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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Asymmetric Hetero-Diels-Alder Reaction of Diazenes Catalyzed by Chiral Silver Phosphate: Water Participates in the Catalysis and Stereocontrol.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The chiral silver phosphate was confirmed to efficiently catalyze a highly regio- and enantioselective hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of diazenes to furnish piperazine derivatives in high yields and excellent ee values. DFT calculations revealed that the water molecule participates in the catalysis by coordination to silver phosphate and also found that the hydroxy group of 1-hydroxy-2,3-hexadiene not only formed a hydrogen bond with the oxygen of phosphate but also coordinated to the Ag(I) to simultaneously stabilize the transition states and control the regioselectivity.
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Protective Effects of Kojic Acid on the Periphery Blood and Survival of Beagle Dogs after Exposure to a Lethal Dose of Gamma Radiation.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In previous studies, it has been shown that pretreatment with kojic acid (KA) not only increased the 30 day survival rate of mice after exposed to a lethal dose of gamma radiation but also had significant radioprotective effects on the hematopoietic system, the immune system and DNA of mice exposed to a 4 Gy sublethal dose of radiation. Furthermore, pretreatment with KA has also been shown to protect Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells against ionizing radiation-induced damage. In this investigation, beagle dogs were used to evaluate whether KA could also be radioprotective in a large animal model. Dogs in the group pretreated with kojic acid after whole-body exposure to a lethal dose of 3 Gy gamma radiation had a 51 day survival rate of 66.7% versus the dogs in the 3 Gy irradiation only group, which all died within 16 days of postirradiation. General vital signs (body weight or temperature) of animals in the kojic acid pretreated group reduced and increased maximally at day 14 postirradiation and then reverted to normal levels gradually. The hematopoiesis studies indicated that the white blood cells/red blood cells, hemoglobin content and hematocrit of dogs pretreated with kojic acid decreased sharply at day 23/day 21 postirradiation, and then gradually elevated. In addition, the DNA content of dogs pretreated with KA were significantly increased compared with that of dogs in the irradiation group at day 4 postirradiation and the number of micronuclei in the group pretreated with kojic acid declined sharply compared with that of the irradiation only group. KA appears to possess marked protective effects from radiation-induced damage and therefore, may be a promising novel radioprotective agent.
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Multiplexed and Amplified Electronic Sensor for the Detection of MicroRNAs from Cancer Cells.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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The detection of microRNA expression profiles plays an important role in early diagnosis of different cancers. On the basis of the employment of redox labels with distinct potential positions and duplex specific nuclease (DSN)-assisted target recycling signal amplifications, we have developed a multiplexed and convenient electronic sensor for highly sensitive detection of microRNA (miRNA)-141 and miRNA-21. The sensor is constructed by self-assembly of thiol-modified, redox species-labeled hairpin probes on the gold sensing electrode. The hybridizations between the target miRNAs and the surface-immobilized probes lead to the formation of RNA/DNA duplexes, and DSN subsequently cleaves the redox-labeled hairpin probes of the RNA/DNA duplexes to recycle the target miRNAs and to generate significantly amplified current suppression at different potentials for multiplexed detection of miRNA-141 and miRNA-21 down to 4.2 and 3.0 fM, respectively. The sensor is also highly selective toward the target miRNAs and can be employed to monitor miRNAs from human prostate carcinoma (22Rv1) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lysates simultaneously. The sensor reported here thus holds great potential for the development of multiplexed, sensitive, selective, and simple sensing platforms for simultaneous detection of a variety of miRNA biomarkers for clinic applications with careful selection of the labels.
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Nursing Research on a First Aid Model of Double Personnel for Major Burn Patients.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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This study explored the effect of a first aid model employing two nurses on the efficient rescue operation time and the efficient resuscitation time for major burn patients. A two-nurse model of first aid was designed for major burn patients. The model includes a division of labor between the first aid nurses and the re-organization of emergency carts. The clinical effectiveness of the process was examined in a retrospective chart review of 156 cases of major burn patients, experiencing shock and low blood volume, who were admitted to the intensive care unit of the department of burn surgery between November 2009 and June 2013. Of the 156 major burn cases, 87 patients who received first aid using the double personnel model were assigned to the test group and the 69 patients who received first aid using the standard first aid model were assigned to the control group. The efficient rescue operation time and the efficient resuscitation time for the patients were compared between the two groups. Student's t tests were used to the compare the mean difference between the groups. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were found on both measures (P's < 0.05), with the test group having lower times than the control group. The efficient rescue operation time was 14.90 ± 3.31 min in the test group and 30.42 ± 5.65 min in the control group. The efficient resuscitation time was 7.4 ± 3.2 h in the test group and 9.5 ± 2.7 h in the control group. A two-nurse first aid model based on scientifically validated procedures and a reasonable division of labor can shorten the efficient rescue operation time and the efficient resuscitation time for major burn patients. Given these findings, the model appears to be worthy of clinical application.
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Unfavorable effect of small tumor size on cause-specific survival in stage IIA colon cancer, a SEER-based study.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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We sought to determine the prognostic role of tumor size on cause-specific survival (CSS) of patients with stage IIA colon cancer.
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Tomato-Pseudomonas syringae interactions under elevated CO2 concentration: the role of stomata.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) in agricultural and natural ecosystems is known to reduce plant stomatal opening, but it is unclear whether these CO2-induced stomatal alterations are associated with foliar pathogen infections. In this study, tomato plants were grown under ambient and elevated [CO2] and inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000, a strain that is virulent on tomato plants. We found that elevated [CO2] enhanced tomato defence against P. syringae. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that stomatal aperture of elevated [CO2] plants was considerably smaller than their ambient counterparts, which affected the behaviour of P. syringae bacteria on the upper surface of epidermal peels. Pharmacological experiments revealed that nitric oxide (NO) played a role in elevated [CO2]-induced stomatal closure. Silencing key genes involved in NO generation and stomatal closing, nitrate reductase (NR) and guard cell slow-type anion channel 1 (SLAC1), blocked elevated [CO2]-induced stomatal closure and resulted in significant increases in P. syringae infection. However, the SLAC1-silenced plants, but not the NR-silenced plants, still had significantly higher defence under elevated [CO2] compared with plants treated with ambient [CO2]. Similar results were obtained when the stomata-limiting factor for P. syringae entry was excluded by syringe infiltration inoculation. These results indicate that elevated [CO2] induces defence against P. syringae in tomato plants, not only by reducing the stomata-mediated entry of P. syringae but also by invoking a stomata-independent pathway to counteract P. syringae. This information is valuable for designing proper strategies against bacterial pathogens under changing agricultural and natural ecosystems.
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Relationships Between Intravaginal Ejaculatory Latency Time and National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index in the Four Types of Premature Ejaculation Syndromes: A Large Observational Study in China.
J Sex Med
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Besides lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) and acquired premature ejaculation (APE), Waldinger and Schweitzer proposed two addition PE syndromes (variable PE [VPE] and subjective PE [SPE]).
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The association between angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 polymorphisms and essential hypertension risk: A meta-analysis involving 14,122 patients.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Some studies have evaluated the associations between the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension (EH) risk. However, the results remain uncertain. We carried out a meta-analysis to derive a more comprehensive estimation of these associations.
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The relationship between the plant-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 and alternative oxidase in tomato basal defense against Tobacco mosaic virus.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen attack. The SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense, which is pathogenesis-related protein-independent but involves an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1)-mediated RNA silencing mechanism and/or an alternative oxidase (AOX)-associated defense pathway. However, the relationship between these two viral defense-related pathways remains unclear. In this study, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) inoculation onto Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) leaves induced a rapid induction of the SlAOX1a transcript level as well as the total and CN-resistant respiration at 0.5 dpi, followed by an increase in SlRDR1 gene expression at 1 dpi in the upper uninoculated leaves. Silencing SlRDR1 using virus-induced gene silencing system significantly reduced SlRDR1 expression and tomato defense against TMV but had no evident effect on SlAOX1a transcription. Conversely, silencing SlAOX1a not only effectively reduced the AOX1a transcript level, but also blocked the TMV-induced SlRDR1 expression and decreased the basal defense against TMV. Furthermore, the application of an exogenous AOX activator on empty vector-silenced control plants greatly induced the accumulation of SlRDR1 and SlAOX1a transcript and reduced TMV viral RNA accumulation, but failed to have such effects on SlRDR1-silenced plants. Moreover, RDR1-overexpressed transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants enhanced defense against TMV than the empty vector-transformed plants, but these effects were not affected by the exogenous AOX activator or inhibitor. These results indicate that RDR1 is involved in the AOX-mediated defense pathway against TMV infection and plays a crucial role in enhancing RNA silencing to limit virus systemic spread.
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Association between GSTM1 null genotype and coronary artery disease risk: a meta-analysis.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between polymorphisms of GSTM1 null genotype and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk.
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Prognostic nomograms for predicting survival and distant metastases in locally advanced rectal cancers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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To develop prognostic nomograms for predicting outcomes in patients with locally advanced rectal cancers who do not receive preoperative treatment.
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Applications of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in the Modeling of Human Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic and involve the gastrointestinal tract; the two primary IBDs are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Existing treatments for IBD include control of active inflammation and regulation of immune disorders, and commonly used drugs include salicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants. At the same time, an in-depth study of IBD pathogenesis promoted the acceptance of bioimmunotherapy by increasing numbers of people. However, long-term use of these drugs can cause adverse reactions that are difficult for patients to overcome, with limited efficacy for critically ill patients. Recent studies have found that stem cell transplantation is a new and effective therapy and IBD treatment, particularly for refractory cases. Stem cells, especially induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), can differentiate into functional intestinal epithelia and their use avoids ethical issues arising from embryonic stem cells, providing a new kind of seed cell for alternative treatments for IBD. This paper reviews iPSCs as a potential new treatment for IBDs in order to provide an experimental and clinical reference.
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[Sudden cardiac death of incarcerated prisoners: a study of 75 cases].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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To investigate the characteristics and influencing factors leading to sudden cardiac death (SCD) of incarcerated prisoners.
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[Monitoring depth of anesthesia and effect analysis in primary visual cortex of rats based on complexity of local field potential].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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In the present study carried out in our laboratory, we recorded local field potential (LFP) signals in primary visual cortex (V1 area) of rats during the anesthesia process in the electrophysiological experiments of invasive microelectrode array implant, and obtained time evolutions of complexity measure Lempel-ziv complexity (LZC) by nonlinear dynamic analysis method. Combined with judgment criterion of tail flick latency to thermal stimulus and heart rate, the visual stimulation experiments are carried out to verify the reliability of anesthetized states by complexity analysis. The experimental results demonstrated that the time varying complexity measures LZC of LFP signals of different channels were similar to each other in the anesthesia process. In the same anesthesia state, the difference of complexity measure LZC between neuronal responses before and after visual stimulation was not significant. However, the complexity LZC in different anesthesia depths had statistical significances. Furthermore, complexity threshold value represented the depth of anesthesia was determined using optimization method. The reliability and accuracy of monitoring the depth of anesthesia using complexity measure LZC of LFP were all high. It provided an effective method of realtime monitoring depth of anesthesia for craniotomy patients in clinical operation.
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Phase I dose-escalation study of MEDI-573, a bispecific, antiligand monoclonal antibody against IGFI and IGFII, in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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This phase I, multicenter, open-label, single-arm, dose-escalation, and dose-expansion study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and antitumor activity of MEDI-573 in adults with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard therapy or for which no standard therapy exists.
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[Effects of sulforaphane on Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 pathway of monocyte-derived macrophages from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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To explore the effects of sulforaphane on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) pathway and its downstream inflammatory cytokines in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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Comparison of nitrous oxide emissions in partial nitrifying and full nitrifying granular sludge reactors treating ammonium-rich wastewater.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in partial nitrifying and full nitrifying granular sludge reactors treating ammonium-rich wastewater. During stable operation, there was no significant difference of NH4(+)-N removal efficiencies between the two granular reactors. Nitrate and nitrite were the main effluent nitrogen species of the two reactors, and nitrite accumulation rate of partial nitrifying reactor was high of 87.79±2.03%. However, partial nitrifying granular-reactor had better total nitrogen removal efficiency (41.84±3.35%) than that of full nitrifying granular-reactor (19.91±2.12%). According to typical cycles, the N2O emission amount per cycle of partial nitrifying reactor account for 11.48% of the incoming nitrogen load, which was 1.5 times higher than that of full nitrifying reactor (7.47%). The obtained results could provide more information for understanding of N2O emission in granular sludge systems.
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Salicylic acid binding of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain components and plays a role in basal defense against tobacco mosaic virus in tomato.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen invasion. SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense and involves a specific pathway mediated by mitochondria; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The SA-binding activity of the recombinant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (Sl?-kGDH) E2 subunit of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was characterized. The biological role of this binding in plant defenses against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was further investigated via Sl?-kGDH E2 silencing and transient overexpression in plants. Sl?-kGDH E2 was found to bind SA in two independent assays. SA treatment, as well as Sl?-kGDH E2 silencing, increased resistance to TMV. SA did not further enhance TMV defense in Sl?-kGDH E2-silenced tomato plants but did reduce TMV susceptibility in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing Sl?-kGDH E2. Furthermore, Sl?-kGDH E2-silencing-induced TMV resistance was fully blocked by bongkrekic acid application and alternative oxidase 1a silencing. These results indicated that binding by Sl?-kGDH E2 of SA acts upstream of and affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which plays an important role in basal defense against TMV. The findings of this study help to elucidate the mechanisms of SA-induced viral defense.
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H2O2 mediates the crosstalk of brassinosteroid and abscisic acid in tomato responses to heat and oxidative stresses.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The production of H2O2 is critical for brassinosteroid (BR)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stress tolerance in plants. In this study, the relationship between BR and ABA in the induction of H2O2 production and their roles in response to heat and paraquat (PQ) oxidative stresses were studied in tomato. Both BR and ABA induced increases in RBOH1 gene expression, NADPH oxidase activity, apoplastic H2O2 accumulation, and heat and PQ stress tolerance in wild-type plants. BR could only induced transient increases in these responses in the ABA biosynthetic mutant notabilis (not), whereas ABA induced strong and prolonged increases in these responses in the BR biosynthetic mutant d (^im) compared with wild-type plants. ABA levels were reduced in the BR biosynthetic mutant but could be elevated by exogenous BR. Silencing of RBOH1 compromised BR-induced apoplastic H2O2 production, ABA accumulation, and PQ stress responses; however, ABA-induced PQ stress responses were largely unchanged in the RBOH1-silenced plants. BR induces stress tolerance involving a positive feedback mechanism in which BR induces a rapid and transient H2O2 production by NADPH oxidase. The process in turn triggers increased ABA biosynthesis, leading to further increases in H2O2 production and prolonged stress tolerance. ABA induces H2O2 production in both the apoplastic and chloroplastic compartments.
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Aerobic granules formation and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal treating high strength ammonia wastewater in sequencing batch reactor.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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The objective of this study was to evaluate aerobic granules formation and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal treating high strength ammonia wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR). After successful aerobic granulation, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations of the SBR increased from 3.11 to 14.52 g/L, while sludge volume index (SVI) values decreased from 144.61 to 30.32 mL/g. Protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS) concentrations increased from 60.2 and 12.5 mg/L to 101.1 and 15.8 mg/L, respectively. Simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal was enhanced by altering the influent chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen (COD/N) ratio. At COD/N ratio of 9, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies were up to 89.8% and 77.5%, respectively. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) spectroscopy showed that the chemical compositions of sludge EPS were changed during granulation process. The results could provide useful information to promote nitrogen and phosphorus removal using aerobic granular sludge technology.
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[Effects of cigarette smoke on phagocytosed function of monocyte-derived macrophage in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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To explore the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on phagocytosizing function of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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Chloroplastic thioredoxin-f and thioredoxin-m1/4 play important roles in brassinosteroids-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Chloroplast thioredoxins (TRXs) and glutathione function as redox messengers in the regulation of photosynthesis. In this work, the roles of chloroplast TRXs in brassinosteroids (BRs)-induced changes in cellular redox homeostasis and CO2 assimilation were studied in the leaves of tomato plants. BRs-deficient d (^im) plants showed decreased transcripts of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x, while exogenous BRs significantly induced CO2 assimilation and the expression of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the chloroplast TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y genes individually increased membrane lipid peroxidation and accumulation of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin dimers, and decreased the activities of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in the leaves. Furthermore, partial silencing of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y resulted in decreased expression of genes involved in the Benson-Calvin cycle and decreased activity of the associated enzymes. Importantly, the BRs-induced increase in CO2 assimilation and the increased expression and activities of antioxidant- and photosynthesis-related genes and enzymes were compromised in the partially TRX-f- and TRX-m1/4-silenced plants. All of these results suggest that TRX-f and TRX-m1/4 are involved in the BRs-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato.
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[Gynecological malignant tumor related multiple primary malignant neoplasms: clinical analysis of 30 cases].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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To investigate the clinical features of gynecological malignant tumor related multiple primary malignant neoplasms (MPMN).
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Evaluation of hydrophobic polyvinyl-alcohol formaldehyde sponges as absorbents for oil spill.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Macroporous materials are a class of absorbents used for oil spill cleanup. In this article, novel macroporous and hydrophobic polyvinyl formaldehyde (PVF-H) sponges were prepared by the reaction of stearoyl chloride with hydroxyl groups of hydrophilic PVF sponge at different temperatures. Attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the successfully anchoring of hydrophobic stearoyl groups on the PVF networks. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images demonstrated that the as-prepared PVF-H had interconnected open-cell structures, and mercury intrusion porosimetry indicated that the average pore size ranged from 60 to 90 ?m and porosity was greater than 94.8%. Such PVF-H sponges can absorb oil products effectively, such as toluene, n-hexane, kerosene, soybean oil, hydraulic oil, and crude oil up to 13.7 g·g(-1) to 56.6 g·g(-1), and this level of absorption was approximately 2-4 times higher than that absorbed by commercial polypropylene nonwoven mat. In low-viscosity oils, the samples can reach the saturated absorption amount only in 1 min, but in higher-viscosity oils, absorption equilibrium can be reached in 10 min. In a simulated oil slick system, these macroporous and hydrophobic sponges can still maintain high oil absorption capacities within the range of 14.4 g·g(-1) to 57.6 g·g(-1), whereas a relatively low absorption rate (approximately 20 min) indicated high absorption performance and excellent selectivity in the oil-water mixture. In addition, the absorbed oils were collected effectively only through a simple squeeze. The PVF-H sponges were subjected to 35 absorption-squeeze cycles and exhibited good reusability and 90% recovery for oils. The samples prepared at different temperatures differed in their absorption capacities to some extent. However, this new kind of macroporous and PVF-H sponges had excellent absorption performance on oil products.
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Silybin reduces obliterated retinal capillaries in experimental diabetic retinopathy in rats.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Silybin has been previously reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties, raising the possibility that it may reduce vascular damage in diabetic retinopathy. Present study was designed to investigate this potential effect of silybin and its underlying mechanisms in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ) plus high-fat diet in Sprague-Dawley rats, and silybin was administrated for 22 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Histochemical and immunofluorescence techniques were used to assess the obliterated retinal capillaries, leukostasis, and level of retinal intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Western blot was performed to quantitate the expression of retinal ICAM-1. Results showed that silybin treatment significantly prevented the development of obliterated retinal capillaries in diabetes, compared with vehicle treatment. In addition, leukostasis and level of the retinal ICAM-1 were found to decrease considerably in silybin-treated diabetic groups. In conclusion, these results indicate that silybin reduces obliterated retinal capillaries in experimental diabetes, and the recovered retinal vascular leukostasis and level of ICAM-1 at least partly contributes to the preventive effect of silybin.
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[Correlation between subjective evaluation and objective examination in patient with fungal rhino-sinusitis].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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The study was to evaluate the quality of life in patients with fungal rhino-sinusitis(FRS) and to investigate the relationship btclween different subjective tests.objective measures and that between subjective tests and objective measures.
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Low expression of novel lncRNA RP11-462C24.1 suggests a biomarker of poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently emerged as a major class of regulatory molecules, which were involved in a broad range of biological processes and complex diseases. Research on lncRNAs may shed light on tumorigenesis and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of the present study was to identify lncRNAs correlated with CRC and then investigate their potential functions. We selected 92 patients for this prospective study and then collected the tumor samples and clinical records. First, the global lncRNA expression profiles in tumor and adjacent normal tissues of patients with non-metastatic CRC and patients with metastatic CRC were measured by microarray assay. Then, a noteworthy lncRNAs RP11-462C24.1 whose function was previously unknown was explored in detail on the aspect of the association of its expression level and clinicopathological features of CRC and patients' survival. We found that RP11-462C24.1 expression level was lower in cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal samples (P < 0.001). Furthermore, its expression level was lower in CRC patients with metastasis than those without metastasis (P = 0.049). That is, RP11-462C24.1 expression level decreased as the malignant degree of CRC increased. In addition, low expression of RP11-462C24.1 significantly correlated with more distant metastasis (P = 0.011). The areas under ROC curves were 0.78 and 0.65 for RP11-462C24.1, distinguishing CRC from normal tissue and distinguishing CRC without metastasis from CRC with metastasis, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified that RP11-462C24.1 was an independent predictor for patients prognosis (P = 0.005). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with low expression of RP11-462C24.1 had a poor disease-free survival (P < 0.001). This is the first study that correlates RP11-462C24.1 expression profile with malignancy grade in human CRC. Our results showed that RP11-462C24.1 could be a potential novel prognostic marker for CRC, and thus, provided a new strategy for CRC diagnosis. Meanwhile, our findings indicated the potential roles of RP11-462C24.1 in tumorigenesis and progression of CRC, which gave a clue for future studies.
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Resistance selection and biochemical mechanism of resistance against cyflumetofen in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval).
Pestic Biochem Physiol
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus is an important crop and vegetable plants pest mite. As a novel acaricide, cyflumetofen is effective against Tetranychus and Panonychus mites, but its risk and biochemical mechanism of resistance in mites is not clear. In this study, the resistance against cyflumetofen was selected and its biochemical mechanisms were studied in T. cinnabarinus. After selection the susceptibility and resistance against cyflumetofen in T. cinnabarinus, the final resistance ratio reached 21.33 at LC50 (CyR-43/CyS). All the collected field populations showed low resistance against cyflumetofen, although it had never been used in China. The activity of detoxifying enzymes CarE, MFO and GSTs were significantly increased in the final selected resistance strain (CyR-43), especially that for GSTs increased more than 7-folds after selection. The resistance against cyflumetofen developed slowly when selected from the susceptible strain in laboratory, but the resistant genes already existed in field populations, and the GSTs was the most important detoxifying enzyme conferring resistance against cyflumetofen in T. cinnabarinus. These results would provide the valuable information for designing appropriate strategies for the practical application of cyflumetofen in the field and delaying resistance development.
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Reduced growth and proliferation dynamics of nasal epithelial stem/progenitor cells in nasal polyps in vitro.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Basal cells in nasal epithelium have stemness/progenitor characters and play essential roles in the epithelial remodeling in nasal polyps (NP). We investigate whether the human nasal epithelial stem/progenitor cells (hNESPCs) from patients with NP are inherently distinct from those obtained from healthy controls. Epithelial basal cells were isolated and cultured for four passages from NP tissues and control nasal mucosa. hNESPCs from controls were stained positively with stem cell marker p63 and KRT5 and presented a consistent high Ki67 expression level over four passages. In contrast, hNESPCs from NP patients showed: i). a reduced growth and proliferation rate at each passage by evaluating colony-forming efficiency and doubling time; ii). a lower percentage of Ki67(+) cells among p63(+) cells in the colonies in late passages, which was also confirmed by immunostaining in the NP tissues. Thus reduced growth/proliferation dynamics in hNESPCs from NP could be an important pathological phenomenon in NP development.
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Cinchona alkaloid derivative-catalyzed enantioselective synthesis via a Mannich-type reaction and antifungal activity of ?-amino esters bearing benzoheterocycle moieties.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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An efficient synthesis of highly functionalized chiral ?-amino ester derivatives containing benzothiophene and benzothiazole moieties is developed by a Mannich-type reaction using a cinchona alkaloid-derived thiourea catalyst. The desired products were obtained in good yields and high enantioselectivities (~86% yield, >99% ee) using to the optimized reaction conditions. The synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, and HREI-MS analyses. The bioassays identified that compound 5dr has excellent antifungal activity, with a 60.53% inhibition rate against F. oxysporum, higher than that of the commercial agricultural fungicide hymexazol, whose inhibition rate was 56.12%.
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Hydrogen peroxide mediates abscisic acid-induced HSP70 accumulation and heat tolerance in grafted cucumber plants.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Root-shoot communications play important roles in plant stress responses. Here, we examined the roles of root-sourced signals in the shoot response to heat in cucumber plants. Cucumber plants grafted onto their own roots and luffa roots were exposed to aerial and root-zone heat to examine their tolerance by assessing the levels of oxidative stress, PSII photoinhibition, accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), H2 O2 and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 using immunoblotting, chlorophyll fluorescence, immunoassay, CeCl3 staining and Western blotting, respectively. Grafting onto the luffa rootstock enhanced the shoot tolerance to the heat. This enhanced tolerance was associated with increased accumulation of ABA and apoplastic H2 O2 , RBOH transcripts and HSP70 expression and a decrease in oxidative stress in the shoots. The increases in the ABA and H2 O2 concentrations in the shoots were attributed to an increase in ABA transport from roots and an increase in ABA biosynthesis in the shoots when the root-zone and shoots were heat stressed, respectively. Inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation compromised luffa rootstock-induced HSP70 expression and heat tolerance. These results suggest that, under heat stress, ABA triggers the expression of HSP70 in an apoplastic H2 O2 -dependent manner, implicating the role of an ABA-dependent H2 O2 -driven mechanism in a systemic response involving root-shoot communication.
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Design, synthesis, and antibacterial activity of novel Schiff base derivatives of quinazolin-4(3H)-one.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Novel imine derivatives of quinazolin-4(3H)-one were designed and synthesized by using aminoethyl moieties to increase the amine bridge of quinazolin-4(3H)-one amine and then introducing various aromatic aldehydes. The target compounds were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction crystallography. Bioassay results indicated that some of the compounds showed good to excellent antibacterial activities against tobacco bacterial wilt and tomato bacterial wilt. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of the compounds against tobacco and tomato bacterial wilts ranged from 63.73 ?g/mL to 201.52 ?g/mL and 38.64 ?g/mL to 81.39 ?g/mL, respectively, which are lower than that the positive control thiodiazole copper (216.70 and 99.80 ?g/mL). These results indicated that novel Schiff base derivatives containing the 4(3H)-quinazolinone moiety can effectively control tobacco and tomato bacterial wilts.
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Impairment of cilia architecture and ciliogenesis in hyperplastic nasal epithelium from nasal polyps.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Aberrant airway epithelial remodeling is one of the cardinal histopathologic features of inflammatory airway diseases, but whether it alters the mucociliary apparatus remains unknown.
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High thermal conductivity of chain-oriented amorphous polythiophene.
Nat Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Polymers are usually considered thermal insulators, because the amorphous arrangement of the molecular chains reduces the mean free path of heat-conducting phonons. The most common method to increase thermal conductivity is to draw polymeric fibres, which increases chain alignment and crystallinity, but creates a material that currently has limited thermal applications. Here we show that pure polythiophene nanofibres can have a thermal conductivity up to ? 4.4 W m(-1) K(-1) (more than 20 times higher than the bulk polymer value) while remaining amorphous. This enhancement results from significant molecular chain orientation along the fibre axis that is obtained during electropolymerization using nanoscale templates. Thermal conductivity data suggest that, unlike in drawn crystalline fibres, in our fibres the dominant phonon-scattering process at room temperature is still related to structural disorder. Using vertically aligned arrays of nanofibres, we demonstrate effective heat transfer at critical contacts in electronic devices operating under high-power conditions at 200 °C over numerous cycles.
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Design, synthesis, and antibacterial activity against rice bacterial leaf blight and leaf streak of 2,5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole/thiadiazole sulfone derivative.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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A series of 2,5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole/thiadiazole sulfone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activities against rice bacterial leaf blight and leaf streak caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicolaby via the turbidimeter test in vitro. Antibacterial bioassay results indicated that most compounds demonstrated good inhibitory effect antibacterial bioactivities against rice bacterial leaf blight and leaf streak. Among the title compounds, compound 6c demonstrated the best inhibitory effect against rice bacterial leaf blight and leaf streak with half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values of 1.07 and 7.14 ?g/mL, respectively, which were even better than those of commercial agents such as Bismerthiazol and Thiediazole Copper. In vivo antibacterial activities tests at greenhouse conditions demonstrated that the controlling effect of compounds 6c (43.5%) and 6g (42.4%) against rice bacterial leaf blight were better than those of Bismerthiazol (25.5%) and Thiediazole Copper (37.5%).
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Concomitant boost IMRT-based neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for clinical stage II/III rectal adenocarcinoma: results of a phase II study.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of concomitant boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) along with capecitabine and oxaliplatin, followed by a cycle of Xelox, in neoadjuvant course for locally advanced rectal cancer.
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Dynamic profiles of neutralizing antibody responses elicited in rhesus monkeys immunized with a combined tetravalent DTaP-Sabin IPV candidate vaccine.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The World Health Organization has recommended that a Sabin inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) should gradually and synchronously replace oral polio vaccines for routine immunizations because its benefits in eliminating vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis have been reported in different phases of clinical trials. It is also considered important to explore new tetravalent diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis-Sabin IPV (DTaP-sIPV) candidate vaccines for possible use in developing countries. In this study, the immunogenicity of a combined tetravalent DTaP-sIPV candidate vaccine was investigated in primates by evaluating the neutralizing antibody responses it induced. The dynamic profiles of the antibody responses to each of the separate antigenic components and serotypes of Sabin IPV were determined and their corresponding geometric mean titers were similar to those generated by the tetravalent diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis-conventional IPV (DTaP-cIPV), the tetravalent diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP), and Sabin IPV vaccines in the control groups. This implies that protective immunogenic effects are conferred by this combined tetravalent formulation.
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Distribution of HLA-A, -B, and -C alleles and HLA/KIR combinations in Han population in China.
J Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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We investigated polymorphisms of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I (A, B, and C) loci of a Han population (n, 239) from the Yunnan province, Southwest China, using high-resolution polymerase chain reaction-Luminex (PCR-Luminex) typing. We combined the HLA data from this study with the KIR genotypes from a previous study of this Han population to analyze the combination of KIR/HLA ligands. A total of 27 HLA-A, 54 HLA-B, and 31 HLA-C alleles were found in this population. The frequencies of A*11:01, A*24:02, B*40:01, B*46:01, C*01:02, C*03:04, and C*07:02 were all > 10%. The following haplotypes were common, with frequencies > 5%: 1 A-B (A*02:07-B*46:01), 2 A-C (A*02:07-C*01:02, and A*11:01-C*07:02), 4 C-B (B*13:01-C*03:04, B*40:01-C*07:02, B*46:01-C*01:02 and B*58:01-C*03:02), and 1 A-C-B (A*02:07-C*01:02-B*46:01). Analysis of KIR3D and their ligands HLA-A3/A11 and HLA-Bw4 showed that the frequencies of 3DL2(+)-A3/A11(+) and 3DL2(+)-A3/A11(-) were 0.527 and 0.473, and the frequencies of 3DL1(+)-Bw4(+), 3DL1(+)-Bw4(-), 3DL1(-)-Bw4(+), and 3DL1(-)-Bw4(-) were 0.552, 0.397, 0.038, and 0.013, respectively. The results of KIR/HLA-C combination analysis showed that all individuals had at least one inhibitory or activating KIR/HLA-C pair, and one KIR/HLA-C pair was the most frequent (157/239), followed by two pairs (46/239), three pairs (33/239), and no pairs (3/239). Comparison of KIR gene and HLA gene and their pair frequency between Yunnan Han and the isolated Han (FYDH) who also lived in Yunnan province showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in KIR frequencies, but significant differences (P < 0.05) for some HLA allele frequencies. In addition, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the two populations for KIR/HLA pairs.
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Risk Factors of Synchronous Inguinal Lymph Nodes Metastasis for Lower Rectal Cancer Involving the Anal Canal.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of the study is to identify the risk factors of synchronous ILN metastasis for lower rectal cancer involving the anal canal.
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Progressive Degradation of Crude Oil n-Alkanes Coupled to Methane Production under Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although methanogenic degradation of hydrocarbons has become a well-known process, little is known about which crude oil tend to be degraded at different temperatures and how the microbial community is responded. In this study, we assessed the methanogenic crude oil degradation capacity of oily sludge microbes enriched from the Shengli oilfield under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The microbial communities were investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes combined with cloning and sequencing. Enrichment incubation demonstrated the microbial oxidation of crude oil coupled to methane production at 35 and 55°C, which generated 3.7±0.3 and 2.8±0.3 mmol of methane per gram oil, respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that crude oil n-alkanes were obviously degraded, and high molecular weight n-alkanes were preferentially removed over relatively shorter-chain n-alkanes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the concurrence of acetoclastic Methanosaeta and hydrogenotrophic methanogens but different methanogenic community structures under the two temperature conditions. Candidate divisions of JS1 and WWE 1, Proteobacteria (mainly consisting of Syntrophaceae, Desulfobacteraceae and Syntrophorhabdus) and Firmicutes (mainly consisting of Desulfotomaculum) were supposed to be involved with n-alkane degradation in the mesophilic conditions. By contrast, the different bacterial phylotypes affiliated with Caldisericales, "Shengli Cluster" and Synergistetes dominated the thermophilic consortium, which was most likely to be associated with thermophilic crude oil degradation. This study revealed that the oily sludge in Shengli oilfield harbors diverse uncultured microbes with great potential in methanogenic crude oil degradation over a wide temperature range, which extend our previous understanding of methanogenic degradation of crude oil alkanes.
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Five new species of Minettia (Minettiella) (Diptera, Lauxaniidae) from China.
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Five species of Minettia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 from the South of China are described as new to science: Minettia (Minettiella) bawanglingensissp. n., Minettia (Minettiella) clavatasp. n., Minettia (Minettiella) plurifurcatasp. n., Minettia (Minettiella) spinosasp. n. and Minettia (Minettiella) tianmushanensissp. n. Minettiellaelbergi Shatalkin, 1996 and Minettiajaponica Sasakawa, 1995 are treated as junior synonyms of Minettia (Minettiella) dolabriforma (Sasakawa & Kozánek, 1995). A key to five subgenera of Minettia and eleven species of Minettia (Minettiella) is presented.
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Quality metrics of spike sorting using neighborhood components analysis.
Open Biomed Eng J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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While an electrode has allowed for simultaneously recording the activity of many neurons in microelectrode extracellular recording techniques, quantitative metrics of cluster quality after sorting to identify clusters suited for single unit analysis are lacking. In this paper, an objective measure based on the idea of neighborhood component analysis was described for evaluating cluster quality of spikes. The proposed method was tested with experimental and simulated extracellular recordings as well as compared to isolation distance and L ratio. The results of simulation and real data from the rodent primary visual cortex have shown that values of the proposed method were related to the accuracy of spike sorting, which could discriminate well- and poorly-separated clusters. It can apply on any study based on the activity of single neurons.
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Association study of ARL15 and CDH13 with T2DM in a Han Chinese population.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Several studies indicate that plasma adiponectin levels are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or T2DM risk factors in diverse populations. In addition to the adiponectin gene, several other genes have been postulated to influence plasma adiponectin levels. In this study, we investigated two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4311394 and rs4783244, located intronically in the ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 15 (ARL15) and the T-cadherin (CDH13) genes, respectively. These SNPs were detected in a Han Chinese population using a TaqMan assay and evaluated for association with T2DM as well as with individual metabolic traits. Allele frequencies for rs4311394 were significantly different in T2DM and nondiabetes (NDM) groups (?² = 4.49, P = 0.034). However, neither allele nor genotype frequencies for rs4783244 were associated with T2DM (?² = 0.33, P = 0.56 and ?² = 2.35, P = 0.31 respectively). The SNPs did not exhibit significant association with individual metabolic traits in the T2DM and NDM groups. Our results indicated that the G allele of the rs4311394 might be a susceptibility factor for T2DM in the Han Chinese population (odds ratio: 1.20; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.41).
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[A prospective multicenter clinical trial of medical and surgical treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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To demonstrate the clinical outcomes of maximal medical therapy(MMT) and functional endoscopic sinus surgery+ maximal medical therapy (FESS+MMT) for moderate to severe chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) in China, to provide clinical evidence for treatment recommendation.
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RBOH1-dependent H2O2 production and subsequent activation of MPK1/2 play an important role in acclimation-induced cross-tolerance in tomato.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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H2O2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play important functions in plant stress responses, but their roles in acclimation response remain unclear. This study examined the functions of H2O2 and MPK1/2 in acclimation-induced cross-tolerance in tomato plants. Mild cold, paraquat, and drought as acclimation stimuli enhanced tolerance to more severe subsequent chilling, photooxidative, and drought stresses. Acclimation-induced cross-tolerance was associated with increased transcript levels of RBOH1 and stress- and defence-related genes, elevated apoplastic H2O2 accumulation, increased activity of NADPH oxidase and antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione redox state, and activation of MPK1/2 in tomato. Virus-induced gene silencing of RBOH1, MPK1, and MPK2 or MPK1/2 all compromised acclimation-induced cross-tolerance and associated stress responses. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that acclimation-induced cross-tolerance is largely attributed to RBOH1-dependent H2O2 production at the apoplast, which may subsequently activate MPK1/2 to induce stress responses.
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[Self-assembly and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of spherical crystallized interferon for sustained delivery].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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It is a challenging and important project to prolong the in vivo half life of protein and peptide drugs by physicochemical methods without new molecular entities generation. Protein crystallization provides a new strategy for improving the stability and in vivo delivery of these drugs. We show here that recombinant human interferon-alpha (rhIFN) can form spherical crystals. The physical and chemical features of the crystals were characterized, and drug dissolution was determined in vitro. The pharmacokinetics of crystallized interferon after sc injection in rabbit at 1.5 x 10(7) U x kg(-1) was compared to that of soluble form. The crystals were characterized as mono-dispersed spheres, with yield of > 80%, mean diameter size of about 16 microm and crystallinity of 23.2%. The in vitro dissolution behavior of crystallized rhIFN was featured as low initial burst release (21% within the first 2 h) and prolonged cumulative dissolution time up to 72 h without biological potency lost. After sc administration of soluble and crystallized interferon in rabbits, the peak time (T(max)) and half life (t1/2) were prolonged from (1.80 +/- 0.45) h and (1.35 +/- 0.35) h to (13.20 +/- 2.68) h and (10.68 +/- 1.97) h, respectively. The corresponding peak concentration decreased from (1 411.10 +/- 575.28) U x mL(-1) to (721.37 +/- 206.55) U x mL(-1). PK/PD analysis indicated that (96.87 +/- 20.30) % of relative bioavailability was obtained. The research results of this work will provide important academic value and application prospect for improving clinical therapeutic effect and development of biomacromolecules delivery system for protein and peptide drugs.
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[Expression of choline acetyltransferase in the rat barrel cortex by electrical stimulation].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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To observe a turning performance in the rats excited by using a proper electrical stimuli of the barrel cortex region (BC), and the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the BC regions after electoral stimulation.
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Effects of surface band bending and scattering on thermoelectric transport in suspended bismuth telluride nanoplates.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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A microdevice was used to measure the in-plane thermoelectric properties of suspended bismuth telluride nanoplates from 9 to 25 nm thick. The results reveal a suppressed Seebeck coefficient together with a general trend of decreasing electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity with decreasing thickness. While the electrical conductivity of the nanoplates is still within the range reported for bulk Bi2Te3, the total thermal conductivity for nanoplates less than 20 nm thick is well below the reported bulk range. These results are explained by the presence of surface band bending and diffuse surface scattering of electrons and phonons in the nanoplates, where pronounced n-type surface band bending can yield suppressed and even negative Seebeck coefficient in unintentionally p-type doped nanoplates.
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Optical properties of free-standing gelatin-Si nanoparticle composite films and gelatin-Si-Au nanoparticle composite films.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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A free-standing fluorescent gelatin-Si nanoparticle composite thin film is facilely prepared by means of a filtration technique assisted by porous copper hydroxide nanostrands as a sacrificial layer. The as-prepared gelatin-Si nanoparticle composite film is greatly portable, flexible, transparent and free-standing. The most important advantage is its robust storage stability stored in ambient air, which make it promising for various applications. Meanwhile, a gelatin-Si-Au nanoparticle composite film is also successfully prepared by the formation of Au NPs in a gelatin-Si nanoparticle composite film through the in situ reduction of HAuCl4 at room temperature. The photoluminescence (PL) quenching and blue shift in the peak of the emission spectra occur due to the energy transfer from Si NPs to Au NPs. By varying the amount and size of Au NPs incorporated into the gelatin-Si nanoparticle composite film, the energy transfer efficiency can be controlled. This is a general method to prepare metal-semiconductor hybrid fluorescent nanomaterials, which offers the possibility of tuning the luminescence intensity and wavelength of the emitted light.
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High-sensitivity roll-angle interferometer.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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A roll-angle interferometer with high sensitivity is presented in this Letter. Two sets of centrosymmetric beams are used to travel through the measurement and reference arms of the roll-angle interferometer, which contains two specific optical devices: wedge prism assembly and wedge mirror assembly. Changes of the optical path in the interferometric arms caused by roll are differential and converted into phase shift through a particular interferometer system. The interferometric beams are a completely common path for the adoption of the centrosymmetric measurement structure, and the cross talk of the straightness, yaw, and pitch errors is avoided. The dead path is minimized, so the stability and the accuracy of the measurement can be greatly enhanced. The experimental results fit well with the theoretical analysis, and a measurement resolution of sub-microradian is achieved experimentally.
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Mammalian cells preferentially internalize hydrogel nanodiscs over nanorods and use shape-specific uptake mechanisms.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Size, surface charge, and material compositions are known to influence cell uptake of nanoparticles. However, the effect of particle geometry, i.e., the interplay between nanoscale shape and size, is less understood. Here we show that when shape is decoupled from volume, charge, and material composition, under typical in vitro conditions, mammalian epithelial and immune cells preferentially internalize disc-shaped, negatively charged hydrophilic nanoparticles of high aspect ratios compared with nanorods and lower aspect-ratio nanodiscs. Endothelial cells also prefer nanodiscs, however those of intermediate aspect ratio. Interestingly, unlike nanospheres, larger-sized hydrogel nanodiscs and nanorods are internalized more efficiently than their smallest counterparts. Kinetics, efficiency, and mechanisms of uptake are all shape-dependent and cell type-specific. Although macropinocytosis is used by both epithelial and endothelial cells, epithelial cells uniquely internalize these nanoparticles using the caveolae-mediated pathway. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells, on the other hand, use clathrin-mediated uptake for all shapes and show significantly higher uptake efficiency compared with epithelial cells. Using results from both upright and inverted cultures, we propose that nanoparticle internalization is a complex manifestation of three shape- and size-dependent parameters: particle surface-to-cell membrane contact area, i.e., particle-cell adhesion, strain energy for membrane deformation, and sedimentation or local particle concentration at the cell membrane. These studies provide a fundamental understanding on how nanoparticle uptake in different mammalian cells is influenced by the nanoscale geometry and is critical for designing improved nanocarriers and predicting nanomaterial toxicity.
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Phonon-interface scattering in multilayer graphene on an amorphous support.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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The recent studies of thermal transport in suspended, supported, and encased graphene just began to uncover the richness of two-dimensional phonon physics, which is relevant to the performance and reliability of graphene-based functional materials and devices. Among the outstanding questions are the exact causes of the suppressed basal-plane thermal conductivity measured in graphene in contact with an amorphous material, and the layer thickness needed for supported or embedded multilayer graphene (MLG) to recover the high thermal conductivity of graphite. Here we use sensitive in-plane thermal transport measurements of graphene samples on amorphous silicon dioxide to show that full recovery to the thermal conductivity of the natural graphite source has yet to occur even after the MLG thickness is increased to 34 layers, considerably thicker than previously thought. This seemingly surprising finding is explained by long intrinsic scattering mean free paths of phonons in graphite along both basal-plane and cross-plane directions, as well as partially diffuse scattering of MLG phonons by the MLG-amorphous support interface, which is treated by an interface scattering model developed for highly anisotropic materials. Based on the phonon transmission coefficient calculated from reported experimental thermal interface conductance results, phonons emerging from the interface consist of a large component that is scattered across the interface, making rational choice of the support materials a potential approach to increasing the thermal conductivity of supported MLG.
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High-performance solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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In this paper, we report a facile low-cost synthesis of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for solid-state supercapacitors. Structural analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of ZnO nanorods that are inserted in graphene nanosheets, forming a sandwiched architecture. The material exhibited a high specific capacitance of 156 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV.s-1. The fabricated solid-state supercapacitor device using these graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites exhibits good supercapacitive performance and long-term cycle stability. The improved supercapacitance property of these materials could be ascribed to the increased conductivity of ZnO and better utilization of graphene. These results demonstrate the potential of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites as an electrode in high-performance supercapacitors.
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Reexamination of thermal transport measurements of a low-thermal conductance nanowire with a suspended micro-device.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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An increasingly used technique for measuring the thermal conductance of a nanowire is based on a suspended micro-device with built-in resistance thermometers. In the past, the technique has been limited to samples with thermal conductance larger than 1 × 10(-9) W/K because of temperature fluctuations in the sample environment and the presence of background heat transfer through residual gas molecules and radiation between the two thermometers. In addition, parasitic heat loss from the long supporting beams and asymmetry in the fabricated device results in two additional errors, which have been ignored in previous use of this method. To address these issues, we present a comprehensive measurement approach, where the device asymmetry is determined by conducting thermal measurements with two opposite heat flow directions along the nanowire, the background heat transfer is eliminated by measuring the differential heat transfer signal between the nanowire device and a reference device without a nanowire sample, and the parasitic heat loss from the supporting beams is obtained by measuring the average temperature rise of one of the beams. This technique is demonstrated on a nanofiber sample with a thermal conductance of 3.7 × 10(-10) W/K, against a background conductance of 8.2 × 10(-10) W/K at 320 K temperature. The results reveal the need to reduce the background thermal conductance in order to employ the micro-device to measure a nanowire sample with the thermal conductance less than 1 × 10(-10) W/K.
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TPX2 is a novel prognostic marker for the growth and metastasis of colon cancer.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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We have previously demonstrated an aberrant overexpression of the microtubule-associated protein TPX2 in colon cancer using a genome-wide gene expression profiling analysis. Here, we aim to investigate its expression pattern, clinical significance, and biological function in colon cancer.
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The role of PD-1 and PD-L1 in T-cell immune suppression in patients with hematological malignancies.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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T-cell activation and dysfunction relies on direct and modulated receptors. Based on their functional outcome, co-signaling molecules can be divided as co-stimulators and co-inhibitors, which positively and negatively control the priming, growth, differentiation and functional maturation of a T-cell response. We are beginning to understand the power of co-inhibitors in the context of lymphocyte homeostasis and the pathogenesis of leukemia, which involves several newly described co-inhibitory pathways, including the programmed death-1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) pathway. The aim of this review is to summarize the PD-1 and PD-L1 biological functions and their alterative expression in hematological malignancies. The role of PD-1 and PD-L1 in T-cell immune suppression and the potential for immunotherapy via blocking PD-1 and PD-L1 in hematological malignancies are also reviewed.
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Stimulated leaf dark respiration in tomato in an elevated carbon dioxide atmosphere.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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It is widely accepted that leaf dark respiration is a determining factor for the growth and maintenance of plant tissues and the carbon cycle. However, the underlying effect and mechanism of elevated CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) on dark respiration remain unclear. In this study, tomato plants grown at elevated [CO2] showed consistently higher leaf dark respiratory rate, as compared with ambient control plants. The increased respiratory capacity was driven by a greater abundance of proteins, carbohydrates, and transcripts involved in pathways of glycolysis carbohydrate metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and mitochondrial electron transport energy metabolism. This study provides substantial evidence in support of the concept that leaf dark respiration is increased by elevated [CO2] in tomato plants and suggests that the increased availability of carbohydrates and the increased energy status are involved in the increased rate of dark respiration in response to elevated [CO2].
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Is adjuvant radiotherapy warranted in resected pT1-2 node-positive rectal cancer?
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Stage T1-2 rectal cancers are unlikely to have lymph node metastases and neoadjuvant therapy is not routinely administered. Postoperative management is controversial if lymph node metastases are detected in the resected specimen. We studied the outcomes of patients with pT1-2 node-positive rectal cancer in order to determine whether adjuvant radiotherapy was beneficial.
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[Fe(CN)6]4- decorated mesoporous gelatin thin films for colorimetric detection and as sorbents of heavy metal ions.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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[Fe(CN)6](4-) decorated mesoporous gelatin films, acting as colorimetric sensors and sorbents for heavy metal ions, were prepared by incorporating [Fe(CN)6](4-) ions into the mesoporous gelatin films through electrostatic interaction. Gelatin-Prussian blue (PB) and gelatin-PB analogue composite films were successfully synthesized by immersing the [Fe(CN)6](4-) decorated gelatin films into aqueous solutions of metal ions, such as Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) (all as nitrates). The in situ formation process of PB or its analogues in the films was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. According to the different colors of the PB nanoparticles and its analogues, the [Fe(CN)6](4-) decorated mesoporous gelatin films demonstrated colorimetric sensor abilities for detecting the corresponding metal ions by the naked eye with sufficient sensitivity at 1 ppm level and a quite short response time of 5 minutes. Moreover, due to the [Fe(CN)6](4-) functionality and other functional groups of gelatin itself, this [Fe(CN)6](4-) decorated mesoporous gelatin film shows a tens times higher adsorption ability for heavy metal ions in water than that of activated carbon. Due to both the efficient detection and high adsorption ability for heavy metal ions, this film has wide potential applications for the detection and purification of heavy metal ions from polluted water.
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[Analysis of clinical data of 43 cases of parapharyngeal space tumors].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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To learn the anatomical structure of the parapharyngeal space and to analyze the pathological type, preoperative evaluation and choice of surgical approach of parapharyngeal space tumors.
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Association and differentiation of MHC class I and II polymorphic Alu insertions and HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 alleles in the Chinese Han population.
Mol. Genet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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In order to investigate the polymorphism of Alu insertions (POALINs) in the HLA region, we genotyped ten Alu loci (AluMICB, AluTF, AluHJ, AluHG, AluHF in the HLA class I region and AluDPB2, AluDQA2, AluDQA1, AluDRB1, AluORF10 in the HLA class II region) to determine their allele frequencies and associations with the HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C and HLA-DRB1 genes in the Chinese Han population. Our results showed the ten-loci POALINs varied in frequency between 0.003 and 0.425. By comparing the data of the ten-loci POALIN in Chinese Han with Japanese and Caucasian data, marked differences were observed between the three ethnic groups at the allelic or haplotypic levels. Each POALIN was in significant linkage disequilibrium with a variety of HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 alleles, and was associated with a variety of HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 allele in Chinese Han. This comparative study of multilocus POALINs in the HLA class I and II regions of the Chinese Han population shows that POALINs alone or as haplotypes together with the HLA class I and II alleles are informative genetic markers for the identification of HLA class I and II allele and variations, such as crossing over events within the same and/or different populations.
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Ultrafast viscous water flow through nanostrand-channelled graphene oxide membranes.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Pressure-driven ultrafiltration membranes are important in separation applications. Advanced filtration membranes with high permeance and enhanced rejection must be developed to meet rising worldwide demand. Here we report nanostrand-channelled graphene oxide ultrafiltration membranes with a network of nanochannels with a narrow size distribution (3-5?nm) and superior separation performance. This permeance offers a 10-fold enhancement without sacrificing the rejection rate compared with that of graphene oxide membranes, and is more than 100 times higher than that of commercial ultrafiltration membranes with similar rejection. The flow enhancement is attributed to the porous structure and significantly reduced channel length. An abnormal pressure-dependent separation behaviour is also reported, where the elastic deformation of nanochannels offers tunable permeation and rejection. The water flow through these hydrophilic graphene oxide nanochannels is identified as viscous. This nanostrand-channelling approach is also extendable to other laminate membranes, providing potential for accelerating separation and water-purification processes.
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[Clinical significance of pulmonary function test in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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To investigate the incidence and severity of pulmonary function impairment in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP).
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Room temperature synthesis of free-standing HKUST-1 membranes from copper hydroxide nanostrands for gas separation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Large scale, robust, well intergrown free-standing HKUST-1 membranes were converted from copper hydroxide nanostrand free-standing films in 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid water-ethanol solution at room temperature, and explored for gas separation. The truncated crystals are controllable and favorable for the dense intergrowth.
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Gene expression signatures: a new approach to understanding the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a complex inflammatory disease with variable disease manifestation. Though external risk factors are associated with development and/or persistence of CRS, the host mucosal response is also important, as nasal epithelium acts as a physical and immune barrier. Under inflammatory stress, the nasal epithelium can undergo injury, followed by a rapid remodeling response ranging from epithelial hyperplasia, to goblet-cell metaplasia, to denudation, loss of cilia, fibrosis, and basement membrane thickening. Identification of gene expression signatures and molecular pathways in CRS pathogenesis have now begun to contribute significantly to a better understanding of the genetic and molecular alterations underlying CRS development and progression. Genetic studies are especially illuminating when multiple gene variants synergize within a permissive environmental context, and are expected to guide development of more effective therapeutic targets for CRS treatment.
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Changes in the MALT1-A20-NF-?B expression pattern may be related to T cell dysfunction in AML.
Cancer Cell Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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To elucidate the characteristics of T-cell receptor (TCR) signal transduction in T-cells from acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1), A20, NF-?B and MALT1-V1 gene expression levels in CD3+ T cells sorted from the peripheral blood of patients with AML were analyzed by real-time PCR. A significantly lower MALT1 and A20 expression level was found in T cells from patients with AML compared with healthy controls (p?=?0.045, p?
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Down-regulation of EMP1 is associated with epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia in nasal polyps.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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The aim of this study was to assess protein and mRNA expression of epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1) in the nasal mucosa of patients with nasal polyps (NP), and to determine what changes occur in response to glucocorticosteroid (GC) treatment.
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(1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignments of the N-terminal ubiquitin-binding domains of USP25.
Biomol NMR Assign
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Ubiquitin Specific Protease 25 (USP25), a member of the deubiquitinase family, is involved in several disease-related signal pathways including myogenesis, immunity and protein degradation. It specially catalyzes the hydrolysis of the K48-linked and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains. USP25 contains one ubiquitin-associated domain and two ubiquitin-interacting motifs (UIMs) in its N-terminal region, which interact with ubiquitin and play a role in substrate recognition. Besides, it has been shown that the catalysis activity of USP25 is either impaired by sumoylation or enhanced by ubiquitination within its UIM. To elucidate the structural basis of the cross-regulation of USP25 function by non-covalent binding and covalent modifications of ubiquitin and SUMO2/3, a systematic structural biology study of USP25 is required. Here, we report the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignments of the N-terminal ubiquitin binding domains (UBDs) of USP25 with BMRB accession number of 19111, which is the first step of the systematic structural biology study of the enzyme.
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Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Graphenes success has shown that it is possible to create stable, single and few-atom-thick layers of van der Waals materials, and also that these materials can exhibit fascinating and technologically useful properties. Here we review the state-of-the-art of 2D materials beyond graphene. Initially, we will outline the different chemical classes of 2D materials and discuss the various strategies to prepare single-layer, few-layer, and multilayer assembly materials in solution, on substrates, and on the wafer scale. Additionally, we present an experimental guide for identifying and characterizing single-layer-thick materials, as well as outlining emerging techniques that yield both local and global information. We describe the differences that occur in the electronic structure between the bulk and the single layer and discuss various methods of tuning their electronic properties by manipulating the surface. Finally, we highlight the properties and advantages of single-, few-, and many-layer 2D materials in field-effect transistors, spin- and valley-tronics, thermoelectrics, and topological insulators, among many other applications.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.