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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Multicomponent Reactions of Phosphines, Diynedioates, and Aryl Aldehydes Generated Furans Appending Reactive Phosphorus Ylides through Cumulated Trienoates as Key Intermediates: A Phosphine ?-Addition-?-Evolvement of an Anion Pathway.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Multicomponent reactions of phosphines, diynedioates, and aryl aldehydes have been demonstrated, providing trisubstituted furans appending reactive phosphorus ylides, through cumulated trienoates as key intermediates. The proposed trienoate intermediates, 1,5-dipolar species formed via nucleophilic ?-attack of phosphines toward diynedioates (?-addition-?-evolvement of an anion, abbreviated ?A?E), undergo addition to aryl aldehydes followed by 5-endo-dig cyclization, proton transfer, and resonance to give trisubstituted furans. Furthermore, the phosphorus ylides are oxidized to ?-keto ester furans and utilized as Wittig reagents.
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Efficient simulation of voxelized phantom in GATE with embedded SimSET multiple photon history generator.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) is a powerful Monte Carlo simulator that combines the advantages of the general-purpose GEANT4 simulation code and the specific software tool implementations dedicated to emission tomography. However, the detailed physical modelling of GEANT4 is highly computationally demanding, especially when tracking particles through voxelized phantoms. To circumvent the relatively slow simulation of voxelized phantoms in GATE, another efficient Monte Carlo code can be used to simulate photon interactions and transport inside a voxelized phantom. The simulation system for emission tomography (SimSET), a dedicated Monte Carlo code for PET/SPECT systems, is well-known for its efficiency in simulation of voxel-based objects. An efficient Monte Carlo workflow integrating GATE and SimSET for simulating pinhole SPECT has been proposed to improve voxelized phantom simulation. Although the workflow achieves a desirable increase in speed, it sacrifices the ability to simulate decaying radioactive sources such as non-pure positron emitters or multiple emission isotopes with complex decay schemes and lacks the modelling of time-dependent processes due to the inherent limitations of the SimSET photon history generator (PHG). Moreover, a large volume of disk storage is needed to store the huge temporal photon history file produced by SimSET that must be transported to GATE. In this work, we developed a multiple photon emission history generator (MPHG) based on SimSET/PHG to support a majority of the medically important positron emitters. We incorporated the new generator codes inside GATE to improve the simulation efficiency of voxelized phantoms in GATE, while eliminating the need for the temporal photon history file. The validation of this new code based on a MicroPET R4 system was conducted for (124)I and (18)F with mouse-like and rat-like phantoms. Comparison of GATE/MPHG with GATE/GEANT4 indicated there is a slight difference in energy spectra for energy below 50?keV due to the lack of x-ray simulation from (124)I decay in the new code. The spatial resolution, scatter fraction and count rate performance are in good agreement between the two codes. For the case studies of (18)F-NaF ((124)I-IAZG) using MOBY phantom with 1? × ?1 × 1?mm(3) voxel sizes, the results show that GATE/MPHG can achieve acceleration factors of approximately 3.1 × (4.5 ×), 6.5 × (10.7 ×) and 9.5 × (31.0 ×) compared with GATE using the regular navigation method, the compressed voxel method and the parameterized tracking technique, respectively. In conclusion, the implementation of MPHG in GATE allows for improved efficiency of voxelized phantom simulations and is suitable for studying clinical and preclinical imaging.
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Primary Cutaneous NK/T-cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type and CD56-positive Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma: A Cellular Lineage and Clinicopathologic Study of 60 Patients From Asia.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Primary cutaneous, extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (PC-ENKTL), is a rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated neoplasm with poorly defined clinicopathologic features. We performed a multinational retrospective study of PC-ENKTL and CD56-positive EBV-negative peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PC-CD56+PTCL) in Asia in an attempt to elucidate their clinicopathologic features. Using immunohistochemistry for T-cell receptors (TCRs), in situ hybridization for EBV, and TCR gene rearrangement, we classified 60 tumors into 51 with PC-ENKTL (20 of NK-cell, 17 T-cell, and 14 indeterminate lineages) and 9 with PC-CD56+PTCL. Tumors of T-cell origin accounted for 46% of PC-ENKTLs with half of these cases being TCR-silent. As compared with T-lineage tumors, PC-ENKTLs of NK-cell lineage had more frequent involvement of regional lymph nodes and more frequently CD8-negative and CD56-positive. Cases of PC-ENKTL showed more frequent tumor necrosis, younger age, and a higher frequency of CD16 and CD30 expression than cases of PC-CD56+PTCL. CD56-positive T-lineage PC-ENKTL tumors (n=8) had more localized disease in the TNM (tumor-node-metastasis) staging and were more often of ?? T-cell origin compared with cases of PC-CD56+PTCL (n=9). PC-ENKTLs and PC-CD56+PTCLs were equally aggressive, with a 5-year overall survival rate of 25%. Tumor necrosis and CD16 expression may serve as useful surrogates for differentiating PC-ENKTL from PC-CD56+PTCL. A single lesion, an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level, and the presence of B symptoms were independent poor prognostic factors for PC-ENKTL in multivariate analysis. Further studies with more cases are warranted to delineate the clinicopathologic features and significance of EBV in these rare lymphomas.
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A novel adaptive discrete cosine transform-domain filter for gap-inpainting of high resolution PET scanners.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Several positron emission tomography (PET) scanners with special detector block arrangements have been developed in recent years to improve the resolution of PET images. However, the discontinuous detector blocks cause gaps in the sinogram. This study proposes an adaptive discrete cosine transform-based (aDCT) filter for gap-inpainting.
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Virus-like particle secretion and genotype-dependent immunogenicity of dengue virus serotype 2 DNA vaccine.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Dengue virus (DENV), composed of four distinct serotypes, is the most important and rapidly emerging arthropod-borne pathogen and imposes substantial economic and public health burdens. We constructed candidate vaccines containing the DNA of five of the genotypes of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) and evaluated the immunogenicity, the neutralizing (Nt) activity of the elicited antibodies, and the protective efficacy elicited in mice immunized with the vaccine candidates. We observed a significant correlation between the level of in vitro virus-like particle secretion, the elicited antibody response, and the protective efficacy of the vaccines containing the DNA of the different DENV genotypes in immunized mice. However, higher total IgG antibody levels did not always translate into higher Nt antibodies against homologous and heterologous viruses. We also found that, in contrast to previous reports, more than 50% of total IgG targeted ectodomain III (EDIII) of the E protein, and a substantial fraction of this population was interdomain highly neutralizing flavivirus subgroup-cross-reactive antibodies, such as monoclonal antibody 1B7-5. In addition, the lack of a critical epitope(s) in the Sylvatic genotype virus recognized by interdomain antibodies could be the major cause of the poor protection of mice vaccinated with the Asian 1 genotype vaccine (pVD2-Asian 1) from lethal challenge with virus of the Sylvatic genotype. In conclusion, although the pVD2-Asian 1 vaccine was immunogenic, elicited sufficient titers of Nt antibodies against all DENV-2 genotypes, and provided 100% protection against challenge with virus of the homologous Asian 1 genotype and virus of the heterologous Cosmopolitan genotype, it is critical to monitor the potential emergence of Sylvatic genotype viruses, since vaccine candidates under development may not protect vaccinated humans from these viruses.
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Natural compounds and aging: between autophagy and inflammasome.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Aging, a natural physiological process, is characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity. Loss of cellular homeostasis in the aging process results from different sources, including changes in genes, cell imbalance, and dysregulation of the host-defense systems. Innate immunity dysfunctions during aging are connected with several human pathologies, including metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have clearly indicated that the decline in autophagic capacity that accompanies aging results in the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and further process dysfunction of the NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in the macrophages, which produce the proinflammatory cytokines. These factors impair cellular housekeeping and expose cells to higher risk in many age-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we investigated the relationship between dysregulation of the inflammasome activation and perturbed autophagy with aging as well as the possible molecular mechanisms. We also summarized the natural compounds from food intake, which have potential to reduce the inflammasome activation and enhance autophagy and can further improve the age-related diseases discussed in this paper.
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Nucleophilic conjugate 1,3-addition of phosphines to oligoynoates.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Herein we have elucidated unusual and unique nucleophilic conjugate 1,3-addition reactions of surveyed oligoynoates toward phosphines through spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses of three-component reaction products of oligoynoates, phosphines and aldehydes.
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High performance GaN-based flip-chip LEDs with different electrode patterns.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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A high-performance flip-chip light-emitting diode (FCLED) with a Ni/Ag metallic film as high reflectivity mirror (92.67%) of p-type electrode was successfully fabricated. The effect of geometric electrode patterns on the blue InGaN/GaN LEDs was investigated and analyzed qualitatively its current spreading in the active region. With different electrode patterns, these devices were experimented and simulated by simple electrical circuits in order to confirm its current-voltage characteristics and light emission pattern. It was found that the forward voltages of these FCLEDs were about 3.6 V (@350 mA). The light output power of FCLEDs with circle-round type electrode was 368 mW at an injection current of 700 mA. From these optoelectronic measurement and thermal infrared images, we proposed some design methodologies for improved current spreading, light output power, droop efficiency and thermal performance.
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One-pot synthesis of highly substituted polyheteroaromatic compounds by rhodium(III)-catalyzed multiple C-H activation and annulation.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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A new method for the synthesis of highly substituted naphthyridine-based polyheteroaromatic compounds in high yields proceeds through rhodium(III)-catalyzed multiple C-H bond cleavage and C-C and C-N bond formation in a one-pot process. Such highly substituted polyheteroaromatic compounds have attracted much attention because of their unique ?-conjugation, which make them suitable materials for organic semiconductors and luminescent materials. Furthermore, a possible mechanism, which involves multiple chelation-assisted ortho C-H activation, alkyne insertion, and reductive elimination, is proposed for this transformation.
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Discovery of 4-aryl-N-arylcarbonyl-2-aminothiazoles as Hec1/Nek2 inhibitors. Part I: optimization of in vitro potencies and pharmacokinetic properties.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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A series of 4-aryl-N-arylcarbonyl-2-aminothiazoles of scaffold 4 was designed and synthesized as Hec1/Nek2 inhibitors. Structural optimization of 4 led to compound 32 bearing C-4' 4-methoxyphenoxy and 4-(o-fluoropyridyl)carbonyl groups that showed low nanomolar in vitro antiproliferative activity (IC50: 16.3-42.7 nM), high intravenous AUC (64.9 ?M·h, 2.0 mg/kg) in SD rats, and significant in vivo antitumor activity (T/C = 32%, 20 mg/kg, IV) in mice bearing human MDA-MB-231 xenografts. Cell responses resulting from Hec1/Nek2 inhibition were observed in cells treated with 32, including a reduced level of Hec1 coimmunoprecipitated with Nek2, degradation of Nek2, mitotic abnormalities, and apoptosis. Compound 32 showed selectivity toward cancer cells over normal phenotype cells and was inactive in a [(3)H]astemizole competitive binding assay for hERG liability screening. Therefore, 32 is as a good lead toward the discovery of a preclinical candidate targeting Hec1/Nek2 interaction.
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Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma of the Inflammatory Pseudotumor-like Variant Presenting as a Colonic Polyp.
Korean J Pathol
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma is rare and is classified either as conventional type or inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT)-like variant. Extranodal presentation is uncommon and nearly all gastrointestinal FDC tumors are of the conventional type. IPT-like variant tumors occur almost exclusively in the liver and spleen and are consistently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Here we report the case of a 78-year-old woman with an IPT-like FDC sarcoma presenting as a pedunculated colonic polyp. Histologically, scanty atypical ovoid to spindle cells were mixed with a background of florid lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, which led to an initial misdiagnosis of pseudolymphoma. These atypical cells expressed CD21, CD23, CD35, and D2-40, and were positive for EBV by in situ hybridization, confirming the diagnosis. The patient was free of disease five months after polypectomy without adjuvant therapy. Although extremely rare, the differential diagnosis for colonic polyp should include FDC sarcoma to avoid an erroneous diagnosis. A review of the 24 cases of IPT-like FDC sarcoma reported in the literature reveal that this tumor occurs predominantly in females with a predilection for liver and spleen, and has a strong association with EBV.
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Activity of a novel Hec1-targeted anticancer compound against breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Current cytotoxic chemotherapy produces clinical benefit in patients with breast cancer but the survival impact is modest. To explore novel cytotoxic agents for the treatment of advanced disease, we have characterized a new and pharmacokinetically improved Hec1-targeted compound, TAI-95. Nine of 11 breast cancer cell lines tested were sensitive to nanomolar levels of TAI-95 (GI(50) = 14.29-73.65 nmol/L), and more importantly, TAI-95 was active on a number of cell lines that were resistant (GI(50) > 10 ?mol/L) to other established cytotoxic agents. TAI-95 demonstrates strong inhibition of in vivo tumor growth of breast cancer model when administered orally, without inducing weight loss or other obvious toxicity. Mechanistically, TAI-95 acts by disrupting the interaction between Hec1 and Nek2, leading to apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, TAI-95 is active on multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines and led to downregulation of the expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), an MDR gene. In addition, TAI-95 increased the potency of cytotoxic Pgp substrates, including doxorubicin and topotecan. Certain clinical subtypes of breast cancer more likely to respond to Hec1-targeted therapy were identified and these subtypes are the ones associated with poor prognosis. This study highlights the potential of the novel anticancer compound TAI-95 in difficult-to-treat breast cancers.
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Protective effect of a sesamin derivative, 3-bis (3-methoxybenzyl) butane-1, 4-diol on ischemic and hypoxic neuronal injury.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Stroke is one of the leading causes of neuronal death. Sesamin is known for neuroprotection by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties but it lacks blood-brain barrier (BBB) activity. A panel of sesamin derivatives was screened and 3-bis (3-methoxybenzyl) butane-1,4-diol (BBD) was selected for high BBB activity and tested for its neuroprotective effect.
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Cutaneous nonmycotic T- and natural killer/T-cell lymphomas: diagnostic challenges and dilemmas.
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Mycosis fungoides is the prototype of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and is more common in the West than in the East, whereas nonmycotic primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is more frequent than mycosis fungoides among Asians. Nonmycotic primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas comprise several categories of neoplasms and might pose diagnostic challenges because of the rarity of these lesions and overlapping features among certain entities. The authors recommend diagnostic approaches including histopathological evaluation, immunohistochemical markers, and ancillary studies. Diagnostic dilemma in certain entities and cases with atypical clinicopathological features are discussed.
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Burger or yogurt? Indulgent consumption in impression management contexts.
Int J Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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We conducted three studies to investigate indulgent choice in settings with and without impression management by public-private manipulation with evaluation. Study 1 showed that the participants were less indulgent under public scrutiny due to the employment of impression management. Study 2 focused on the impression management context to test the moderate effect of self-consciousness in two impression managed contexts. Study 3 focused on context without impression management to test the moderate effects of self-awareness on choices. We found that depending on differences in primed personality, individuals tended to make choices other than those they favoured privately when anticipating that others might form impressions of them based on the decisions made. The findings of all three studies support our basic prediction that people are less indulgent under impression management and suggest that people tend to manage their impression by eating healthier (less indulgently) in public.
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Inhibition of Hec1 as a novel approach for treatment of primary liver cancer.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Highly expressed in cancer protein 1 (Hec1) is an oncogene and a promising molecular target for novel anticancer drugs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a Hec1 inhibitor, TAI-95, as a treatment for primary liver cancer.
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Feasibility studies on arsenic removal from aqueous solutions by electrodialysis.
J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The effectiveness of electrodialysis (ED) in removing inorganic arsenic (As) from aqueous solution was investigated. A tailor-made ED stack was used to perform current-voltage and optimization experiments in a recirculating batch mode. Samples were pre-oxidized with NaClO using 1:2 sample to oxidant weight ratio (RS:O) to transform 100% of As(III) to As(V) in 180 seconds. A high feed water conductivity of 1500 ?S/cm and a low feed water conductivity of 800?S/cm had limiting currents of 595 mA and 525 mA, respectively. Optimum experimental conditions that provided maximum As separation were applied potential (E) of 12 V, feed flow rate (Q) of 0.033 L/s, feed concentration (C) of 662.0 ?g L(-1), and operating time (t) of 45 min, the most significant ones were applied potential, feed concentration and operating time. Model confirmation experiments showed a good agreement with experimental results with only 0.031% error. The total As in the diluate stream was 4.0 ?g L(-1), consisting of an average of 3.0 ?g L(-1) As(V) and 1.0 ?g L(-1) As(III).
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Characterization of the biological activity of a potent small molecule Hec1 inhibitor TAI-1.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Hec1 (NDC80) is an integral part of the kinetochore and is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, making it an attractive molecular target for the design of novel anticancer therapeutics. A highly potent first-in-class compound targeting Hec1, TAI-1, was identified and is characterized in this study to determine its potential as an anticancer agent for clinical utility.
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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma in Taiwan shows a frequent gain of ITK gene.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is an aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) of follicular helper T-cell origin and is rare in Taiwan. There are overlapping features of AITL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma with a follicular growth pattern (PTCL-F). Around one fifth of PTCL-F exhibits t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK chromosomal translocation, which is essentially absent in AITL. We retrospectively investigated 35 cases of AITL from Taiwan with histopathology review, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK and correlated the results with overall survival. Twenty-six cases of not otherwise specified PTCL (PTCL-NOS) were also examined by FISH for comparison. Most AITL patients were male (69%) and elderly (median age at 67 years) with frequent bone marrow involvement (53%), high Ann Arbor stages (77%), and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (68%). Most cases (80%) showed a typical CD4+/CD8- phenotype and in 90% cases there were scattered EBV-positive B-cells (less than 10% cells). None of these cases showed t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK translocation by FISH. Gain of ITK and SYK gene was identified in 38% and 14% tumors, respectively, but both were not associated with overall survival. Performance status < 2 was associated with a better outcome but not the other clinicopathological factors. All PTCL-NOS cases were negative for ITK-SYK translocation with similar rates (38% and 12%, respectively) of gains at ITK and SYK loci as that of AITL. In this so far the largest series of AITL from Taiwan, we reported the clinicopathological features and FISH findings on ITK and SYK genes. We confirmed the absence of t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK translocation, which may serve as an additional differential diagnostic tool from PTCL-F when present. PTCL-NOS shared a similar pattern of ITK and SYK gains with AITL. More studies are warranted to elucidate the roles of SYK and ITK and other genes in the lymphomagenesis of AITL in Taiwan.
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Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in adolescents and young adults in Taiwan.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus usually infecting B-cells but may occasionally infect T- or natural killer (NK)-cells. EBV-associated T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferations represent a continuous spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic infection, infectious mononucleosis (IM), to clonal and malignant lymphoproliferations including systemic EBV-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-T/NK-LPD) of childhood and hydroa-vacciniforme-like lymphoma of the skin. The clonal diseases are more prevalent in East Asia and exhibit overlapping clinical and pathological features with chronic active EBV infection. Here we report our experience on 10 cases of EBV-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation from Taiwan including five males and five females with a median age of 18 years old (range, 15-28). The most common clinical symptoms were fever, neck mass and hepatosplenomegaly. Eight of these patients showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase level and half of the patients had cytopenia. All patients had either elevated EBV antibody titers or increased serum EBV DNA levels. Five cases were clinically IM-like with polyclonal (3 cases) or clonal (2 cases) T-cell lymphoproliferation. Two patients each had chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). One patient had both CAEBV and HLH. One of the HLH patients with marrow infiltration by intra-sinusoidal large atypical lymphocytes experienced a fulminant course. In a median follow-up time of 21.5 months, seven patients were free of disease, one was alive with disease, and two died of disease in 31 and 3 months, respectively, despite chemotherapy. We confirmed a wide clinicopathological range of EVB-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation in Taiwan. Furthermore, monomorphic LPD and the single case with fulminant course as defined by Ohshima et al (Pathol Int 2018) as categories A3 and B, respectively, died of disease despite chemotherapy. Our report, the largest series in the recent decade from Taiwan, adds to the understanding of these rare diseases with variable clinical and histopathological presentations.
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Nasopharyngeal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma expressing CD56: a mimicker of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is remarkably rare in adults older than 45 years. Histologically, the tumor is composed of blue round cells with frequent expression of CD56 in addition to myogenic markers. Recent studies of ARMS have shown two specific recurrent translocations: PAX3-FKHR [t(2;13)(q35;q14)] or PAX7-FKHR [t(1;13)(p36;q14)]. Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) occurs most frequently in the upper aerodigestive tract with a male preference in East Asia and Central and South Americas with neoplastic cells frequently expressing CD56. We report a 53-year-old Taiwanese man presenting with a nasopharyngeal mass, cervical lymphadenopathy, and multiple bone metastases. Histologically, the nasopharyngeal biopsy revealed diffuse sheets of small blue round tumor cells without obvious alveolar pattern, angioinvasion or tumor necrosis. An initial erroneous diagnosis of ENKTL was made due to CD56 expression using fresh tumor tissue with flow cytometric analysis and the patient was treated accordingly. Retrospective study showed that the tumor cells expressed CD56, desmin, and myogenin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the tumor cells were positive for FKHR gene rearrangement, confirming the diagnosis of ARMS. Our case illustrates that a diagnosis of ENKTL based solely on CD56 expression can be misleading for a nasopharyngeal small blue round cell tumor. ARMS should be included as a differential diagnosis, and a correct diagnosis can be reached only after a high index of suspicion and a thorough histological examination with the aid of ancillary studies.
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Rapidly fatal leukemia comprising pleomorphic large granular lymphocytes: a report of 2 cases.
Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) are either cytotoxic T or natural killer (NK) cells exhibiting round nuclei and azurophilic cytoplasmic granules. Morphologically, neoplastic LGLs of T cell lineage (T-LGLLs) are usually indistinguishable from normal LGLs, while there is a wide morphological range of aggressive NK cell leukemia (ANKL).
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Epstein-Barr virus is rarely associated with diffuse large B cell lymphoma in Taiwan and carries a trend for a shorter median survival time.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is characterised by frequent extranodal involvement, a morphological spectrum from polymorphous to monomorphous and a poor prognosis. The frequency is higher in Japan and Korea but lower in the West, while the status in Taiwan has not been reported yet.
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One-pot formation of fluorescent ?-lactams having an ?-phosphorus ylide moiety through three-component ?(?)-Michael reactions of phosphines with an enyne and N-tosyl aldimines.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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We demonstrate a straightforward synthesis of ?-lactams possessing an ?-phosphorus ylide moiety from assembly of phosphines, N-tosyl aldimines and an enyne through an initial ?(?)-attack of phosphines to an enyne in up to 79% yield. The investigated multicomponent reaction tolerates a variety of triarylphosphines and electron-poor aldimines to give ?-lactams in one pot. One of the lactams, with the tri(p-tol)phosphine and 4-cyanophenyl moiety, exhibits fluorescence emission at 447 nm with a quantum yield of 0.11.
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One pot synthesis of bioactive benzopyranones through palladium-catalyzed C-H activation and CO insertion into 2-arylphenols.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of 2-arylphenols through C-H bond activation and C-C and C-O bond formation under acid-base free and mild conditions has been developed. The reaction tolerates a variety of substrates and provides biologically important benzopyranone derivatives in up to 87% isolated yield.
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Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma involving the gastrointestinal tract: analysis of clinical features and outcomes from the Asia Lymphoma Study Group.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the most common extranasal sites in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL). However, data regarding ENKTL involving the GI tract are relatively scarce. Thus, we performed a multicenter, multinational retrospective study to analyze clinical features and treatment outcomes of ENKTL involving the GI tract.
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TLR-induced PAI-2 expression suppresses IL-1? processing via increasing autophagy and NLRP3 degradation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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The NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a multiprotein complex, triggers caspase-1 activation and maturation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18 upon sensing a wide range of pathogen- and damage-associated molecules. Dysregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activity contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases, but its regulation remains poorly defined. Here we show that depletion of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2), a serine protease inhibitor, resulted in NLRP3- and ASC (apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a C-terminal caspase recruitment domain)-dependent caspase-1 activation and IL-1? secretion in macrophages upon Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 engagement. TLR2 or TLR4 agonist induced PAI-2 expression, which subsequently stabilized the autophagic protein Beclin 1 to promote autophagy, resulting in decreases in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, NLRP3 protein level, and pro-IL-1? processing. Likewise, overexpressing Beclin 1 in PAI-2-deficient cells rescued the suppression of NLRP3 activation in response to LPS. Together, our data identify a tier of TLR signaling in controlling NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reveal a cell-autonomous mechanism which inversely regulates TLR- or Escherichia coli-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and IL-1?-driven inflammation.
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Preoperative transarterial chemoembolization and resection for hepatocellular carcinoma: A nationwide Taiwan database analysis of long-term outcome predictors.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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To explore long-term predictors of outcome after TACE and resection in a population of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Message framing in social networking sites.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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.Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages.
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Decreased microRNA-221 is associated with high levels of TNF-? in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells from obese woman.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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The present study aimed to investigate the regulation and involvement of miR-221 in the differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs). The relationships between miR-221 and pro-inflammatory markers and adipokines were also explored.
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Genetics of gallstone disease.
Adv Clin Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Gallstone disease (GSD) is one of the most common biliary tract disorders worldwide. The prevalence, however, varies from 5.9-21.9% in Western society to 3.1-10.7% in Asia. Most gallstones (75%) are silent. Approximately half of symptomatic gallstone carriers experience a second episode of biliary pain within 1 year. These individuals are at increased risk of developing acute cholecystitis, acute cholangitis, and biliary pancreatitis. As can be expected, these complications burden health care systems because of their invasive nature and surgical cost. Factors that contribute to gallstone formation include supersaturation of cholesterol in bile, gallbladder hypomotility, destabilization of bile by kinetic protein factors, and abnormal mucins. Epidemiologic studies have implicated multiple environmental factors and some common genetic elements in gallstone formation. Genetic factors that influence gallstone formation have been elaborated from linkage studies of twins, families, and ethnicities. Accumulating evidence suggests that genetic factors play a role in GSD.
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Efficacy of sorafenib as adjuvant therapy to prevent early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after curative surgery: A pilot study.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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AIM: Until now, no effective adjuvant therapy to prevent early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative treatment has been reported. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical benefit of sorafenib as adjuvant treatment in subjects with HCC after hepatic resection. METHODS: The pilot study was undertaken involving HCC patients who had undergone curative liver surgery with high recurrence risk factors. Time to recurrence and disease recurrence rate were assessed. Sorafenib 400?mg q.d. was administrated continuously for 4?months after hepatic resection. RESULTS: A total of 31 patients were enrolled and eligible for final data analysis. The median follow-up time was 19?months (range, 9.5-30.2). Time to recurrence in the sorafenib arm was 21.45?±?1.98?months (mean?±?standard deviation), compared to 13.44?±?2.66?months in the control arm (P?=?0.006). The median recurrence-free survival in the sorafenib arm did not reach the data cut-off date compared to 8?months in the control arm (P?=?0.006). The recurrence rate between the two groups was significantly different (29.4% vs 70.7%, P?=?0.032). Cox regression analysis showed that taking study medicine was the only prognostic variable associated with HCC recurrence (hazard ratio?=?0.24, 95% confidence interval?=?0.08-0.75, P?=?0.014). CONCLUSION: This study showed that setting sorafenib as adjuvant therapy for HCC to prevent early recurrence after hepatic resection could be a potential indication. The cumulative recurrence-free survival rate also demonstrated the preventive effectiveness of sorafenib.
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Total body irradiation with step translation and dynamic field matching.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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The purpose of this study is to develop a total body irradiation technique that does not require additional devices or sophisticated processes to overcome the space limitation of a small treatment room. The technique aims to deliver a uniform dose to the entire body while keeping the lung dose within the tolerance level. The technique treats the patient lying on the floor anteriorly and posteriorly. For each AP/PA treatment, two complementary fields with dynamic field edges are matched over an overlapped region defined by the marks on the body surface. A compensator, a spoiler, and lung shielding blocks were used during the treatment. Moreover, electron beams were used to further boost the chest wall around the lungs. The technique was validated in a RANDO phantom using GAFCHROMIC films. Dose ratios at different body sites along the midline ranged from 0.945 to 1.076. The dose variation in the AP direction ranged from 96.0% to 104.6%. The dose distribution in the overlapped region ranged from 98.5% to 102.8%. Lateral dose profiles at abdomen and head revealed 109.8% and 111.7% high doses, respectively, at the body edges. The results confirmed that the technique is capable of delivering a uniform dose distribution to the midline of the body in a small treatment room while keeping the lung dose within the tolerance level.
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A simple algorithm for subregional striatal uptake analysis with partial volume correction in dopaminergic PET imaging.
Ann Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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In positron emission tomography (PET) of the dopaminergic system, quantitative measurements of nigrostriatal dopamine function are useful for differential diagnosis. A subregional analysis of striatal uptake enables the diagnostic performance to be more powerful. However, the partial volume effect (PVE) induces an underestimation of the true radioactivity concentration in small structures. This work proposes a simple algorithm for subregional analysis of striatal uptake with partial volume correction (PVC) in dopaminergic PET imaging.
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Results of infected total knee arthroplasty treated with arthroscopic debridement and continuous antibiotic irrigation system.
Indian J Orthop
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Arthroscopic debridement with continuous irrigation system was used with success in treating infective arthritis. We evaluated the effectiveness of arthroscopic debridement coupled with antibiotic continuous irrigation system in acute presentation of late infected total knee arthroplasty.
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Differences in virulence genes and genome patterns of mastitis-associated Staphylococcus aureus among goat, cow, and human isolates in Taiwan.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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A total of 117 mastitis-associated Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cow, goat, and human patients were analyzed for differences in antibiotic susceptibility, virulence genes, and genotypes using accessory gene regulator (agr) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. aureus were commonly found in all sources, though they were predominantly found in human and goat isolates. Almost 70% of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and penicillin. Host-associated virulence genes were identified as follows: tst, a gene encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin, was found in goat isolates; lukED and lukM, genes encoding leukocidin, found in cow isolates; lukPV, a gene encoding leukocidin, found in human isolates; and eta, a gene encoding for exfoliative toxin, found in both human and cow isolates. All four types of hemolysin, ?, ?, ?, and ?, were identified in human isolates, three types (?, ?, and ?), were identified in cow isolates, and two types (? and ?) were identified in goat isolates. Agr-typing determined agr1 to be the main subtype in human and cow isolates. PFGE and MLST analysis revealed the presence of diverse genotypes among the three sources. In conclusion, mastitis-associated, genetically diverse strains of MDR S. aureus differed in virulence genes among human, cow, and goat isolates.
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Palladium-catalyzed oxidative insertion of carbon monoxide to N-sulfonyl-2-aminobiaryls through C-H bond activation: access to bioactive phenanthridinone derivatives in one pot.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of N-sulfonyl-2-aminobiaryls through C-H bond activation and C-C, C-N bond formation under TFA-free and milder conditions has been developed. The reaction tolerates a variety of substrates and provides biologically important phenanthridinone derivatives in yields up to 94%.
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Persistent receptor activity underlies group I mGluR-mediated cellular plasticity in CA3 neuron.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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Plastic changes in cortical activities induced by group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) stimulation include epileptogenesis, expressed in vitro as the conversion of normal neuronal activity to persistent, prolonged synchronized (ictal) discharges. At present, the mechanism that maintains group I mGluR-induced plasticity is not known. We examined this issue using hippocampal slices from guinea pigs and mice. Agonist [(S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), 30-50 ?m)] stimulation of group I mGluRs induces persistent prolonged synchronized (ictal-like) discharges in CA3 that are associated with three identified excitatory cellular responses-suppression of spike afterhyperpolarizations, activation of a voltage-dependent cationic current, and increase in neuronal input resistance. Persistent prolonged synchronized discharges and the underlying excitatory cellular responses maintained following induction were reversibly blocked by mGluR1 antagonists [(S)-+-?-amino-4-carboxy-2-methylbenzeneacetic acid (LY 367385), 50, 100 ?m; CPCCOEt (hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester, 100 ?m], and to a lesser extent by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride, 50 ?m]. Activation of persistent cellular responses to DHPG were unaffected by tetrodotoxin (0.5-1 ?m) or perfusion with low Ca(2+)(0.2 mm)-Mn(2+)(0.5 mm) media-conditions that suppress endogenous glutamate release. The pharmacological profile of the blocking action of the group I mGluR antagonist MCPG [(RS)-?-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine, 50-500 ?m] on persistent cellular responses was different from that on cellular responses directly activated by DHPG. These data indicate that transient stimulation of group I mGluRs alters receptor properties, rendering them persistently active in the absence of applied agonist or endogenous glutamate activation. Persistent receptor activities, primarily involving mGluR1, maintain excitatory cellular responses and emergent prolonged synchronized discharges.
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?(?)-Michael addition of alkyl amines to dimethyl (E)-hex-2-en-4-ynedioate: synthesis of ?,?-dehydroamino acid derivatives.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The direct nucleophilic addition of alkyl amines to the ?(?)-carbon atom of dimethyl (E)-hex-2-en-4-ynedioate to generate ?,?-dehydroamino acid derivatives is reported. Herein, we have studied the reactivity of various primary and secondary alkyl amines in the ?-selective nucleophilic conjugate addition to conjugated dimethyl (E)-hex-2-en-4-ynedioate. The reaction with primary alkyl amines gives only the (2E,4E)-stereoisomer, while that with secondary alkyl amines gives the (2E,4E) and (2Z,4E)-stereoisomers of dimethyl (2-alkylamino)-muconic ester.
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CD4 and CD8 double-negative adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma with monomorphic cells expressing CD99: a diagnostic challenge in a country non-endemic for human T-cell leukemia virus.
Pathol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a peripheral T-cell neoplasm caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). The neoplastic cells are highly pleomorphic and are usually CD4+ and CD8- phenotypically. We reported the case of a 46-year-old woman presenting with fever, abdominal distention, lymphadenopathy, leukocytosis and hypercalcemia. Nodal biopsy showed diffuse infiltration by monomorphic small to medium-sized atypical lymphocytes expressing CD3, CD25, CD30 and CD99, but not CD1a, CD4, CD8, CD34, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase or ALK. An initial diagnosis of T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma was made based on cytomorphology, CD4 and CD8 double negativity, and the expression of CD99. The diagnosis was later revised to ATLL based on the positive serology study for anti-HTLV I/II antibody and confirmation by the clonal integration of HTLV-I proviral DNA into the tumor tissues by Southern blotting analysis. The patient had a stage IVB disease and died of septic shock after 2 courses of chemotherapy 3 months after diagnosis. Immunohistochemical staining for CD99 in archival ATLL tissues showed a positive rate of 67% (4 of 6 tumors). Our case showed that ATLL with atypical morphology and immunophenotype in HTLV non-endemic areas might pose a diagnostic challenge and CD99 expression is frequent in ATLL.
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Lovastatin corrects excess protein synthesis and prevents epileptogenesis in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Many neuropsychiatric symptoms of fragile X syndrome (FXS) are believed to be a consequence of altered regulation of protein synthesis at synapses. We discovered that lovastatin, a drug that is widely prescribed for the treatment of high cholesterol, can correct excess hippocampal protein synthesis in the mouse model of FXS and can prevent one of the robust functional consequences of increased protein synthesis in FXS, epileptogenesis. These data suggest that lovastatin is potentially disease modifying and could be a viable prophylactic treatment for epileptogenesis in FXS.
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The presence of clusters of plasmacytoid dendritic cells is a helpful feature for differentiating lupus panniculitis from subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Both lupus panniculitis (LP) and subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) are characterized by subcutaneous lobular lymphocytic infiltrates, and they are sometimes difficult to differentiate. Recently, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) were found to be present in various types of cutaneous lupus erythematosus lesions, including LP, and are supposed to play important pathogenetic roles. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PDCs are differentially present in these two diseases and can be utilized to differentiate them. Conventional histopathological features were also compared.
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High MET gene copy number predicted poor prognosis in primary intestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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MET is a proto-oncogene with its copy number (CN) alterations been reported in some cancers, but not in primary intestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PI-DLBL) yet.
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Risk factors for nonunion in patients with intracapsular femoral neck fractures treated with three cannulated screws placed in either a triangle or an inverted triangle configuration.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Intracapsular femoral neck fractures are associated with high rates of nonunion. We aimed to identify risk factors for nonunion in patients with both displaced and nondisplaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures treated with three 7-mm parallel cannulated screws, placed in either a triangle or an inverted triangle configuration, using failure of fixation as the primary outcome.
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Recognition of hydrogen isotopomers by an open-cage fullerene.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We present our study on the recognition of hydrogen isotopes by an open-cage fullerene through determination of binding affinity of isotopes H?/HD/D? with the open-cage fullerene and comparison of their relative molecular sizes through kinetic-isotope-release experiments. We took advantage of isotope H?/D? exchange that generated an equilibrium mixture of H?/HD/D? in a stainless steel autoclave to conduct high-pressure hydrogen insertion into an open-cage fullerene. The equilibrium constants of three isotopes with the open-cage fullerene were determined at various pressures and temperatures. Our results show a higher equilibrium constant for HD into open-cage fullerene than the other two isotopomers, which is consistent with its dipolar nature. D? molecule generally binds stronger than H? because of its heavier mass; however, the affinity for H? becomes larger than D? at lower temperature, when size effect becomes dominant. We further investigated the kinetics of H?/HD/D? release from open-cage fullerene, proving their relative escaping rates. D? was found to be the smallest and H? the largest molecule. This notion has not only supported the observed inversion of relative binding affinities between H? and D?, but also demonstrated that comparison of size difference of single molecules through non-convalent kinetic-isotope effect was applicable.
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Exogenous collagen crosslinking of the intervertebral disc restores joint stability after lumbar posterior decompression surgery.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2011
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In vitro evaluation of a chemical, injectable intervention for discectomy induced destabilization.
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Therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia with t(4;11)(q21;q23) masqueraded as marrow lymphocytosis in a patient with breast cancer.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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Therapy-related acute leukemia develops in patients after chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for a prior cancer, and most cases are acute myeloid leukemia with a much lower frequency of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). One unique feature of these therapy-related ALL (t-ALL) is an increased incidence of chromosome band 11q23 aberrations as compared with de novo ALL. In adult female patients, breast cancer is the most common primary cancer. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old Taiwanese lady who developed t-ALL with t(4;11)(q21;q23) 16 months after cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy for her breast cancer. The unusual feature is that the t-ALL was heralded 4 months ago by marrow lymphocytosis comprising atypical small lymphocytes with condensed chromatin mimicking a B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorder. Retrospective studies using additional antibodies for immunophenotyping and PCR-based clonality study for immunoglobulin gene rearrangement showed that these atypical small lymphocytes shared similar features with the leukemic blasts at the frank leukemic stage. Our results suggest that these atypical small lymphocytes are lymphoblasts in disguise and that the clinicopathological correlations with ancillary pathological studies are important to reach a definitive diagnosis of such an unusual case.
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Biocompatible transferrin-conjugated sodium hexametaphosphate-stabilized gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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The feasibility of using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for biomedical applications has led to considerable interest in the development of novel synthetic protocols and surface modification strategies for AuNPs to produce biocompatible molecular probes. This investigation is, to our knowledge, the first to elucidate the synthesis and characterization of sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-HMP) in an aqueous medium. The role of HMP, a food additive, as a polymeric stabilizing and protecting agent for AuNPs is elucidated. The surface modification of Au-HMP nanoparticles was carried out using polyethylene glycol and transferrin to produce molecular probes for possible clinical applications. In vitro cell viability studies performed using as-synthesized Au-HMP nanoparticles and their surface-modified counterparts reveal the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles. The transferrin-conjugated nanoparticles have significantly higher cellular uptake in J5 cells (liver cancer cells) than control cells (oral mucosa fibroblast cells), as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study demonstrates the possibility of using an inexpensive and non-toxic food additive, HMP, as a stabilizer in the large-scale generation of biocompatible and monodispersed AuNPs, which may have future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
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Pediatric follicular lymphoma: a report of the first 3 cases from Taiwan and literature review.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a common lymphoma entity in adults but is rare in children. As opposed to adult cases, pediatric FL is characterized by a high-grade histology, low-stage disease, a lower frequency of both bcl-2 protein expression and BCL2 gene rearrangement, and a more favorable prognosis. During the authors previous study of pediatric Burkitt lymphoma, they identified 3 cases of pediatric FL. Here the authors present the first series of pediatric FL from Taiwan. The patients were 2 boys and 1 girl, aged from 7 to 14. The presentation sites were cervical lymph node in 2 and tonsil in 1. All cases showed large neoplastic nodules comprising sheets of centroblasts, corresponding to grade 3b FL. Two of the 3 tumors weakly expressed bcl-2 protein. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for IGH, BCL2, BCL6, CCND1, and MYC loci showed that the only chromosomal translocation was rearranged IGH in 1 case. Two patients were at stage I, and 1 at stage III. All were treated with combination chemotherapy and achieved long-term complete remission. Literature review including the current cases showed that 45% cases of pediatric FL expressed bcl-2 protein and 9% cases carried BCL2 gene rearrangement, suggesting an alternate molecular pathogenesis of pediatric FL as compared to their adult counterparts.
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Apelin gene polymorphism influences apelin expression and obesity phenotypes in Chinese women.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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Apelin, which is a newly identified adipokine, is related to obesity and insulin resistance. A positive correlation between plasma apelin concentrations and obesity traits was reported.
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Nonhepatosplenic ?? T-cell lymphomas represent a spectrum of aggressive cytotoxic T-cell lymphomas with a mainly extranodal presentation.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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?? T cells represent a minor T-cell subset that is mainly distributed in mucosal surfaces. Two distinct lymphomas derived from these cells have been recognized: hepatosplenic ?? T-cell lymphoma (HSTL) and primary cutaneous ?? T-cell lymphoma (PCGD-TCL). However, whether other anatomic sites may also be involved and whether they represent a spectrum of the same disease are not well studied. The lack of T-cell receptor (TCR)? expression has been used to infer a ?? origin when other methods are not available. We studied 35 T-cell tumors suspected to be ?? TCL using monoclonal antibodies reactive with TCR ? or ? in paraffin sections. We were able to confirm ?? chain expression in 22 of 35 cases. We identified 8 PCGD-TCLs, 6 HSTLs, and 8 ?? TCLs without hepatosplenic or cutaneous involvement involving mainly extranodal sites. Two such cases were classified as enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma, type II. The other ?? TCL presented in the intestine, lung, tongue, orbit, and lymph node. In addition, we observed 13 cases with mainly extranodal involvement that lacked any TCR expression ("TCR silent"). In all cases, a natural killer cell origin was excluded. In conclusion, the lack of TCR? expression does not always predict ??-T-cell derivation, as TCR silent cases may be found. The recognition of ?? TCL presenting in extranodal sites other than skin and liver/spleen expands the clinical spectrum of these tumors. However, non-HSTL ?? TCL do not seem to represent a single entity. The relationship of these tumors with either HSTL or PCGD-TCL requires further study.
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Cilostazol reduces MCP-1-induced chemotaxis and adhesion of THP-1 monocytes by inhibiting CCR2 gene expression.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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The chemotaxis and adhesion of monocytes to the injured endothelium in the early atherosclerosis is important. Cilostazol, a specific phosphodiesterase type III inhibitor, is known to exhibit anti-atherosclerotic effects mediated by different mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the modulating effect of cilostazol on the MCP-1-induced chemotaxis and adhesion of monocytes. The gene expression of CCR2, the major receptor of MCP-1 in THP-1 monocytes, was also analyzed. The chemotaxis of monocytes toward MCP-1 was investigated using the transwell filter assay. Cilostazol dose-dependently inhibited the MCP-1-induced chemotaxis of monocytes which was shown to be cAMP-dependent. Using western blot analysis and flow cytometry method, we demonstrated the decrease of CCR2 protein at the cell membrane of monocytes by cilostazol treatment. Results from RT/real-time PCR confirmed the decrease of CCR2 mRNA expression by cilostazol which was also mediated by cAMP. Similar inhibition was also noted in human peripheral monocytes. The post-CCR2 signaling pathways including p44/42 and p38 MAPK were examined by western blot analysis. Result confirmed the inhibitory effect of cilostazol on the phosphorylation of p44/42 and p38 MAPK after MCP-1 stimulation. The activation of monocytes after MCP-1 treatment exhibited enhanced adhesion to vascular endothelial cells which was dose-dependently suppressed by cilostazol. Together, cilostazol was demonstrated, for the first time, to inhibit the CCR2 gene expression and MCP-1-induced chemotaxis and adhesion of monocytes which might therefore reduce the infiltration of monocytes during the early atherosclerosis. The present study provides an additional molecular mechanism underlying the anti-atherosclerotic effects of cilostazol.
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Polymorphism at the mucin-like protocadherin gene influences susceptibility to gallstone disease.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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Gallstone disease (GSD) is a common disease that can be caused by environmental influences, common genetic factors and their interactions. Mucin glycoproteins may be one important factor for GSD. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the relationship between the mucin-like protocadherin (MUPCDH) gene polymorphisms and GSD.
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Strategy for the treatment of puerperal metritis and improvement of reproductive efficiency in cows with retained placenta.
Acta Vet. Hung.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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The objective of this study was to improve the reproductive efficiency of dairy cows with puerperal metritis (PM) subsequent to retained placenta (RP) using a two-step treatment strategy. A total of 188 postpartum cows, aged from 2 to 8 years, were utilised for 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, cows affected with RP/PM were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. Cows in Group A (n = 17) were treated with 600 mg of ceftiofur intramuscularly for 3 days followed by intrauterine lavage with 0.1% chlorhexidine and infusion with 0.5% povidoneiodine, while cows in Group B (n = 16) received two intrauterine infusions, first with 5 g of oxytetracycline and then with 0.5% povidone-iodine. Cows with normal postpartum findings were regarded as the healthy control group (n = 26). Ultrasonographic examination revealed that the ovarian activities including the appearance of a dominant follicle and days to first ovulation of the cows in Group A during the early postpartum period differed from those of Group B (P < 0.05), which coincided with the results of uterine swabbing for bacteriology. In Experiment 2, cows with normal postpartum findings were allocated to Group D (n = 78), which received an ovulation protocol (GnRH - 7 d PGF2? - 48 h hCG - 24 h AI) on day 50 ± 2 postpartum. Cows affected with PM were randomly divided into two groups, Group E (n = 25) combined the treatments applied in Groups A and D, while Group F (n = 26) repeated the treatment administered in Group E except for uterine lavage. The results indicated that the pregnancy rate within 150 days postpartum and the mean days open in Group E (76.0% and 106.3 ± 4.6 days, respectively) were significantly different from those in Group F (38.5% and 137.9 ± 10.9 days, respectively) (P < 0.05). This study suggests that reproductive efficiency could be improved by using the two-step treatment to regulate uterine involution and an early resumption of ovarian function in cows with RP/PM.
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In vivo and in vitro inhibitory effects of a traditional Chinese formulation on LPS-stimulated leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and VCAM-1 gene expression.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
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A traditional Chinese formulation Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of HLJDT on the LPS-stimulated leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and VCAM-1 gene expression both in vivo and in vitro.
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Cilostazol inhibits matrix invasion and modulates the gene expressions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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The invasion of monocytes into the subendothelium space plays an important role in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Cilostazol, a specific phosphodiesterase type III (PDE3) inhibitor, has been shown to exhibit anti-atherosclerotic effect. The present study aimed to investigate the modulating effects of cilostazol on monocyte invasion and the gene expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1. We found that PMA significantly increased the invasive ability and the MMP-9 activity of THP-1 cells, as analyzed by matrix invasion assay and gelatin zymography, respectively. The increased expression of MMP-9 was demonstrated at both the RNA and protein levels by RT/real-time PCR and western blot analysis. These changes were markedly inhibited by cilostazol in a dose-dependent manner, which also could be observed when cAMP analog was used. On the contrary, the expression of TIMP-1, an inhibitor of MMP-9, was significantly upregulated by cilostazol dose dependently at both the RNA and protein levels. Reverse zymography further confirmed the increase of TIMP-1 activity after cilostazol treatment. The increase of TIMP-1 by cilostazol, however, was not cAMP-dependent. Cilostazol reduced the MMP-9 promoter activity and suppressed the nuclear translocation of NF-?B, indicating that the inhibitory effect of cilostazol is at the transcriptional level. In conclusion, the present study provides an additional mechanism underlying the anti-atherosclerotic effect of cilostazol by inhibiting the monocyte invasion and modulating the gene expressions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in monocytes upon differentiating to macrophages.
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Risk factors for the development of metachronous liver metastasis in colorectal cancer patients after curative resection.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Metachronous liver metastasis (MLM) occurs in 20-40% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients following surgical treatment. The aim of the present study was to determine the risk factors affecting the development of MLM in CRC patients following curative resection.
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with pericardial metastasis.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2011
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is prevalent in Taiwan and is characterized by a high frequency of nodal metastasis. The most common organs with distal metastases are the bones, lungs, and liver, with extremely rare cases to the pericardium. Herein, we report a rare case with NPC who presented with dyspnea and orthopnea. Serial studies, including pericardial biopsy, revealed NPC with pericardial metastasis and pericardial effusion. The tumor cells of both the original and metastatic tumors were positive for Epstein-Barr virus by in situ hybridization. This is the first histologically confirmed case of NPC with pericardial metastasis.
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A parallel comparison of T-cell clonality assessment between an in-house PCR assay and the BIOMED-2 assay leading to an efficient and cost-effective strategy.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Diagnosis of T-cell lymphoproliferation is sometimes challenging, and in certain instances pathologists rely heavily on the clonality assessment results of T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement (TCR-GR). Many investigators have designed various in-house primer sets for PCR-based study targeting different loci of TCR genes. In recent years, the commercial BIOMED-2 protocols have become available. The in-house primers are very cheap while the BIOMED-2 primers are expensive. This parallel study aimed to compare the sensitivity of the in-house TCRG primers (two reactions) and the BIOMED-2 TCR primers (six reactions) in an attempt to develop a sensitive and cost-effective strategy for TCR-GR assessment.
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Three-component and nonclassical reaction of phosphines with enynes and aldehydes: formation of ?-lactones featuring ?-phosphorus ylides.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Inverted carbenoid species, generated from attack of phosphines at the ?(?)-carbon of hex-2-en-4-ynedioic acid dialkyl esters, react with aldehydes to give ?-lactones possessing an ?-phosphorus ylide moiety.
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Multiple genetic polymorphisms in the prediction of clinical outcome of metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with first-line FOLFOX-4 chemotherapy.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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The objective of the study is to investigate whether multiple chemotherapeutic agent-related genetic polymorphisms are associated with the clinical outcomes of Taiwanese metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRC) patients treated with the first-line FOLFOX-4 chemotherapy.
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A three-dimensional flexible microprobe array for neural recording assembled through electrostatic actuation.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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We designed, fabricated and tested a novel three-dimensional flexible microprobe to record neural signals of a lateral giant nerve fiber of the escape circuit of an American crayfish. An electrostatic actuation folded planar probes into three-dimensional neural probes with arbitrary orientations for neuroscientific applications. A batch assembly based on electrostatic forces simplified the fabrication and was non-toxic. A novel fabrication for these three-dimensional flexible probes used SU-8 and Parylene technology. The mechanical strength of the neural probe was great enough to penetrate into a bio-gel. A flexible probe both decreased the micromotion and alleviated tissue encapsulation of the implant caused by chronic inflammation of tissue when an animal breathes or moves. The cortex consisted of six horizontal layers, and the neurons of the cortex were arranged in vertical structures; the three-dimensional microelectrode arrays were suitable to investigate the cooperative activity for neurons in horizontal separate layers and in vertical cortical columns. With this flexible probe we recorded neural signals of a lateral giant cell from an American crayfish. The response amplitude of action potentials was about 343 µV during 1 ms period; the average recorded data had a ratio of signal to noise as great as 30.22 ± 3.58 dB. The improved performance of this electrode made feasible the separation of neural signals according to their distinct shapes. The cytotoxicity indicated a satisfactory biocompatibility and non-toxicity of the flexible device fabricated in this work.
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Development of an adjustable model breast for mammographic dosimetry assessment in Taiwanese women.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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The currently used model breast for mammographic dosimetry assessment lacks the flexibility to change dimensions. The aim of this study was to develop an adjustable model breast for mammographic dosimetry assessment of Taiwanese women.
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Physician supply and demand in anatomical pathology in Taiwan.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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Anatomical pathology was not popular in Taiwan a few decades ago, with a severe shortage of pathologists. However, there has been a steady increase in recent years, and now there is a threat of oversupply We evaluated supply and demand over the past three decades and compared the findings with other countries.
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Annulation of benzamides with [60]fullerene through palladium(II)-catalyzed C-H bond activation.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of N-substituted benzamides with [60]fullerene, which proceeds through direct sp(2) C-H bond activation to form 7-membered ring pallada-intermediate with C(60), led to formation of [60]fulleroisoquinolinones in moderate to good yields (8-64% based on recovered C(60)). A plausible reaction pathway is proposed.
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Bartonella species and their ectoparasites: selective host adaptation or strain selection between the vector and the mammalian host?
Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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A wide range of blood-sucking arthropods have either been confirmed or are suspected as important vectors in Bartonella transmission to mammals, including humans. Overall, it appears that the diversity of Bartonella species DNA identified in ectoparasites is much broader than the species detected in their mammalian hosts, suggesting a mechanism of adaptation of Bartonella species to their host-vector ecosystem. However, these mechanisms leading to the fitness between the vectors and their hosts still need to be investigated.
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A20, ABIN-1/2, and CARD11 mutations and their prognostic value in gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive lymphomas with the activated B-cell-like subtype characterized by constitutive NF-?B activation. Activating mutations of CARD11 and inactivating mutations of A20 are frequent events in DLBCL. However, the full extent of genetic alterations in the NF-?B pathway regulators and their potential prognostic value in DLBCL remain to be investigated. We investigated the genetic abnormalities of CARD11, A20, and ABIN-1/2/3 (the A20 binding inhibitor of NF-?B) and their clinicopathologic correlation in gastrointestinal DLBCL.
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Cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma of cytotoxic phenotype mimicking extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma.
Am J Dermatopathol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified is a rare neoplasm that is infrequently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In contrast, extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, although also rare, is known to be strongly associated with EBV and occurs most commonly in the nasal region. We report the case of a 55-year-old male who presented with fever and an indurated cutaneous plaque with ulceration. This cutaneous neoplasm showed diffuse dermal lymphomatous infiltration and tumor necrosis, with neoplastic cells expressing CD2, cytoplasmic CD3 (CD3?), CD8, CD16, CD30, T-cell intracellular antigen-1, and granzyme B but not CD56, BF1, or T-cell receptor (TCR) ?1. Furthermore, the tumor cells were noted to be diffusely positive for EBV by in situ hybridization. A monoclonal TCR gene rearrangement was demonstrated. The disease showed an aggressive clinical course, and the patient died within 3 weeks of diagnosis without complete staging or chemotherapy. According to the 2005 World Health Organization/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scheme for cutaneous lymphoma and the 2008 WHO classification for lymphoid neoplasms, our case would have been classified as a nasal type extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma with T-cell lineage. However, the expressions of CD8 and CD16, in addition to a monoclonal TCR gene rearrangement, are unusual findings in NK/T-cell lymphoma, and we believe such a phenotype/genotype should be more appropriately classified as an EBV-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified with a cytotoxic phenotype. Detailed clinicopathologic and molecular studies of similar cases may shed light on the prognostic impact of NK vs. T-cell lineage on extranodal NK/T-cell lymphomas.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.