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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Tumor volume change with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early-stage lung cancer: evaluating the potential for adaptive SBRT.
Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2015
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To quantify gross tumor volume (GTV) change during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and on first follow-up, as well as to evaluate for any predictive prognostic risk factors related to GTV decrease. An attempt was also made to identify the potential timing for adaptive SBRT.
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Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy as Salvage for Intrathoracic Recurrence in Patients With Previously Irradiated Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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The purpose of this study is to provide data on the outcomes of using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) as a means of salvage for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) relapses previously treated with radiation.
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Treatment of recurrent diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: the MD Anderson Cancer Center experience.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2011
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Recurrent diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) are traditionally treated with palliative care since no effective treatments have been described for these tumors. Recently, clinical studies have been emerging, and individualized treatment is attempted more frequently. However, an informative way to compare the treatment outcomes has not been established, and historical control data are missing for recurrent disease. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with recurrent DIPG treated between 1998 and 2010. Response progression-free survival and possible influencing factors were evaluated. Thirty-one patients were identified who were treated in 61 treatment attempts using 26 treatment elements in 31 different regimens. The most frequently used drugs were etoposide (14), bevacizumab (13), irinotecan (13), nimotuzumab (13), and valproic acid (13). Seven patients had repeat radiation therapy to the primary tumor. Response was recorded after 58 treatment attempts and was comprised of 0 treatment attempts with complete responses, 7 with partial responses, 20 with stable diseases, and 31 with progressive diseases The median progression-free survival after treatment start was 0.16 years (2 months) and was found to be correlated to the prior time to progression but not to the number of previous treatment attempts. Repeat radiation resulted in the highest response rates (4/7), and the longest progression-free survival. These data provide a basis to plan future clinical trials for recurrent DIPG. Repeat radiation therapy should be tested in a prospective clinical study.
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Induction treatment for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, experience of M.D. Anderson Cancer Center.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2011
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The biology of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma remains poorly understood and the dismal prognosis has not changed despite various attempts to add chemotherapy to standard radiation.
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Whole abdominopelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy for desmoplastic small round cell tumor after surgery.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSCRT) is an uncommon pediatric tumor with a poor prognosis. Aggressive multimodality therapy is the current treatment approach; however. treatment toxicity is of concern. We report our results with whole abdominopelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (WAP-IMRT) as a component of multimodality therapy for DSCRT at a single institution.
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Low early ototoxicity rates for pediatric medulloblastoma patients treated with proton radiotherapy.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Hearing loss is common following chemoradiotherapy for children with medulloblastoma. Compared to photons, proton radiotherapy reduces radiation dose to the cochlea for these patients. Here we examine whether this dosimetric advantage leads to a clinical benefit in audiometric outcomes.
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Dosimetric comparison of three-dimensional conformal proton radiotherapy, intensity-modulated proton therapy, and intensity-modulated radiotherapy for treatment of pediatric craniopharyngiomas.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Cranial irradiation in pediatric patients is associated with serious long-term adverse effects. We sought to determine whether both three-dimensional conformal proton radiotherapy (3D-PRT) and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) compared with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) decrease integral dose to brain areas known to harbor neuronal stem cells, major blood vessels, and other normal brain structures for pediatric patients with craniopharyngiomas.
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Radiation-induced middle ear and mastoid opacification in skull base tumors treated with radiotherapy.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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To assess the incidence of middle ear (ME) pathology in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) for skull base tumors.
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Predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm incidence and mortality due to secondary neutrons in a girl and boy receiving proton craniospinal irradiation.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2010
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The purpose of this study was to compare the predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) incidence and mortality from secondary neutrons for a 9-year-old girl and a 10-year-old boy who received proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI). SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons were predicted from equivalent doses to radiosensitive organs for cranial, spinal and intracranial boost fields. Therapeutic proton absorbed dose and equivalent dose from neutrons were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Risks of SMN incidence and mortality in most organs and tissues were predicted by applying risks models from the National Research Council of the National Academies to the equivalent dose from neutrons; for non-melanoma skin cancer, risk models from the International Commission on Radiological Protection were applied. The lifetime absolute risks of SMN incidence due to neutrons were 14.8% and 8.5%, for the girl and boy, respectively. The risks of a fatal SMN were 5.3% and 3.4% for the girl and boy, respectively. The girl had a greater risk for any SMN except colon and liver cancers, indicating that the girls higher risks were not attributable solely to greater susceptibility to breast cancer. Lung cancer predominated the risk of SMN mortality for both patients. This study suggests that the risks of SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons may be greater for girls than for boys treated with proton CSI.
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FoxM1B regulates NEDD4-1 expression, leading to cellular transformation and full malignant phenotype in immortalized human astrocytes.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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Our recent studies have shown that the FoxM1B transcription factor is overexpressed in human glioma tissues and that the level of its expression correlates directly with glioma grade. However, whether FoxM1B plays a role in the early development of glioma (i.e., in transformation) is unknown. In this study, we found that the FoxM1B molecule causes cellular transformation and tumor formation in normal human astrocytes (NHA) immortalized by p53 and pRB inhibition. Moreover, brain tumors that arose from intracranial injection of FoxM1B-expressing immortalized NHAs displayed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) phenotypes, suggesting that FoxM1B overexpression in immortalized NHAs not only transforms the cells but also leads to GBM formation. Mechanistically, our results showed that overexpression of FoxM1B upregulated NEDD4-1, an E3 ligase that mediates the degradation and downregulation of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) in multiple cell lines. Decreased PTEN in turn resulted in the hyperactivation of Akt, which led to phosphorylation and cytoplasmic retention of FoxO3a. Blocking Akt activation with phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt inhibitors inhibited the FoxM1B-induced transformation of immortalized NHAs. Furthermore, overexpression of FoxM1B in immortalized NHAs increased the expression of survivin, cyclin D1, and cyclin E, which are important molecules for tumor growth. Collectively, these results indicate that overexpression of FoxM1B, in cooperation with p53 and pRB inhibition in NHA cells, promotes astrocyte transformation and GBM formation through multiple mechanisms.
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The M. D. Anderson proton therapy system.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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The purpose of this study is to describe the University of Texas M. D. Anderson proton therapy system (PTC-H) including the accelerator, beam transport, and treatment delivery systems, the functionality and clinical parameters for passive scattering and pencil beam scanning treatment modes, and the results of acceptance tests.
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REDUCING STRAY RADIATION DOSE FOR A PEDIATRIC PATIENT RECEIVING PROTON CRANIOSPINAL IRRADIATION.
Nucl Technol
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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The aim of this study was to quantify stray radiation dose from neutrons emanating from a proton treatment unit and to evaluate methods of reducing this dose for a pediatric patient undergoing craniospinal irradiation. The organ equivalent doses and effective dose from stray radiation were estimated for a 30.6-Gy treatment using Monte Carlo simulations of a passive scattering treatment unit and a patient-specific voxelized anatomy. The treatment plan was based on computed tomography images of a 10-yr-old male patient. The contribution to stray radiation was evaluated for the standard nozzle and for the same nozzle but with modest modifications to suppress stray radiation. The modifications included enhancing the local shielding between the patient and the primary external neutron source and increasing the distance between them. The effective dose from stray radiation emanating from the standard nozzle was 322 mSv; enhancements to the nozzle reduced the effective dose by as much as 43%. These results add to the body of evidence that modest enhancements to the treatment unit can reduce substantially the effective dose from stray radiation.
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Optimal treatment planning for skull base chordoma: photons, protons, or a combination of both?
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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We compared dosimetry of proton (PR), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) photon (PH), and combined PR and IMRT PH (PP) irradiation of skull base chordomas to determine the most optimal technique.
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The risk of developing a second cancer after receiving craniospinal proton irradiation.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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The purpose of this work was to compare the risk of developing a second cancer after craniospinal irradiation using photon versus proton radiotherapy by means of simulation studies designed to account for the effects of neutron exposures. Craniospinal irradiation of a male phantom was calculated for passively-scattered and scanned-beam proton treatment units. Organ doses were estimated from treatment plans; for the proton treatments, the amount of stray radiation was calculated separately using the Monte Carlo method. The organ doses were converted to risk of cancer incidence using a standard formalism developed for radiation protection purposes. The total lifetime risk of second cancer due exclusively to stray radiation was 1.5% for the passively scattered treatment versus 0.8% for the scanned proton beam treatment. Taking into account the therapeutic and stray radiation fields, the risk of second cancer from intensity-modulated radiation therapy and conventional radiotherapy photon treatments were 7 and 12 times higher than the risk associated with scanned-beam proton therapy, respectively, and 6 and 11 times higher than with passively scattered proton therapy, respectively. Simulations revealed that both passively scattered and scanned-beam proton therapies confer significantly lower risks of second cancers than 6 MV conventional and intensity-modulated photon therapies.
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A pilot study of risk-adapted radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with supratentorial PNET.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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We undertook this study to estimate the event-free survival (EFS) of patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (SPNET) treated with risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation (CSI) with additional radiation to the primary tumor site and subsequent high-dose chemotherapy supported by stem cell rescue. Between 1996 and 2003, 16 patients with SPNET were enrolled. High-risk (HR) disease was differentiated from average-risk (AR) disease by the presence of residual tumor (M(0) and tumor size > 1.5 cm(2)) or disseminated disease in the neuraxis (M(1)-M(3)). Patients received risk-adapted CSI: those with AR disease received 23.4 Gy; those with HR disease, 36-39.6 Gy. The tumor bed received a total of 55.8 Gy. Subsequently, all patients received four cycles of high-dose cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and vincristine with stem cell support. The median age at diagnosis was 7.9 years; eight patients were female. Seven patients had pineal PNET. Twelve patients are alive at a median follow-up of 5.4 years. The 5-year EFS and overall survival (OS) estimates for all patients were 68% +/- 14% and 73% +/- 13%. The 5-year EFS and OS estimates were 75% +/- 17% and 88% +/- 13%, respectively, for the eight patients with AR disease and 60% +/- 19% and 58% +/- 19%, respectively, for the eight with HR disease. No deaths were due to toxicity. High-dose cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy with stem cell support after risk-adapted CSI results in excellent EFS estimates for patients with newly diagnosed AR SPNET. Further, this chemotherapy allows for a reduction in the dose of CSI used to treat AR SPNET without compromising EFS.
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Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation.
AIP Conf Proc
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.
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Changes mimicking new leptomeningeal disease after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for medulloblastoma.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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Acute and late changes in magnetic resonance imaging of the pediatric brain have been described after radiotherapy (RT). We report the post-RT neuroimaging changes in the posterior fossa after intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) in children with medulloblastoma and contrast them with those of leptomeningeal disease.
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Current and emerging concepts in non-invasive and minimally invasive management of spine metastasis.
Cancer Treat. Rev.
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To provide a comprehensive review on the presentation, work-up and the management of spine metastasis with or without epidural spinal cord compression with focus on the roles of surgery and radiotherapy. Emphasis has been laid on the technological advances with recent development of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) or radiosurgery (SRS) and minimally invasive surgical approaches like kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty.
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Proton therapy for spinal ependymomas: planning, acute toxicities, and preliminary outcomes.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
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To report acute toxicities and preliminary outcomes for pediatric patients with ependymomas of the spine treated with proton beam therapy at the MD Anderson Cancer Center.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.