Co-existence of carotid artery disease, renal artery stenosis, and lower extremity peripheral arterial disease in patients with coronary artery disease.
In atherosclerosis, carotid artery stenosis (CAS), renal artery stenosis (RAS), lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and coronary artery disease (CAD) are common pathologic lesions; their interrelationship is, however, unclear. We studied concomitant multiple atherosclerotic lesions in patients with CAD to understand their prevalence and relations. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on data from consecutive patients who underwent nonemergent coronary angiography. Simultaneous carotid and renal artery Doppler studies and ankle-brachial systolic pressure measurements were reviewed to diagnose concomitant lesions and their severity. The study included 1,734 patients (aged 71 ± 9 years; 70% men), with prevalences of CAS, RAS, lower extremity PAD, and CAD of 6%, 7%, 13%, and 72%, respectively. In patients with CAD (n = 1,253), the prevalences of CAS, RAS, and lower extremity PAD were 7%, 9%, and 16%, respectively; 24% CAD patients had ?1 additional atherosclerotic lesion. Significant interactions among the prevalences of these lesions were found. In addition, the extent of CAD and the prevalences of CAS, RAS, and lower extremity PAD were significantly correlated. Multivariate analysis supported these relationships. In conclusion, the prevalences of CAS, RAS, lower extremity PAD, and CAD were strongly interrelated in the study population; CAD severity was related to that of other atherosclerotic lesions. Additional systematic screening of other concomitant atherosclerotic lesions is recommended, especially in CAD patients having multivessel disease, left main disease, and/or already diagnosed with other concomitant atherosclerotic lesions.