumor invasion, greater degree of abdominal lymph node metastasis, and higher TNM and Duke stage tumors (all P-values?
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Three new Jurassic euharamiyidan species reinforce early divergence of mammals.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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The phylogeny of Allotheria, including Multituberculata and Haramiyida, remains unsolved and has generated contentious views on the origin and earliest evolution of mammals. Here we report three new species of a new clade, Euharamiyida, based on six well-preserved fossils from the Jurassic period of China. These fossils reveal many craniodental and postcranial features of euharamiyidans and clarify several ambiguous structures that are currently the topic of debate. Our phylogenetic analyses recognize Euharamiyida as the sister group of Multituberculata, and place Allotheria within the Mammalia. The phylogeny suggests that allotherian mammals evolved from a Late Triassic (approximately 208 million years ago) Haramiyavia-like ancestor and diversified into euharamiyidans and multituberculates with a cosmopolitan distribution, implying homologous acquisition of many craniodental and postcranial features in the two groups. Our findings also favour a Late Triassic origin of mammals in Laurasia and two independent detachment events of the middle ear bones during mammalian evolution.
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Recording and reconstruction of vector fields in a Fe-doped LiNbO? crystal.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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We propose a flexible method to record and reconstruct vector fields with space-variant polarization distribution in c-cut Fe-doped LiNbO3, based on photorefractive two-wave mixing. To our knowledge, this is the first approach for the reconstruction of vector fields without using the photoinduced anisotropy of the recording material.
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Associations of FUT2 and FUT3 gene polymorphisms with Crohn's disease in Chinese patients.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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FUT2 and FUT3 genes are responsible for the formation of histo-blood group antigens, which act as binding sites for some intestinal microbes. Several studies suggested that FUT2 gene might affect the intestinal microbiota composition and modulate innate immune responses. However, the effect of FUT2 polymorphisms on Crohn's disease (CD) is uncertain. Our study aimed to analyze associations of CD with FUT2 and FUT3 polymorphisms in Chinese population.
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Chronic intake of high fish oil diet induces myeloid-derived suppressor cells to promote tumor growth.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched fish oil exerts beneficial anti-inflammatory effects in animal models with acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), comprised of myeloid progenitors and precursors of myeloid cells, play vital roles in cancer. How fish oil affects the generation of MDSCs and the tumor development remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that dietary intake of high fish oil diet suppresses CD8(+) T cells activation and proliferation in vivo via elevated levels of MDSCs. Mechanistically, high fish oil diet induces the expression of immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 and promotes myelopoiesis in the spleen as well as other peripheral tissues. The immature myeloid cells in the spleen exhibit morphological and functional characteristics of MDSCs with the capability to downregulate CD8(+) T cells activation. Depletion of MDSCs using anti-Gr-1 antibody decreases the growth of subcutaneously transferred B16 melanoma in mice on high fish oil diet. Interestingly, diet-induced production of MDSCs is not solely dependent of the spleen, as splenectomy has no effect on the tumor progress. Our data show that the liver functions as an alternative extramedullary hematopoiesis organ to support MDSCs differentiation and maintain tumor growth. Taken together, our study provides a novel insight into the physiological effects of fish oil and points to MDSCs as a possible mediator linking dietary fish oil intake and immunosuppression in cancer immunosurveillance.
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Dietary fish oil exacerbates concanavalin A induced hepatitis through promoting hepatocyte apoptosis and altering immune cell populations.
J Toxicol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The development of hepatitis is associated with the infiltration and activation of immune cells in liver. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) rich fish oil (FO) is used to prevent and treat inflammatory diseases. But, the effects of dietary FO on autoimmune hepatitis remain largely unknown. In this study, Concanavalin A (Con A) induced hepatitis was used to evaluate the actions of dietary FO. Unexpectedly, 2-week FO treatment had not shown any protection, on the contrary, exacerbated liver injury in this hepatitis model. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) statistically increased from 10,501 ± 2,154 and 30,394 ± 2,420 in low fat diet (LFD)/Con A group to 17,579 ± 693 and 49,439 ± 4,628 in FO/Con A group. Simultaneously, FO diet induced more necrotic liver tissues and apoptotic hepatocytes, and up-regulated the hepatic expression of TNF-? and IFN-? after Con A challenge. Interestingly, FO promoted severe liver injury was accompanied by decreasing the percentage of CD4? T cell, NK1.1? cells and CD8? T cells in CD45? liver non-parenchymal hepatic cells (NPCs) through inducing apoptosis. Further experiments declared 2-week FO diet intake firstly increased the proportion of CD11b?Gr-1(hi) neutrophils in liver, but then dramatically expanded CD11b?Gr-1(int) inflammatory monocytes population after Con A administration. Collectively, our study indicated that high FO intake not only aggravated liver injury, but also altered the population of immune cells in liver. Thus, these results indicated that when dietary FO was used to benefit health in autoimmune diseases, its potential risks of side effect also need paying close attention.
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Oriented assembled TiO2 hierarchical nanowire arrays with fast electron transport properties.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Developing high surface area nanostructured electrodes with rapid charge transport is essential for artificial photosynthesis, solar cells, photocatalysis, and energy storage devices. Substantial research efforts have been recently focused on building one-dimensional (1D) nanoblocks with fast charge transport into three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical architectures. However, except for the enlargement in surface area, there is little experimental evidence of fast electron transport in these 3D nanostructure-based solar cells. In this communication, we report single-crystal-like 3D TiO2 branched nanowire arrays consisting of 1D branch epitaxially grown from the primary trunk. These 3D branched nanoarrays not only demonstrate 71% enlargement in large surface area (compared with 1D nanowire arrays) but also exhibit fast charge transport property (comparable to that in 1D single crystal nanoarrays), leading to 52% improvement in solar conversion efficiency. The orientated 3D assembly strategy reported here can be extended to assemble other metal oxides with one or multiple components and thus represents a critical avenue toward high-performance optoelectronics.
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MiR-5000-3p, miR-5009-3P and miR-552: potential microRNA biomarkers of side population cells in colon cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Multidrug resistance is related to poor prognosis of advanced colon cancer. The side population plays an important role in multiple drug resistance (MDR) of colon cancer. MicroRNA biomarkers of the side population of colon cancer is still unknown. In the present study, we aimed to explore miRNA markers of side population (SP) cells of colon cancer. The side population was sorted by flow cytometry. Cell viability was measured using an MTT assay. MicroRNA profiling analysis was performed to compare microRNA expression levels in the SP cells of colon cancer with levels in the non-SP cells of colon cancer. RT-PCR was applied to verify the result obtained from the microRNA profiling analysis. miR-5000-3p, miR-5009-3P and miR-552 were all found to be upregulated in SP cells of the colon cancer cell lines HCT-15, HT-29 and LoVo. RT-PCR confirmed the result from the microRNA profiling analysis. This implied that miR-5000-3p, miR-5009-3P and miR-552 may be potential microRNA biomarkers of the side population in colon cancer, which may provide new specific targets of the side population for the reversal of MDR of colon cancer.
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Synthesis, structure and bonding, optical properties of Ba?MTrQ? (M=Cu, Ag; Tr=Ga, In; Q=S, Se).
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Four new quaternary chalcogenides, Ba4AgGaS6 (1), Ba4AgGaSe6 (2), Ba4CuInS6 (3), and Ba4AgInS6 (4), were synthesized by solid-state reactions and their structures were characterized through single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In spite of their similar chemical compositions, the flexible arrangement between the transition metals and the triel atoms leads to subtle differences in their polyanion structures. All structures feature similar [MTrQ6](8-) 1D polyanionic chains (M=Cu, Ag; Tr=Ga, In; Q=S, Se), which are constructed from corner-sharing MQ4 or TrQ4 tetrahedra. However, the transition metals and triels are mixed in 1, 2, and 3, but they occupy independent crystallographic sites in 4. As a result, compounds?1-3 belong to the known Ba2CoS3 (Pnma No.?62) or Ba2 MnS3 (Pnma No.?62) class, whereas 4 crystallizes in its own structural type within the monoclinic P2?/c (No.?14) space group. The structural relationship among these new phases was also studied with the aid of DFT calculations and related optical properties are presented as well.
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Seasonal expression of androgen receptor in scented gland of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus).
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Muskrat is a seasonal breeder, males of which secret musk from paired perineal scented glands found beneath the skin at the ventral base of the tail for attracting female during the breeding season. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal changes of expression of androgen receptor (AR) in the scented gland of muskrat during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Histologically, glandular cells, interstitial cells and excretory tubules were identified in scented glands in both seasons, whereas epithelial cells were sparse in the nonbreeding season. AR was observed in glandular cells of scented glands during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons with stronger immunostaining during the breeding season compared to the nonbreeding season. Consistent with the immunohistochemical results, AR protein level was higher in the scented glands of the breeding season, and then decreased to a relatively low level in the nonbreeding season. The mean mRNA level of Ar was significantly higher in the breeding season than in the nonbreeding season. In addition, plasma gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations were remarkably higher in the breeding season than those in the nonbreeding season. These results suggested that muskrat scented gland was the direct target organ of androgen, and stronger expression of AR in scented glands during the breeding season suggested that androgens may directly influence scented glandular function of the muskrats and also courtship behavior as we inferred.
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Seasonal changes in expression of nerve growth factor and its receptors TrkA and p75 in the ovary of wild ground squirrel (Citellus dauricus Brandt).
J Ovarian Res
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptors tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) and p75 in the ovaries of the wild ground squirrels during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. In the breeding period, NGF, TrkA and p75 were immunolocalized in granulosa cells, thecal cells, interstitial cells and luteal cells whereas in the nonbreeding period, both of them were detected only in granulosa cells, thecal cells and interstitial cells. Stronger immunostaining of NGF, TrkA and p75 were observed in granulosa cells, thecal cells and interstitial cells in the breeding season compared to the nonbreeding season. Corresponding for the immunohistochemical results, immunoreactivities of NGF and its two receptors were greater in the ovaries of the breeding season then decreased to a relatively low level in the nonbreeding season. The mean mRNA levels of NGF, TrkA and p75 were significantly higher in the breeding season than in the nonbreeding season. In addition, plasma gonadotropins, estradiol-17? and progesterone concentrations were significantly higher in the breeding season than in the nonbreeding season, suggesting that the expression patterns of NGF, and TrkA and p75 were correlated with changes in plasma gonadotropins, estradiol-17? and progesterone concentrations. These results indicated that NGF and its receptors, TrkA and p75 may be involved in the regulation of seasonal changes in the ovarian functions of the wild ground squirrel.
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PTD-mediated intracellular delivery of mutant NFAT minimum DNA binding domain inhibited the proliferation of T cells.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) family of calcium-regulated transcription factors plays a key role in the development and function of the immune system. Calcineurin, a protein phosphatase, activates NFAT by dephosphorylation. The activated NFAT is translocated into the nucleus, where it up-regulates the expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and other target genes. Calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine A (CsA) and FK506 are effective immunosuppressant drugs and dramatically increase the success rate of organ transplantation procedures. However, since calcineurin is expressed in most tissues in the body and calcineurin inhibition alters many cellular processes besides immune cell activation, the therapeutic use of calcineurin inhibitors is limited by serious side effects. Thus inhibiting NFAT by other mechanisms such as blocking its binding to DNA could be a more selective and safer approach to target NFAT for therapeutic applications. In peripheral T cells, productive immune responses are dependent upon the cooperative binding of the NFAT/AP-1 transcriptional complex to the promoter regions of genes such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), while NFAT in the absence of AP-1 leads to T cell anergy. Protein transduction domains (PTDs) are able to penetrate cell membranes and can be used to transport exogenous proteins across the cell and nuclear membranes. In this study, we constructed a fusion protein of PTD and a minimum DNA binding domain of human NFAT1 (PTD-?NFATminiDBD), which contains two mutations (R466A and T533G) in the AP-1 binding sites. The delivery and functions of this fusion protein in T cells were investigated. The results indicated that PTD-?NFATminiDBD could be effectively delivered into T cells and transported into the nucleus. PTD-?NFATminiDBD attenuated IL-2 production in T cells and then inhibited T cell proliferation, likely through competing against endogenous NFAT for binding to the IL-2 gene promoter. These results demonstrated that PTD-?NFATminiDBD was an effective NFAT inhibitor with a novel mechanism of action and might potentially be used as an immunosuppressant for organ transplantation with higher safety and better tolerance than calcineurin inhibitors.
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Incidence of pulmonary vein conduction recovery in patients without clinical recurrence after ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: mechanistic implications.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Pulmonary vein (PV) isolation has become the mainstay acute procedural end point for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation.
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The role of adipose tissue and obesity in causing treatment resistance of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Front Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Obesity is responsible for ~90,000 cancer deaths/year, increasing cancer incidence and impairing its treatment. Obesity has also been shown to impact hematological malignancies, through as yet unknown mechanisms. Adipocytes are present in bone marrow and the microenvironments of many types of cancer, and have been found to promote cancer cell survival. In this review, we explore several ways in which obesity might cause leukemia treatment resistance. Obese patients may be at a treatment disadvantage due to altered pharmacokinetics of chemotherapy and dosage "capping" based on ideal body weight. The adipose tissue provides fuel to cancer cells in the form of amino acids and free fatty acids. Adipocytes have been shown to cause cancer cells to resist chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. In addition, obese adipose tissue is phenotypically altered, producing a milieu of pro-inflammatory adipokines and cytokines, some of which have been linked to cancer progression. Given the prevalence of obesity, understanding its role and adipose tissue in acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment is necessary for evaluating current treatment regimen and revealing new therapeutic targets.
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Sphingomonas yantingensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium isolated from purplish paddy soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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A novel type of mineral-weathering bacterium was isolated from purplish soils collected from Yanting (Sichuan, southwestern China). Cells of strain 1007T were Gram-negative and rod-shaped, motile and yellow-pigmented. The isolate was strictly aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and grew optimally at 30°C and pH 7.0. The genomic G+C content of strain 1007T was (67 ± 0.7) mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 1007T belonged to the genus Sphingomonas and was most closely related to Sphingomonas pruni IFO 15498T (97.3%), Sphingomonas mali IFO 15500T (97.2%), Sphingomonas japonica KC7T (97.2%) and Sphingomonas koreensis JSS-26T (97.0%). This affiliation of strain 1007T to the genus Sphingomonas was confirmed by the presence of Q-10 as the major ubiquinone, sphingoglycolipid, C14:0 2-OH and by the absence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids. The major polyamine was homospermidine. The main cellular fatty acids included summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1?7c or C18:1?6c) and C16:0. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 26.1% to 58.7%) to these type species of the genus Sphingomonas and unique phenotypic characteristics, strain 1007T represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas yantingensis is proposed. The type strain is 1007T (=DSMZ 27244T=JCM 19201T=CCTCC AB 2013146T).
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[Effects of on-pump beating-heart coronary artery bypass grafting for left-main patients].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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To explore the value of on-pump beating-heart coronary artery bypass grafting (OnP-BH CABG) for left-main patients with coronary heart disease through a comparative study with conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CCABG).
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[Investigation on distribution of Yersinia enterocolitica in Henan province between 2005 and 2011].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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To investigate the distribution of Yersinia enterocolitica in Henan province from 2005 to 2011.
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[Magnetic properties of topsoils in typical industrial belt along the Yellow River in arid regions in northwest China and their environmental significance].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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We have carried out environmental magnetic investigation on topsoil samples of two industrial cities Wuhai and Shizuishan along the Yellow River in the arid regions in northwest China. The concentration, type, magnetic grain sizes of the magnetic minerals and the environmental significance were discussed. The results showed that the main magnetic grain sizes were multi-domain (MD) and pseudo single domain (PSD). The concentration and grain sizes of magnetic minerals showed differences in different functional zones. In industrial zone, the concentration was higher and the grain size was coarser, while there were obviously fewer and finer magnetic minerals in agricultural zone and raw coal zone. Environmental magnetic measurements were efficient to monitor pollution caused by burned fossil fuel, but were not sensitive to unburned fuel. X,, SIRM and SOFT were effective indicators to reflect urban soil pollution. Environmental magnetism method was found to be an important way to monitor and evaluate soil pollution in a city.
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Adipocyte XBP1s Promotes Adiponectin Multimerization and Systemic Glucose Homeostasis.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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The physiological role of the spliced form of X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1s), a key transcription factor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, in adipose tissue remains largely unknown. Here we show that overexpression of XBP1s promotes adiponectin multimerization in adipocytes, thereby regulating systemic glucose homeostasis. Ectopic expression of XBP1s in adipocytes improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in both lean and obese (ob/ob) mice. The beneficial effect of adipocyte XBP1s on glucose homeostasis is associated with elevated serum levels of HMW adiponectin and indeed, is adiponectin dependent. Mechanistically, XBP1s promotes adiponectin multimerization rather than activating its transcription likely through a direct regulation of the expression of several ER-chaperones involved in adiponectin maturation, including Grp78, Pdia6, ERp44 and DsbA-L. Thus, we conclude that XBP1s is an important regulator of adiponectin multimerization, which may lead to a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and hypoadiponectinemia.
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Myroides xuanwuensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium isolated from forest soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain TH-19T, was isolated from a forest soil sample in Jiangsu province, China. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain TH-19T was shown to belong to the genus Myroides, a member of Bacteroidetes, and was related to Myroides odoratimimus LMG 4029T (98.7% similarity to the type strain), Myroides profundi D25T (98.2%), and Myroides marinus JS-08T (97.5%). Strain TH-19T contained menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the predominant menaquinone, and the dominant fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:03-OH. The DNA G+C content of strain TH-19T was 37.2 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain TH-19T with Myroides odoratimimus JCM 7460T, Myroides profundi D25T and Myroides marinus JS-08T were below 70%. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is suggested that strain TH-19T represents a novel species of the genus Myroides, for which the name Myroides xuanwuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TH-19T (=CCTCC AB 2013145T=JCM 19200T).
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Equatorenes: synthesis and properties of chiral naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, and pyrene possessing bis(1-adamantyl) groups at the peri-position.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Chiral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing bis(1-adamantyl) groups at the peri-positions, named equatorenes, were synthesized in optically pure form starting from optically pure 4,5-bis(1-adamantyl)-8-methoxy-1-naphthol. A sequential Diels-Alder reaction of furan and arynes generated from 1,2-bromotriflates provided tricyclic and tetracyclic epoxides, and acid-catalyzed aromatization gave phenanthrol and chrysenol. Deoxygenation reactions involving the hydrogenolysis of triflates gave 1,8-bis(1-adamantyl)naphthalene, 1,10-bis(1-adamantyl)phenanthrene, and 1,12-bis(1-adamantyl)chrysene. 3,4-Bis(1-adamantyl)pyrene was synthesized from phenanthrol by Sonogashira coupling and Pt-catalyzed cyclization. Essentially no racemization occurred during the synthesis. X-ray analysis indicated the distorted naphthalene moiety possessing the peri-diadamantyl groups and the flat structure of the other benzene rings. UV-vis analysis of the equatorenes showed considerable redshifts compared with that of the corresponding achiral arenes. Electrochemical analysis of the naphthalene and pyrene indicated that the distortion decreased the highest occupied molecular orbital stability with no marked effect on the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy level, and the origin was discussed on the basis of calculation results.
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[Clinical observation of lymphangiectasis in conjunctivochalasis cases].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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To investigate the relationship between the occurrence and development of conjunctivochalasis and bulbar conjunctival lymphangiectasia.
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[Significance of erythrocytes phosphatidylserine exposure on occurrence of anemia in sepsis].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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To investigate the role of phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure of erythrocytes in the development of anemia in sepsis patients.
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Ba13Si6Sn8As22: A Quaternary Zintl Phase Containing Adamantane-Like [Si4As10] Clusters.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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A new quaternary arsenide Zintl phase, Ba13Si6Sn8As22, has been synthesized from the Sn-flux reactions, and the structure was determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The compound crystallizes in the tetragonal non-centrosymmetric space group I4?2m (No. 121) with unit cell parameters of a = b = 14.4857(3) Å, c = 13.5506(7) Å, V = 2843.40(17) Å(3). Its polyanion structure can be viewed as composed of [Si4As10] adamantane-like clusters and SiAs4 tetrahedra, which are linked via the [Sn2As4] groups built through two edge-sharing SnAs3 triangular pyramids. Differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry measurements indicate that Ba13Si6Sn8As22 has good thermal stability, and does not melt or decompose below 1045 K under Ar atmosphere. Density functional calculations were performed on Ba13Si6Sn8As22 and the results suggest a band gap of around 1.0 eV for Ba13Si6Sn8As22, confirmed by the diffuse reflectance spectrum measurement. In addition, the extensively existing lone pairs of electrons on the p-orbitals of As and Sn may also hint interesting nonlinear optical properties considering the noncentrosymmetric structure.
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Depth-Related Changes in Community Structure of Culturable Mineral Weathering Bacteria and in Weathering Patterns Caused by Them along Two Contrasting Soil Profiles.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering and soil formation. However, few reports of mineral weathering bacteria inhabiting subsurfaces of soil profiles have been published, raising the question of whether the subsurface weathering bacteria are fundamentally distinct from those in surface communities. To address this question, we isolated and characterized mineral weathering bacteria from two contrasting soil profiles with respect to their role in the weathering pattern evolution, their place in the community structure, and their depth-related changes in these two soil profiles. The effectiveness and pattern of bacterial mineral weathering were different in the two profiles and among the horizons within the respective profiles. The abundance of highly effective mineral weathering bacteria in the Changshu profile was significantly greater in the deepest horizon than in the upper horizons, whereas in the Yanting profile it was significantly greater in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Most of the mineral weathering bacteria from the upper horizons of the Changshu profile and from the deeper horizons of the Yanting profile significantly acidified the culture media in the mineral weathering process. The proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Changshu profile was similar in all horizons except in the Bg2 horizon, whereas the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Yanting profile was higher in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Both profiles existed in different highly depth-specific culturable mineral weathering community structures. The depth-related changes in culturable weathering communities were primarily attributable to minor bacterial groups rather than to a change in the major population structure.
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Chitinophaga jiangningensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, JN53T, was isolated from the surfaces of weathered rock (potassic trachyte) from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Strain JN53T grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JN53T belongs to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. It was related most closely to Chitinophaga terrae KP01T (97.3% 16S r RNA gene sequence similarity), Chitinophaga eiseniae YC6729T (96.3%). Strain JN53T contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone and homospermidine as the major polymine. The main fatty acids of strain JN53T were iso-C15:0, C16:1?5c, C16:1?7c and/or C16:1?6c, iso-C17:0 3-OH, C16:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, and C16:0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids. The total DNA G + C content of strain JN53T was 49.7 mol%. The low level of DNA-DNA relatedness to other species of the genus Chitinophaga and the many phenotypic properties that distinguished strain JN53T from recognized species of this genus demonstrated that isolate JN53T should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga. The name Chitinophaga jiangningensis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species. The type strain is JN53T (=CCTCC AB 2013166 T = JCM 19354 T).
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Long-term oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic versus open partial nephrectomy.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Most of the literatures on laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) versus open partial nephrectomy (OPN) focus on technical details and early or mid-term oncologic outcomes, reflecting that the approach is safe and provides midterm benefits compared with traditional open surgery. However, the difference of long-term oncologic outcome between LPN and OPN remains unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the long-term oncologic outcome of LPN in the treatment of localized renal tumors compared with that of OPN.
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Molecular cloning and expression profile of a Halloween gene encoding Cyp307A1 from the seabuckthorn carpenterworm, Holcocerus hippophaecolus.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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20-Hydroxyecdyone, an active form of ecdysteroid, is the key hormone in insect growth and development. Halloween genes encode ecdysteroidogenic enzymes, including cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. CYP307A1 (spook) is accepted as an enzyme acting in the so-called black box that includes a series of hypothetical and unproven reactions that finally result in the oxidation of 7-dehydrocholesterol to diketol. In this study, the Holcocerus hippophaecolus Hua (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) CYP307A1 (HhSpo) gene was identified and characterized. The obtained cDNA sequence was 2084 base pairs with an open reading frame of 537 animo acids, in which existed conserved motifs of CYP450 enzymes. The transcript profiles of HhSpo were analyzed in various tissues of final instar larvae. The highest expression was observed in the prothoracic gland, while expression level was low but significant in other tissues. These results suggest that the sequence character and expression profile of HhSpo were well conserved and provided the basic information for its functional analysis.
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Ca(1-x)RE(x)Ag(1-y)Sb (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm; 0 ? x ? 1; 0 ? y ? 1): interesting structural transformation and enhanced high-temperature thermoelectric performance.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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For materials used in high-temperature thermoelectric power generation, the choices are still quite limited. Here we demonstrate the design and synthesis of a new class of complex Zintl compounds, Ca(1-x)RE(x)Ag(1-y)Sb (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) (P63mc, No. 186, LiGaGe-type), which exhibit a high figure of merit in the high-temperature region. Compared with the parent structure that is based on CaAgSb (Pnma, No. 62, TiNiSi-type), an interesting structural relationship is established which suggests that important size and electronic effects govern the formation of these multinary phases. According to theoretical calculations, such a structural transformation from the orthorhombic TiNiSi-type to the hexagonal LiGaGe-type also corresponds to an obvious modification in the electronic band structure, which explains the observed significant enhancement of the related thermoelectric properties. For an optimized p-type material, Ca(0.84)Ce(0.16)Ag(0.87)Sb, a figure of merit of ~0.7 can be achieved at 1079 K, which is comparable to that of Yb14MnSb11 at the same temperature. In addition, due to the excellent thermal stability and high electrical conductivity, these materials are very promising candidates for high-temperature thermoelectric power generation.
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[Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy for refractory or recurrent hemospermia: clinical analysis of 162 cases].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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To investigate the feasibility and effect of transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of refractory or recurrent hemospermia.
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Marked Suppression of Pulmonary Vein Firing After Circumferential Pulmonary Vein Isolation in Patients with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: Is Pulmonary Vein Firing an Epiphenomenon?
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Rapid firing in pulmonary veins (PVs) is a leading cause of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that PV firing (PV-F) should continue after circumferential PV isolation (CPVI) because the PV tissue responsible for PV-F remains intact.
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Activation of adipose tissue macrophages in obese mice does not require lymphocytes.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Macrophages which infiltrate adipose tissue and secrete proinflammatory cytokines may be responsible for obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, the reason why macrophages migrate into adipose tissue and become activated remains unknown though some studies suggest that this may be regulated by T and B lymphocytes. In this study, it has been tested whether T and B lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells were necessary for the obesity-induced activation of macrophages in adipose tissue.
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[The effect of catheter based renal synthetic denervation on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in patients with resistant hypertension].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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to explore the effect of catheter based renal synthetic denervation on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and blood pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension. and assess the validity and security of the treatment.
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Degradation kinetics and chloropicrin formation during aqueous chlorination of dinoseb.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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The kinetics of chlorination of dinoseb and the corresponding formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) were studied between pH 4 and 9 at room temperature (25±1°C). The reactivity shows a minimum at pH 9, a maximum at pH 4 and a medium at neutral conditions. pH profile of the apparent second-order rate constant of the reaction of dinoseb with chlorine was modeled considering the elementary reactions of HOCl with dinoseb species and an acid-catalyzed reaction. The predominant reactions at near neutral pH were the reactions of HOCl with the two species of dinoseb. The rate constants of 2.0 (±0.8)×10(4)M(-2)s(-1), 3.3 (±0.6) and 0.5 (±0.1)M(-1)s(-1) were determined for the acid-catalyzed reaction, HOCl reacted with dinoseb and dinoseb(-), respectively. The main degradation by-products of the dinoseb formed during chlorination have been separated and identified by GC-MS with liquid-liquid extraction sample pretreatment. Six volatile and semi-volatile DBPs were identified in the chlorination products, including chloroform (CF), monochloroacetone, chloropicrin (TCNM), 1,1-dichloro-2-methy-butane, 1,2-dichloro-2-methy-butane, 1-chloro-3-methy-pentanone. A proposed degradation pathway of dinoseb during chlorination was then given. TCNM and CF formation potential during chlorination of dinoseb reached as high as 0.077 and 0.097?M?M(-1) dinoseb under the traditional condition (pH=7 and Cl2/C=2). Their yields varied with Cl2/C, pH and time. The maximum yields of TCNM appeared at molar ratio as Cl2/C=1 and pH 3, while the maximum of CF appeared at molar ratio as Cl2/C=4 and pH 7. [TCNM]/[CF] decreased with reaction time and increased solution pH.
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Femtosecond laser processing by using patterned vector optical fields.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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We present and demonstrate an approach for femtosecond laser processing by using patterned vector optical fields (PVOFs) composed of multiple individual vector optical fields. The PVOFs can be flexibly engineered due to the diversity of individual vector optical fields in spatial arrangement and distribution of states of polarization, and it is easily created with the aid of a spatial light modulator. The focused PVOFs will certainly result in various interference patterns, which are then used to fabricate multi-microholes with various patterns on silicon. The present approach can be expanded to fabricate three-dimensional microstructures based on two-photon polymerization.
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Adipocytes cause leukemia cell resistance to L-asparaginase via release of glutamine.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Obesity is a significant risk factor for cancer. A link between obesity and a childhood cancer has been identified: obese children diagnosed with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a 50% greater risk of relapse than their lean counterparts. l-asparaginase (ASNase) is a first-line therapy for ALL that breaks down asparagine and glutamine, exploiting the fact that ALL cells are more dependent on these amino acids than other cells. In the present study, we investigated whether adipocytes, which produce significant quantities of glutamine, may counteract the effects of ASNase. In children being treated for high-risk ALL, obesity was not associated with altered plasma levels of asparagine or glutamine. However, glutamine synthetase was markedly increased in bone marrow adipocytes after induction chemotherapy. Obesity substantially impaired ASNase efficacy in mice transplanted with syngeneic ALL cells and, like in humans, without affecting plasma asparagine or glutamine levels. In coculture, adipocytes inhibited leukemic cell cytotoxicity induced by ASNase, and this protection was dependent on glutamine secretion. These findings suggest that adipocytes work in conjunction with other cells of the leukemia microenvironment to protect leukemia cells during ASNase treatment.
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Seasonal changes in immunoreactivity of inhibin/activin subunits in the epididymis of wild ground squirrels (Citellus dauricus Brandt).
J. Reprod. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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The inhibin/activin subunits (?, ?A and ?B) have been found in epididymal tissue of many mammals, but there have been no data available for wild seasonal breeders so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunoreactivities of inhibin/activin ?, ?A and ?B subunits in the epididymis of wild ground squirrels during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were performed to detect the epididymal immunolocalizations and immunoreactivities of the three subunits. Strong immunostaining of ? subunit was present in the interstitial part of the caput epididymis and epithelial parts of the corpus epididymis and cauda epididymis during the breeding season, whereas no ? subunit was found in the nonbreeding season. ?A and ?B subunits were expressed in all cell types of the epithelium throughout the whole seasonal cycle, and immunostaining in the breeding season was likely stronger compared with that of the nonbreeding season. These results suggested that the epididymis might be a potential source of inhibin and activin in the wild male ground squirrel, and the secretion of epididymal inhibin and activin showed distinct seasonal changes. Furthermore, inhibin and activin might function as paracrine and/or autocrine factors that have an effect on the epididymis.
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Littoral cell angioma of the spleen: sonographic-pathologic comparison.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic and pathologic features of littoral cell angioma of the spleen in 7 patients.
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Dyella jiangningensis sp. nov., a ?-proteobacterium isolated from the surface of potassium-bearing rock.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile with one polar flagellum ?-proteobacterium, designated strain SBZ3-12(T), was isolated from surfaces of weathered potassic trachyte. Phylogenetic analysis of this strain based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that it was most closely related to Dyella japonica XD53(T) (97.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Dyella terrae JS14-6(T) (97.7%), Dyella soli JS12-10(T) (97.5%) and Dyella koreensis BB4(T) (97.0%). The DNA G+C content of strain SBZ3-12(T) was 64.0 mol%. In addition, iso-C(17:1)?9c, iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(16:0) were the major cellular fatty acids and ubiquinone Q-8 was the predominant respiratory quinone. The low DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain SBZ3-12(T) and recognized species of the genus Dyella and the many phenotypic properties supported the classification of strain SBZ3-12(T) as a representative of a novel species of the genus Dyella, for which the name Dyella jiangningensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SBZ3-12(T) (?=CCTCC AB 2012160(T)?=KACC 16539(T)?=DSM 26119(T)).
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Impacts of histological prostatitis on sexual function and lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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To investigate the correlation of histological prostatitis with sexual function (erectile dysfunction [ED]) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
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cDNA cloning and sequence determination of the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide from the seabuckthorn carpenterworm, Holcocerus hippophaecolus (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).
Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The PBAN (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide)/pyrokinin peptides comprise a major neuropeptide family characterized by a common FXPRL amide at the C-terminus. These peptides are actively involved in many essential endocrine functions. For the first time, we reported the cDNA cloning and sequence determination of the PBAN from the seabuckthorn carpenterworm, Holcocerus hippophaecolus, by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of Hh-DH-PBAN contained five peptides: diapause hormone (DH) homolog, ?-neuropeptide (NP), ?-NP, PBAN, and ?-NP. All of the peptides were amidated at their C-terminus and shared a conserved motif, FXPR (or K) L. Moreover, Hh-DH-PBAN had high homology to the other members of the PBAN peptide family: 56% with Manduca sexta, 66% with Bombyx mori, 77% with Helicoverpa zea, and 47% with Plutella xylostella. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hh-DH-PBAN was closely related to PBANs from Noctuidae, demonstrated by the relatively higher similarity compared with H. zea. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that Hh-DH-PBAN mRNA expression peaked in the brain-subesophageal ganglion (Br-SOG) complex, and was also detected at high levels during larval and adult stages. The expression decreased significantly after pupation. These results provided information concerning molecular structure characteristics of Hh-DH-PBAN, whose expression profile suggested that the Hh-DH-PBAN gene might be correlated with larval development and sex pheromone biosynthesis in females of the H. hippophaecolus.
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Androgen-STAT3 activation may contribute to gender disparity in human simply renal cysts.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Simple renal cysts (SRC) are a common urological disease mostly in elderly, however the male-to-female ratio was 2.81. Androgen receptor (AR) activation was initially proposed as a vital signaling pathway in prostate cancer and consequent signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-AR complex led an important putative mechanism by which prostate cells are sensitized with growth factor signals. However, in SRC disease, no related study emerged.
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Statin use and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Emerging evidence suggests that statins may decrease the risk of cancers. However, available evidence on bladder cancer is conflicting. To quantify the association between statin use and risk of bladder cancer, we performed a detailed meta-analysis of published studies regarding this subject.
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Adipose tissue attracts and protects acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from chemotherapy.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Obesity is associated with an increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) relapse. Using mouse and cell co-culture models, we investigated whether adipose tissue attracts ALL to a protective microenvironment. Syngeneically implanted ALL cells migrated into adipose tissue within ten days. In vitro, murine ALL cells migrated towards adipose tissue explants and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Human and mouse ALL cells migrated toward adipocyte conditioned media, which was mediated by SDF-1?. In addition, adipose tissue explants protected ALL cells against daunorubicin and vincristine. Our findings suggest that ALL migration into adipose tissue could contribute to drug resistance and potentially relapse.
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Estimated GFR reporting is associated with decreased nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug prescribing and increased renal function.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used; however, they are also nephrotoxic with both acute and chronic effects on kidney function. Here we determined NSAID prescribing before and after estimated GFR (eGFR) reporting and evaluate renal function in patients who used NSAIDs but stopped these after their first eGFR report. A population-based longitudinal analysis using a record-linkage database was conducted with the GFR estimated using the four-variable equation from the MDRD study and analyzed by trend test, paired t-test, and logistic regression modeling. Prescriptions for NSAIDs significantly decreased from 39,459 to 35,415 after implementation of eGFR reporting from the second quarter of 2005 compared with the first quarter of 2007. Reporting eGFR was associated with reduced NSAID prescriptions (adjusted odds ratio, 0.78). NSAID prescription rates in the 6 months before April 2006 were 18.8, 15.4, and 7.0% in patients with CKD stages 3, 4, and 5 and 15.5, 10.7, and 6.3%, respectively, after eGFR reporting commenced. In patients who stopped NSAID treatment, eGFR significantly increased from 45.9 to 46.9, 23.9 to 27.1, and 12.4 to 26.4?ml/min per 1.73?m(2) in 1340 stage 3 patients, 162 stage 4 patients, and 9 stage 5 patients, respectively. Thus, NSAID prescribing decreased after the implementation of eGFR reporting, and there were significant improvements in estimated renal function in patients who stopped taking NSAIDs. Hence, eGFR reporting may result in safer prescribing.
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Gallbladder gallstone disease is associated with newly diagnosed coronary artery atherosclerotic disease: a cross-sectional study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The association between gallstone disease and coronary artery atherosclerotic disease (CAD) remains unclear. To clarify their relationship, patients with CAD newly diagnosed by coronary angiography were investigated in this cross-sectional study.
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Splenic stroma-educated regulatory dendritic cells induce apoptosis of activated CD4 T cells via Fas ligand-enhanced IFN-? and nitric oxide.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
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Stromal microenvironments of bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen have been shown to be able to regulate immune cell differentiation and function. Our previous studies demonstrate that splenic stroma could drive mature dendritic cells (DC) to further proliferate and differentiate into regulatory DC subset that could inhibit T cell response via NO. However, how splenic stroma-educated regulatory DC release NO and whether other molecules are involved in the suppression of T cell response remain unclear. In this study, we show that splenic stroma educates regulatory DC to express high level of Fas ligand (FasL) by TGF-? via ERK activation. The findings, that inhibition of CD4 T cell proliferation by regulatory DC required cell-to-cell contact and FasL deficiency impaired inhibitory effect of regulatory DC, indicate that regulatory DC inhibit CD4 T cell proliferation via FasL. Then, regulatory DC have been found to be able to induce apoptosis of activated CD4 T cells via FasL in caspase 8- and caspase 3-dependent manner. Interestingly, FasL on regulatory DC enhanced IFN-? production from activated CD4 T cells, and in turn T cell-derived IFN-? induced NO production from regulatory DC, working jointly to induce apoptosis of activated CD4 T cells. Blockade of IFN-? and NO could reduce the apoptosis induction. Therefore, our results demonstrated that splenic stroma-educated regulatory DC induced T cell apoptosis via FasL-enhanced T cell IFN-? and DC NO production, thus outlining a new way for negative regulation of T cell responses and maintenance of immune homeostasis by regulatory DC and splenic stromal microenvironment.
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