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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Proteome analysis of cytoplasmatic and of plastidic ?-carotene lipid droplets in Dunaliella bardawil.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The halotolerant green algae Dunaliella bardawil is unique in that it accumulates under stress two types of lipid droplets: cytoplasmatic lipid droplets (CLD) and ?-carotene-rich plastoglobuli (?C-plastoglobuli). Recently we isolated and analyzed the lipid and pigment compositions of these lipid droplets. Here we describe their proteome analysis. A contamination filter and an enrichment filter were utilized to define core proteins. A proteome database of D. salina/D. bardawil was constructed to aid identification of lipid droplets proteins. A total of 124 and 42 core proteins were identified in ?C-plastoglobuli and in CLD, respectively, with only 8 common proteins. Dunaliella CLD resemble cytoplasmic droplets from C. reinhardtii and contain major lipid droplet associated protein (MLDP) and enzymes involved in lipid and sterol metabolism. ?C-plastoglobuli proteome resembles C. reinhardtii eyespot and A. thaliana plastoglobules proteomes and contain carotene-globule-associated protein (CGP), PAP-fibrillins, SOUL heme-binding proteins, phytyl-ester synthases (PES), ?-carotene biosynthesis enzymes and proteins involved in membrane remodeling/lipid droplets biogenesis: vesicle-inducing plastid protein 1 (VIPP1), synaptotagmin and the eyespot assembly proteins EYE3 and SOUL3. Based on these and previous results we propose models for biogenesis of ?C-plastoglobuli, for biosynthesis of ?-carotene within ?C-plastoglobuli and hypothesize that ?C-plastoglobuli evolved from eyespot lipid droplets.
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The PXDLS linear motif regulates circadian rhythmicity through protein-protein interactions.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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The circadian core clock circuitry relies on interlocked transcription-translation feedback loops that largely count on multiple protein interactions. The molecular mechanisms implicated in the assembly of these protein complexes are relatively unknown. Our bioinformatics analysis of short linear motifs, implicated in protein interactions, reveals an enrichment of the Pro-X-Asp-Leu-Ser (PXDLS) motif within circadian transcripts. We show that the PXDLS motif can bind to BMAL1/CLOCK and disrupt circadian oscillations in a cell-autonomous manner. Remarkably, the motif is evolutionary conserved in the core clock protein REV-ERB?, and additional proteins implicated in the clock's function (NRIP1, CBP). In this conjuncture, we uncover a novel cross talk between the two principal core clock feedback loops and show that BMAL/CLOCK and REV-ERB? interact and that the PXDLS motif of REV-ERB? participates in their binding. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PXDLS motifs of NRIP1 and CBP are involved in circadian rhythmicity. Our findings suggest that the PXDLS motif plays an important role in circadian rhythmicity through regulation of protein interactions within the clock circuitry and that short linear motifs can be employed to modulate circadian oscillations.
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Rewiring Host Lipid Metabolism by Large Viruses Determines the Fate of Emiliania huxleyi, a Bloom-Forming Alga in the Ocean.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Marine viruses are major ecological and evolutionary drivers of microbial food webs regulating the fate of carbon in the ocean. We combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to explore the cellular pathways mediating the interaction between the bloom-forming coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi and its specific coccolithoviruses (E. huxleyi virus [EhV]). We show that EhV induces profound transcriptome remodeling targeted toward fatty acid synthesis to support viral assembly. A metabolic shift toward production of viral-derived sphingolipids was detected during infection and coincided with downregulation of host de novo sphingolipid genes and induction of the viral-encoded homologous pathway. The depletion of host-specific sterols during lytic infection and their detection in purified virions revealed their novel role in viral life cycle. We identify an essential function of the mevalonate-isoprenoid branch of sterol biosynthesis during infection and propose its downregulation as an antiviral mechanism. We demonstrate how viral replication depends on the hijacking of host lipid metabolism during the chemical "arms race" in the ocean.
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Hijacking of an autophagy-like process is critical for the life cycle of a DNA virus infecting oceanic algal blooms.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Marine photosynthetic microorganisms are the basis of marine food webs and are responsible for nearly 50% of the global primary production. Emiliania huxleyi forms massive oceanic blooms that are routinely terminated by large double-stranded DNA coccolithoviruses. The cellular mechanisms that govern the replication cycle of these giant viruses are largely unknown. We used diverse techniques, including fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, cryoelectron tomography, immunolabeling and biochemical methodologies to investigate the role of autophagy in host-virus interactions. Hallmarks of autophagy are induced during the lytic phase of E. huxleyi viral infection, concomitant with up-regulation of autophagy-related genes (ATG genes). Pretreatment of the infected cells with an autophagy inhibitor causes a major reduction in the production of extracellular viral particles, without reducing viral DNA replication within the cell. The host-encoded Atg8 protein was detected within purified virions, demonstrating the pivotal role of the autophagy-like process in viral assembly and egress. We show that autophagy, which is classically considered as a defense mechanism, is essential for viral propagation and for facilitating a high burst size. This cellular mechanism may have a major impact on the fate of the viral-infected blooms, and therefore on the cycling of nutrients within the marine ecosystem.
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The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Taste has been the subject of human selection in the evolution of agricultural crops, and acidity is one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavour compounds. We identify a family of plant-specific genes with a major effect on fruit acidity by map-based cloning of C. melo PH gene (CmPH) from melon, Cucumis melo taking advantage of the novel natural genetic variation for both high and low fruit acidity in this species. Functional silencing of orthologous PH genes in two distantly related plant families, cucumber and tomato, produced low-acid, bland tasting fruit, showing that PH genes control fruit acidity across plant families. A four amino-acid duplication in CmPH distinguishes between primitive acidic varieties and modern dessert melons. This fortuitous mutation served as a preadaptive antecedent to the development of sweet melon cultigens in Central Asia over 1,000 years ago.
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Improving transcriptome construction in non-model organisms: integrating manual and automated gene definition in Emiliania huxleyi.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The advent of Next Generation Sequencing technologies and corresponding bioinformatics tools allows the definition of transcriptomes in non-model organisms. Non-model organisms are of great ecological and biotechnological significance, and consequently the understanding of their unique metabolic pathways is essential. Several methods that integrate de novo assembly with genome-based assembly have been proposed. Yet, there are many open challenges in defining genes, particularly where genomes are not available or incomplete. Despite the large numbers of transcriptome assemblies that have been performed, quality control of the transcript building process, particularly on the protein level, is rarely performed if ever. To test and improve the quality of the automated transcriptome reconstruction, we used manually defined and curated genes, several of them experimentally validated.
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Pou5f1/Oct4 promotes cell survival via direct activation of mych expression during zebrafish gastrulation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Myc proteins control cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis, and play important roles in cancer as well in establishment of pluripotency. Here we investigated the control of myc gene expression by the Pou5f1/Oct4 pluripotency factor in the early zebrafish embryo. We analyzed the expression of all known zebrafish Myc family members, myca, mycb, mych, mycl1a, mycl1b, and mycn, by whole mount in situ hybridization during blastula and gastrula stages in wildtype and maternal plus zygotic pou5f1 mutant (MZspg) embryos, as well as by quantitative PCR and in time series microarray data. We found that the broad blastula and gastrula stage mych expression, as well as late gastrula stage mycl1b expression, both depend on Pou5f1 activity. We analyzed ChIP-Seq data and found that both Pou5f1 and Sox2 bind to mych and mycl1b control regions. The regulation of mych by Pou5f1 appears to be direct transcriptional activation, as overexpression of a Pou5f1 activator fusion protein in MZspg embryos induced strong mych expression even when translation of zygotically expressed mRNAs was suppressed. We further showed that MZspg embryos develop enhanced apoptosis already during early gastrula stages, when apoptosis was not be detected in wildtype embryos. However, Mych knockdown alone did not induce early apoptosis, suggesting potentially redundant action of several early expressed myc genes, or combination of several pathways affected in MZspg. Experimental mych overexpression in MZspg embryos did significantly, but not completely suppress the apoptosis phenotype. Similarly, p53 knockdown only partially suppressed apoptosis in MZspg gastrula embryos. However, combined knockdown of p53 and overexpression of Mych completely rescued the MZspg apoptosis phenotype. These results reveal that Mych has anti-apoptotic activity in the early zebrafish embryo, and that p53-dependent and Myc pathways are likely to act in parallel to control apoptosis at these stages.
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Diversification of quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase in a preserved framework for redox relay.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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The enzyme family Quiescin Sulfhydryl Oxidase (QSOX) is defined by the presence of an amino-terminal thioredoxin-fold (Trx) domain and a carboxy-terminal Erv family sulfhydryl oxidase domain. QSOX enzymes, which generate disulfide bonds and transfer them to substrate proteins, are present in a wide variety of eukaryotic species including metazoans and plants, but are absent from fungi. Plant and animal QSOXs differ in their active-site amino acid sequences and content of non-catalytic domains. The question arises, therefore, whether the Trx-Erv fusion has the same mechanistic significance in all QSOX enzymes, and whether shared features distinguish the functional domains of QSOX from other instances in which these domains occur independently. Through a study of QSOX phylogeny and an analysis of QSOX sequence diversity in light of recently determined three-dimensional structures, we sought insight into the origin and evolution of this multi-domain redox alliance.
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Acyl chain specificity of ceramide synthases is determined within a region of 150 residues in the Tram-Lag-CLN8 (TLC) domain.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2011
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In mammals, ceramides are synthesized by a family of six ceramide synthases (CerS), transmembrane proteins located in the endoplasmic reticulum, where each use fatty acyl-CoAs of defined chain length for ceramide synthesis. Little is known about the molecular features of the CerS that determine acyl-CoA selectivity. We now explore CerS structure-function relationships by constructing chimeric proteins combining sequences from CerS2, which uses C22-CoA for ceramide synthesis, and CerS5, which uses C16-CoA. CerS2 and -5 are 41% identical and 63% similar. Chimeras containing approximately half of CerS5 (from the N terminus) and half of CerS2 (from the C terminus) were catalytically inactive. However, the first 158 residues of CerS5 could be replaced with the equivalent region of CerS2 without affecting specificity of CerS5 toward C16-CoA; likewise, the putative sixth transmembrane domain (at the C terminus) of CerS5 could be replaced with the corresponding sequence of CerS2 without affecting CerS5 specificity. Remarkably, a chimeric CerS5/2 protein containing the first 158 residues and the last 83 residues of CerS2 displayed specificity toward C16-CoA, and a chimeric CerS2/5 protein containing the first 150 residues and the last 79 residues of CerS5 displayed specificity toward C22-CoA, demonstrating that a minimal region of 150 residues is sufficient for retaining CerS specificity.
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The metabolic regulator PGC-1? directly controls the expression of the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2011
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The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1? is a key regulator of cellular energy expenditure in peripheral tissues. Recent studies report that PGC-1?-null mice develop late-onset obesity and that the neuronal inactivation of PGC-1? causes increased food intake. However, the exact role of PGC-1? in the CNS remains unclear. Here we show that PGC-1? directly regulates the expression of the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin, a known central regulator of appetite. We developed a unique genetic approach in the zebrafish, allowing us to monitor and manipulate PGC-1? activity in oxytocinergic neurons. We found that PGC-1? is coexpressed with oxytocin in the zebrafish hypothalamus. Targeted knockdown of the zebrafish PGC-1? gene activity caused a marked decrease in oxytocin mRNA levels and inhibited the expression of a transgenic GFP reporter driven by the oxytocin promoter. The effect of PGC-1? loss of function on oxytocin gene activity was rescued by tissue-specific re-expression of either PGC-1? or oxytocin precursor in zebrafish oxytocinergic neurons. PGC-1? activated the oxytocin promoter in a heterologous cell culture system, and overexpression of PGC-1? induced ectopic expression of oxytocin in muscles and neurons. Finally, PGC-1? forms an in vivo complex with the oxytocin promoter in fed but not fasted animals. These findings demonstrate that PGC-1? is both necessary and sufficient for the production of oxytocin, implicating hypothalamic PGC-1? in the direct activation of a hypothalamic hormone known to control energy intake.
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Reactive oxygen species are indispensable in ovulation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Ovulation is stimulated by the preovulatory surge of the pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). Because the ovulatory response is commonly identified with inflammation, we explored the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this process. Our experiments show that administration of broad-range scavengers of oxidative species into the ovarian bursa of mice, hormonally induced to ovulate, significantly reduced the rate of ovulation. LH-induced cumulus mucification/expansion, a necessary requirement for ovulation, was prevented by antioxidants both in vivo and in an ex vivo system of isolated intact ovarian follicles. Along this line, H(2)O(2) fully mimicked the effect of LH, bringing about an extensive mucification/expansion of the follicle-enclosed cumulus-oocyte complexes. Impaired progesterone production was observed in isolated follicles incubated with LH in the presence of the antioxidant agents. Furthermore, LH-stimulated up-regulation of genes, the expression of which is crucial for ovulation, was substantially attenuated upon ROS ablation. This system was also used for demonstrating the role of ROS in phosphorylation and activation of the EGF receptor as well as its downstream effector, p42/44 MAPK. Together, our results provide evidence that ovarian production of ROS is an essential preovulatory signaling event, most probably transiently triggered by LH.
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A critical role for ceramide synthase 2 in liver homeostasis: II. insights into molecular changes leading to hepatopathy.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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We have generated a mouse that cannot synthesize very long acyl chain (C22-C24) ceramides (Pewzner-Jung, Y., Park, H., Laviad, E. L., Silva, L. C., Lahiri, S., Stiban, J., Erez-Roman, R., Brugger, B., Sachsenheimer, T., Wieland, F. T., Prieto, M., Merrill, A. H., and Futerman, A. H. (2010) J. Biol. Chem. 285, 10902-10910) due to ablation of ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2). As a result, significant changes were observed in the sphingolipid profile of livers from these mice, including elevated C16-ceramide and sphinganine levels. We now examine the functional consequences of these changes. CerS2 null mice develop severe nonzonal hepatopathy from about 30 days of age, the age at which CerS2 expression peaks in wild type mice, and display increased rates of hepatocyte apoptosis and proliferation. In older mice there is extensive and pronounced hepatocellular anisocytosis with widespread formation of nodules of regenerative hepatocellular hyperplasia. Progressive hepatomegaly and noninvasive hepatocellular carcinoma are also seen from approximately 10 months of age. Even though CerS2 is found at equally high mRNA levels in kidney and liver, there are no changes in renal function and no pathological changes in the kidney. High throughput analysis of RNA expression in liver revealed up-regulation of genes associated with cell cycle regulation, protein transport, cell-cell interactions and apoptosis, and down-regulation of genes associated with intermediary metabolism, such as lipid and steroid metabolism, adipocyte signaling, and amino acid metabolism. In addition, levels of the cell cycle regulator, the cyclin dependent-kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1), were highly elevated, which occurs by at least two mechanisms, one of which may involve p53. We propose a functional rationale for the synthesis of sphingolipids with very long acyl chains in liver homeostasis and in cell physiology.
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Gonadotropin-regulated lymphangiogenesis in ovarian cancer is mediated by LEDGF-induced expression of VEGF-C.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2009
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The risk and severity of ovarian carcinoma, the leading cause of gynecologic malignancy death, are significantly elevated in postmenopausal women. Ovarian failure at menopause, associated with a reduction in estrogen secretion, results in an increase of the gonadotropic luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), suggesting a role for these hormones in facilitating the progression of ovarian carcinoma. The current study examined the influence of hormonal stimulation on lymphangiogenesis in ovarian cancer cells. In vitro stimulation of ES2 ovarian carcinoma cells with LH and FSH induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C. In vivo, ovariectomy of mice resulted in activation of the VEGF-C promoter in ovarian carcinoma xenografts, increased VEGF-C mRNA level, and enhanced tumor lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis. Seeking the molecular mechanism, we examined the role of lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) and the possible contribution of its putative target, a conserved stress-response element identified in silico in the VEGF-C promoter. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we showed that LEDGF/p75 indeed binds the VEGF-C promoter, and binding is augmented by FSH. A corresponding hormonally regulated increase in the LEDGF/p75 mRNA and protein levels was observed. Suppression of LEDGF/p75 expression using small interfering RNA, suppression of LH and FSH production using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cetrorelix, or mutation of the conserved stress-response element suppressed the hormonally induced expression of VEGF-C. Overall, our data suggest a possible role for elevated gonadotropins in augmenting ovarian tumor lymphangiogenesis in postmenopausal women.
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Loss of Kindlin-3 in LAD-III eliminates LFA-1 but not VLA-4 adhesiveness developed under shear flow conditions.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD)-III is associated with homozygous stop codon mutations in Kindlin-3, the hematopoietic member of the Kindlin family of integrin coactivators. In addition, a subgroup of LAD-III patients has a homozygous splice junction mutation in and reduced expression of the Rap-1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, CalDAG-GEFI (CDGI). In this study, we compared the adhesive properties of the leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4) integrins in both primary and activated leukocytes derived from these 2 LAD-III subgroups. Primary lymphocytes lacking both Kindlin-3 and CDGI lost all firm T-cell receptor-stimulated LFA-1 adhesiveness, in contrast to LAD-III lymphocytes deficient in Kindlin-3 alone. Effector T cells expanded from all tested LAD-III variants expressed normal CDGI, but lacked Kindlin-3. These Kindlin-3-null effector T cells exhibited total loss of inside-out LFA-1 activation by chemokine signals as well as abrogated intrinsic LFA-1 adhesiveness. Surprisingly, VLA-4 in Kindlin-3-null resting or effector lymphocytes retained intrinsic rolling adhesions to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and exhibited only partial defects in chemokine-stimulated adhesiveness to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Deletion of the putative beta(1) Kindlin-3 binding site also retained VLA-4 adhesiveness. Thus, our study provides the first evidence that Kindlin-3 is more critical to LFA-1 than to VLA-4-adhesive functions in human lymphocytes.
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Transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor C by oxidative and thermal stress is mediated by lens epithelium-derived growth factor/p75.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) plays a critical role in tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis. We report here that VEGF-C expression is regulated by microenvironmental stress including hyperthermia and oxidative stress. Furthermore, we show that this stress response is mediated by transcriptional activation mediated by lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75). Ectopic expression of LEDGF/p75 in C6 rat glioma and in H1299 human non-small cell lung carcinoma induced VEGF-C expression in vitro, whereas in subcutaneous mouse tumor xenografts, LEDGF/p75 stimulated VEGF-C expression and augmented angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Conversely, overexpression of a LEDGF/p75 native antisense or LEDGF/p75-targeted short interfering RNA downmodulated VEGF-C expression. LEDGF seemed to conferred this activity on binding to a conserved stress response element (STRE) located in the VEGF-C gene because mutating the STRE was sufficient for the suppression of basal and stress-induced activations of the VEGF-C promoter. Thus, the study reported here identified a role for LEDGF/p75 in stress-regulated transcriptional control of VEGF-C expression. These results provide a possible link for LEDGF/p75 in tumor lymphangiogenesis and cancer metastasis. Hence, our data suggest the LEDGF-VEGF-C axis as a putative biomarker for the detection of stress-induced lymphangiogenesis and LEDGF as a potential target for antimetastatic therapy.
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Neurokinin Bs and neurokinin B receptors in zebrafish-potential role in controlling fish reproduction.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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The endocrine regulation of vertebrate reproduction is achieved by the coordinated actions of several peptide neurohormones, tachykinin among them. To study the evolutionary conservation and physiological functions of neurokinin B (NKB), we identified tachykinin (tac) and tac receptor (NKBR) genes from many fish species, and cloned two cDNA forms from zebrafish. Phylogenetic analysis showed that piscine Tac3s and mammalian neurokinin genes arise from one lineage. High identity was found among different fish species in the region encoding the NKB; all shared the common C-terminal sequence. Although the piscine Tac3 gene encodes for two putative tachykinin peptides, the mammalian ortholog encodes for only one. The second fish putative peptide, referred to as neurokinin F (NKF), is unique and found to be conserved among the fish species when tested in silico. tac3a was expressed asymmetrically in the habenula of embryos, whereas in adults zebrafish tac3a-expressing neurons were localized in specific brain nuclei that are known to be involved in reproduction. Zebrafish tac3a mRNA levels gradually increased during the first few weeks of life and peaked at pubescence. Estrogen treatment of prepubertal fish elicited increases in tac3a, kiss1, kiss2, and kiss1ra expression. The synthetic zebrafish peptides (NKBa, NKBb, and NKF) activated Tac3 receptors via both PKC/Ca(2+) and PKA/cAMP signal-transduction pathways in vitro. Moreover, a single intraperitoneal injection of NKBa and NKF significantly increased leuteinizing hormone levels in mature female zebrafish. These results suggest that the NKB/NKBR system may participate in neuroendocrine control of fish reproduction.
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Release of apical dominance in potato tuber is accompanied by programmed cell death in the apical bud meristem.
Plant Physiol.
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Potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber, a swollen underground stem, is used as a model system for the study of dormancy release and sprouting. Natural dormancy release, at room temperature, is initiated by tuber apical bud meristem (TAB-meristem) sprouting characterized by apical dominance (AD). Dormancy is shortened by treatments such as bromoethane (BE), which mimics the phenotype of dormancy release in cold storage by inducing early sprouting of several buds simultaneously. We studied the mechanisms governing TAB-meristem dominance release. TAB-meristem decapitation resulted in the development of increasing numbers of axillary buds with time in storage, suggesting the need for autonomous dormancy release of each bud prior to control by the apical bud. Hallmarks of programmed cell death (PCD) were identified in the TAB-meristems during normal growth, and these were more extensive when AD was lost following either extended cold storage or BE treatment. Hallmarks included DNA fragmentation, induced gene expression of vacuolar processing enzyme1 (VPE1), and elevated VPE activity. VPE1 protein was semipurified from BE-treated apical buds, and its endogenous activity was fully inhibited by a cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-1-specific inhibitor N-Acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-CHO (Ac-YVAD-CHO). Transmission electron microscopy further revealed PCD-related structural alterations in the TAB-meristem of BE-treated tubers: a knob-like body in the vacuole, development of cytoplasmic vesicles, and budding-like nuclear segmentations. Treatment of tubers with BE and then VPE inhibitor induced faster growth and recovered AD in detached and nondetached apical buds, respectively. We hypothesize that PCD occurrence is associated with the weakening of tuber AD, allowing early sprouting of mature lateral buds.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.