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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Early Intervention for Preterm Infants and Their Mothers: A Systematic Review.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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This systematic review evaluates the efficacy of various early interventions on maternal emotional outcomes, mother-infant interaction, and subsequent infant outcomes during neonatal intensive care unit admission and postdischarge. Key interventions associated with outcomes in both the neonatal intensive care unit and postdischarge (ie, home) settings are summarized. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials involving early interventions for infants and their mother published between 1993 and 2013 in the electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and Cochrane was undertaken. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale to evaluate internal and external validity of the study. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included in the review, and all used some form of parenting education. The interventions had limited effects on maternal stress and mother-infant interaction and positive effects on maternal anxiety, depressive symptoms, and maternal coping. There were positive effects on infants' short-term outcomes for length of stay and breast-feeding rate. Positive and clinically meaningful effects of early interventions were seen in some physiological/psychological outcomes of mothers and preterm infants. It is important for nurses to foster close mother-infant contact and increase maternal competence during and after the infant's hospitalization period.
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Preparation of nano/submicron Ganoderma tsugae and its mutagenic potencies and cytotoxicity.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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This was to explore the feasibility of preparing nano/submicron particles from Ganoderma tsugae for enhancing the contents of bioactive compounds and to assess its mutagenic potencies and cytotoxicity. Hot-water extract, a common product, was employed as a reference. After 3-hr media milling, almost all the particles were smaller than 1 ?m with a number-mean diameter of 0.11 ?m. There were about 62 % particles smaller than 0.1 m in terms of number of particles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the presence of particles size at nano/submicron scale. The content of 1?3-ß-D-glucan in nano/submicron G. tsugae was 3.5 times of that in hot-water extract. Both nano/submicron and hot-water extract G. tsugae exhibited no mutagenic potential to Salmonella typhimurium tester strains. Cell toxicity test also confirmed the safety of both nano/submicron and hot-water extract G. tsugae. The effect of media milling on the structural change of hyphae was also discussed.
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Type A dissection and fistula to right atrium after aortic valve replacement.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A 73-year-old man with a history of severe aortic regurgitation underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis. Nine years later, he presented with heart failure and was diagnosed with chronic type A dissection and severe aortic stenosis. During surgery, a fistula from the ascending aortic aneurysm to the right atrium was found incidentally. Replacement of the aortic valve and ascending aorta were performed successfully. The fistula was closed with sutures. The patient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 16.
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A cytoplasmic RNA virus generates functional viral small RNAs and regulates viral IRES activity in mammalian cells.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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The roles of virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) have been studied in plants and insects. However, the generation and function of small RNAs from cytoplasmic RNA viruses in mammalian cells remain unexplored. This study describes four vsRNAs that were detected in enterovirus 71-infected cells using next-generation sequencing and northern blots. Viral infection produced substantial levels (>10(5) copy numbers per cell) of vsRNA1, one of the four vsRNAs. We also demonstrated that Dicer is involved in vsRNA1 generation in infected cells. vsRNA1 overexpression inhibited viral translation and internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) activity in infected cells. Conversely, blocking vsRNA1 enhanced viral yield and viral protein synthesis. We also present evidence that vsRNA1 targets stem-loop II of the viral 5' untranslated region and inhibits the activity of the IRES through this sequence-specific targeting. Our study demonstrates the ability of a cytoplasmic RNA virus to generate functional vsRNA in mammalian cells. In addition, we also demonstrate a potential novel mechanism for a positive-stranded RNA virus to regulate viral translation: generating a vsRNA that targets the IRES.
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Excellent mid-term durability of the On-X mechanical aortic valve in the pulmonary position with a low international normalized ratio.
J. Heart Valve Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Although the pulmonary position has been preferred for the placement of homografts or bioprosthetic valves, the limited longevity of these implants makes reoperation almost unavoidable. Good durability of mechanical valves in the pulmonary position has been reported. The mid-term outcomes were analyzed of patients who received an On-X mechanical heart valve for pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) with a relatively low International Normalized Ratio (INR).
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The application of flow cytometry for evaluating biological aggressiveness of intracranial meningiomas.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Meningiomas have classically been considered to include benign and atypical/anaplastic tumors. Despite the availability of clinical and pathologic parameters for prognostic prediction prognosis, the behavior of each meningioma may be difficult to predict. Here, we used DNA flow-cytometric studies to predict biological tumor behaviors of intracranial meningiomas.
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Comparing HbA1c, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose for screening for abnormal glucose regulation in patients undergoing coronary angiography.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Abstract Background: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of undiagnosed abnormal glucose regulation (AGR, including diabetes and prediabetes) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) by using both glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to screen, and to compare the performance of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), and HbA1c for screening for AGR. Methods: Eligible patients were adults without known diabetes who were admitted for CAG. Patients' glucose regulation status was defined by conducting HbA1c and OGTT 2-4 weeks after hospital discharge. The performance of FPG, 2hPG, and HbA1c for detecting AGR was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: A total of 689 subjects were included. According to OGTT, the prevalence rates of diabetes and prediabetes were 19.9% and 41.7%, respectively. The corresponding values were 28.0% and 60.4%, respectively, when HbA1c was adopted as a diagnostic criterion in addition to OGTT. For detecting diabetes, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was higher for HbA1c than for FPG (0.87 vs. 0.80, p=0.005), but was not significantly different from that for 2hPG (0.87 vs. 0.88, p=0.58). For detecting AGR, the AUC was higher for HbA1c than for either FPG (0.94 vs. 0.74, p<0.001) or 2hPG (0.94 vs. 0.83, p<0.001). Conclusions: Using HbA1c and OGTT to screen, we reported an extremely high prevalence of previously undiagnosed AGR (28.0% diabetes and 60.4% prediabetes) in patients admitted for CAG. HbA1c may be adopted as an alternative to OGTT for screening for AGR in patients undergoing CAG.
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Factors Influencing Implementation of Developmental Care Among NICU Nurses in China.
Clin Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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The main aim of this article is to describe current developmental care nursing practices among registered nurses (RNs) working in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in China and to explore selected personal and unit characteristics related to developmental care implementation. A convenience sample of 207 RNs participated in this descriptive, cross-sectional exploratory study. A tool of Practice Standards for Individualized, Family-Centered Developmental Care was used to collect the data. The findings indicate that Chinese NICU nurses are not implementing developmental care consistently. Higher patient caseloads, fewer work hours per day, higher level of education, and fewer years worked in NICUs are the significant predictors for lower implementation of developmental care. NICU nurses in China currently carry out developmental care based mainly on their accumulated clinical experience rather than their educational experience. More systematic developmental care training for NICU nurses and more support at both unit and hospital levels are necessary in China.
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Insulinoma in a Young Female Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Case Report.
Endocr Pract
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Objective: Fasting hypoglycemia may occur in subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) when accompanied with insulin-binding antibodies or insulin receptor antibodies. However, insulinoma has not been reported in SLE subjects with hypoglycemia.Methods: We present a case report and review the relevant literature.Results: A 26-year-old female with underlying SLE experienced several episodes of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a fasting state. The steroid dosage was titrated up, but in vain. Timely imaging studies showed a pancreatic tumor, and insulinoma was proven by pathology. Hypoglycemia did not recur after surgery.Conclusion: Physicians should distinguish insulinoma from autoimmunity-mediated hypoglycemia in SLE patients with fasting hypoglycemia.
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Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Sleep apnea (SA) is characterized by apnea during sleep and is associated with cardiovascular diseases and an increase in all-cause mortality. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem that has placed a substantial burden on healthcare resources. However, the relationship between SA and the incidence of CKD is not clear. This study aimed to determine whether SA is an independent risk factor for the development of CKD.
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The pathological effects of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes are amplified by an IFNAR1-triggered chemokine feedback loop in highly pathogenic influenza infection.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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BackgroundHighly pathogenic influenza viruses cause high levels of morbidity, including excessive infiltration of leukocytes into the lungs, high viral loads and a cytokine storm. However, the details of how these pathological features unfold in severe influenza infections remain unclear. Accumulation of Gr1¿+¿CD11b¿+¿myeloid cells has been observed in highly pathogenic influenza infections but it is not clear how and why they accumulate in the severely inflamed lung. In this study, we selected this cell population as a target to investigate the extreme inflammatory response during severe influenza infection.ResultsWe established H1N1 IAV-infected mouse models using three viruses of varying pathogenicity and noted the accumulation of a defined Gr1¿+¿CD11b¿+¿myeloid population correlating with the pathogenicity. Herein, we reported that CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes are the major cell compartments in this population. Of note, impaired clearance of the high pathogenicity virus prolonged IFN expression, leading to CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes amplifying their own recruitment via an interferon-¿/ß receptor 1 (IFNAR1)-triggered chemokine loop. Blockage of IFNAR1-triggered signaling or inhibition of viral replication by Oseltamivir significantly suppresses the expression of CCR2 ligands and reduced the influx of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes. Furthermore, trafficking of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes from the bone marrow to the lung was evidenced by a CCR2-dependent chemotaxis. Importantly, leukocyte infiltration, cytokine storm and expression of iNOS were significantly reduced in CCR2¿/¿ mice lacking infiltrating CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes, enhancing the survival of the infected mice.ConclusionsOur results indicated that uncontrolled viral replication leads to excessive production of inflammatory innate immune responses by accumulating CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes, which contribute to the fatal outcomes of high pathogenicity virus infections.
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Beneficial effect of quercetin on cholestatic liver injury.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Bile duct obstruction and subsequent cholestasis are associated with hepatocellular injury, cholangiocyte proliferation, stellate cell activation, Kupffer cell activation, oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Flavonoids have been shown to confer beneficial health effects, including hepatoprotection. However, the molecular mechanism of flavonoid-mediated hepatoprotection is incompletely understood. In this study, we report the protective effect of quercetin on cholestatic liver injury. Cholestasis was produced by bile duct ligation (BDL) in male Sprague-Dawley rats for 3weeks. Daily oral administration of quercetin was started 1week before injury and lasted for 4weeks. In comparison with the control group, the BDL group showed liver injury, as evidenced by histological changes, and elevation in serum biochemicals, ductular reaction, fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. These pathophysiological changes were attenuated by daily quercetin supplementation. Quercetin alleviated BDL-induced transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-?1), interleukin-1 beta, connective tissue growth factor and collagen expression. The antifibrotic effect of quercetin was accompanied by reductions in ?-smooth muscle actin-positive matrix-producing cells and Smad 2/3 activity critical to the fibrogenic potential of TGF-?1. Quercetin also attenuated BDL-induced oxidative stress, leukocyte accumulation, nuclear factor (NF)-?B activation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Further studies demonstrated an inhibitory effect of quercetin on MyD88 and TGF-?-activated kinase-1 critical for linking toll-like receptor (TLR) and NF-?B. Taken together, the hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of quercetin seem to be multifactorial. The beneficial effects of daily quercetin supplementation are associated with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory potential as well as down-regulation of NF-?B and TGF-?/Smad signaling, probably via interference with TLR signaling.
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Influenza A/B virus detection and influenza A virus subtyping with emphasis on the novel H7N9 virus by using multiplex real-time RT-PCR.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Infections of the novel avian influenza A H7N9 virus cause severe respiratory diseases and death. In this study, to develop highly sensitive methods for differentially detecting the H7N9 virus, multiplex and singular real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were established and examined by targeting the H7 and N9 genes of the H7N9 virus. Furthermore, an additional multiplex assay combining previous real time RT-PCR designs was established to subtype the pandemic H1N1, H3, and H5 influenza viruses. Applying the proposed assay system to analyze 100 clinical specimens collected from respiratory infection cases identified influenza A viruses (pandemic H1N1 and H3) in 23 samples. It has been demonstrated that other common respiratory viruses will not be detected by using this platform.
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Update on the development of enterovirus 71 vaccines.
Expert Opin Biol Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an etiological agent that causes severe neurological complications in children. EV71 outbreaks have occurred throughout the Asia-Pacific region, posing a severe global public health threat; however, no specific therapeutic strategy exists for treating EV71-infected children.
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High-grade glioma in a patient with breast cancer.
Asian J Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Breast cancer is one of the most common origins of metastatic lesions in the central nervous system. Many patients with a breast cancer and concurrent brain tumor(s) were diagnosed to have a metastatic lesion or lesions in the brain, based exclusively on their image findings without further pathologic verification, and received radiotherapy alone thereafter. It is, however, possible that a different pathology such as primary brain malignancy, which actually warrants a specific treatment modality, may occur in such patients with an already known malignancy. We, herein, reported a 61-year-old female patient who suffered from an anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1 year after her diagnosis of breast cancer. Demographic data, characteristic imaging findings, treatment, and outcome of the patient were discussed.
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Enterovirus 71 infects brain-derived neural progenitor cells.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are stem cells that can differentiate into various neural lineage cells. The damage and loss of NPCs are associated with neurological conditions such as cognitive deficits and memory impairment. In a long-term study of patients with EV71, cognitive disorders were observed. Therefore, we hypothesized that NPCs may be permissive to EV71 infection. We demonstrated that NPCs are prone to EV71 infection and that these stem cells can support the active replication of this virus. Furthermore, EV71 infection triggers apoptosis, resulting in significant cell death in infected NPCs. However, EV71 did not replicate in the differentiated cell types that were tested. Our findings suggest that EV71 can infect NPCs and cause the depletion of these cells.
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Serum total bilirubin concentrations are inversely associated with total white blood cell counts in an adult population.
Ann. Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Several studies have shown that serum bilirubin has a protective effect against cardiovascular disease and that inflammation plays an important role in its pathogenesis. This cross-sectional study investigated whether there was an association between blood total white blood cell count, a simple indicator of inflammation, and serum total bilirubin concentration in a cohort of an adult population in Taiwan.
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Reduced health-related quality of life in body constitutions of yin-xu, and yang-xu, stasis in patients with type 2 diabetes: taichung diabetic body constitution study.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Aim. To evaluate how health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutions of Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis are related in type 2 diabetes patients. Method. Seven hundred and five subjects were recruited in 2010 for this study from a Diabetes Shared Care Network in Taiwan. Generic and disease-specific HRQOL were assessed by the short form 36 (SF-36) and the diabetes impact measurement scale (DIMS). Constitutions of Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis were then assessed by the body constitution questionnaire (BCQ), a questionnaire consisting of 44 items that evaluate the physiological state based on subjective symptoms and signs. Results. Estimated effects of the Ying-Xu and Stasis on all scales of the SF-36 were significantly negative, while estimated effects of the Yang-Xu on all scales (except for SF, RE, MH, and MCS) were significantly negative. For DIMS, the estimated effects of the Ying-Xu and Stasis on all scales were significantly negative except for Stasis on well-being, while Yang-Xu has a significantly negative effect only on symptoms. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that TCM constitutions of Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis are closely related to a reduction in HRQOL. These findings support the need for further research into the impact of intervention for TCM constitutions on HRQOL in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Cytoplasmic viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase disrupts the intracellular splicing machinery by entering the nucleus and interfering with Prp8.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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The primary role of cytoplasmic viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is viral genome replication in the cellular cytoplasm. However, picornaviral RdRp denoted 3D polymerase (3D(pol)) also enters the host nucleus, where its function remains unclear. In this study, we describe a novel mechanism of viral attack in which 3D(pol) enters the nucleus through the nuclear localization signal (NLS) and targets the pre-mRNA processing factor 8 (Prp8) to block pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA synthesis. The fingers domain of 3D(pol) associates with the C-terminal region of Prp8, which contains the Jab1/MPN domain, and interferes in the second catalytic step, resulting in the accumulation of the lariat form of the splicing intermediate. Endogenous pre-mRNAs trapped by the Prp8-3D(pol) complex in enterovirus-infected cells were identified and classed into groups associated with cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Our results suggest that picornaviral RdRp disrupts pre-mRNA splicing processes, that differs from viral protease shutting off cellular transcription and translation which contributes to the pathogenesis of viral infection.
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Periodontitis exposure within one year before anti-diabetic treatment and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis in diabetes mellitus patients: a population-based cohort study.
Rev Bras Reumatol
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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To examine whether a history of periodontitis (PD) before anti-diabetic treatment is associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) development in newly-treated diabetes mellitus (DM) patients.
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Social Ecology of Adherence to Hypertension Treatment in Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers.
J Transcult Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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This study explored Latino migrant/seasonal farmworkers' (MSFWs') adherence to hypertension treatment.
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Effect of virtual reality on upper extremity function in children with cerebral palsy: a meta-analysis.
Pediatr Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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To systematically examine the effect of virtual reality (VR) on upper extremity (UE) function in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and assess the association among VR effects and children's characteristics and an intervention protocol.
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A Mixed Methods Study of Health Care Experience Among Asian Indians in the Southeastern United States.
J Transcult Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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The study explored health care experiences among Asian Indian immigrants living in the Southeastern United States.
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Weight loss reduces serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentrations in association with improvements in renal injury in obese men with metabolic syndrome.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Abstract Background: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is involved in obesity-related renal injury. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of weight loss on changes in MCP-1 and markers of renal injury, specifically serum cystatin C (S-CysC) and urinary N-acetyl glucosaminidase (UNAG), in obese people. Methods: In this prospective study, 40 obese men with metabolic syndrome (MetS) participated in a 3-month dietary and exercise intervention. Twenty-eight subjects completed the study with a ?5% weight loss. Circulating MCP-1, S-CysC and UNAG to creatinine ratio (UNCR) were determined before and after the weight loss program. Results: Obesity-associated components of MetS demonstrated significant improvements after the weight loss program. In addition, at baseline, circulating MCP-1 concentrations were positively correlated with UNCR and S-CysC levels. After weight loss, blood MCP-1 and UNCR levels were significantly decreased, but S-CysC was not affected. Using multiple linear regression analysis, there was a significant relationship between changes in UNCR and MCP-1 after adjusting for other potential confounding factors. Conclusions: Weight loss may improve renal tubular injury by ameliorating obesity-related inflammation in obese men with MetS.
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Cystatin C as a Predictor for Outcomes in Patients with Negligible Renal Function.
Blood Purif.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Background: High serum cystatin C (CysC) has been associated with clinical risks independently of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This study aims to investigate the predictive power of CysC in patients with a negligible GFR. Methods: Patients on chronic hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis were enrolled for measurement of CysC levels and were followed up for one year. A daily urine amount <100 ml was considered negligible residual renal function (RRF). Results: CysC results were available in 183 dialysis patients. Of these, 131 patients had a negligible RRF. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that CysC was an independent predictor of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular and infection events in all dialysis patients and in dialysis patients with a negligible RRF. Conclusion: CysC maintained its predictive power for adverse outcomes in patients with no meaningful GFR, indicating that the prognostic value of CysC is independent of the GFR. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Update on enterovirus 71 infection.
Curr Opin Virol
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major cause of viral encephalitis in children worldwide. The identified EV71 receptors provide useful information for understanding EV71replication and tissue tropism. Host factors interact with the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of EV71 to regulate viral translation. However, the specific molecular features of the EV71 genome that determine virulence remain unclear. The EV71 capsid protein VP1 region might contribute to virulence and neurotropism. Transgenic mice expressing the EV71 receptor that were infected with the virus exhibited a disease similar to that observed in infected humans. Antiviral drug and vaccine development is urgently required to prevent EV71 epidemics. Delineating viral host interactions and identifying specific mechanisms that might control the neural tropism of EV71 pathogenesis would be substantial advances.
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Cell and tissue tropism of enterovirus 71 and other enteroviruses infections.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a member of Picornaviridae that causes mild and self-limiting hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). However, EV71 infections can progress to polio-like paralysis, neurogenic pulmonary edema, and fatal encephalitis in infants and young children. Large EV71 outbreaks have been reported in Taiwan, China, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, and Australia. This virus is considered a critical emerging public health threat. EV71 is an important crucial neurotropic enterovirus for which there is currently no effective antiviral drug or vaccine. The mechanism by which EV71 causes severe central nervous system complications remains unclear. The interaction between the virus and the host is vital for viral replication, virulence, and pathogenicity. SCARB2 or PSGL-1 receptor binding is the first step in the development of viral infections, and viral factors (e.g., 5' UTR, VP1, 3C, 3D, 3' UTR), host factors and environments (e.g., ITAFs, type I IFN) are also involved in viral infections. The tissue tropism and pathogenesis of viruses are determined by a combination of several factors. This review article provides a summary of host and virus factors affecting cell and tissue tropism and the pathogenesis of enteroviruses.
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Protective effects of rutin on liver injury induced by biliary obstruction in rats.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Rutin has been shown to possess beneficial health effects, including hepatoprotection. However, to date, it has not been demonstrated to have a hepatoprotective effect against cholestatic liver injury. This is the first report to show a protective effect of rutin on cholestatic liver injury. Cholestasis was produced by bile duct ligation (BDL) in male Sprague-Dawley rats for 3 weeks. Daily oral administration of rutin was started 1 week before injury and was maintained for 4 weeks. In comparison with the control group, the BDL group showed liver injury as evidenced by histological changes and elevation in serum biochemicals, ductular reaction, fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. These pathophysiological changes were attenuated by rutin supplementation. Rutin alleviated BDL-induced transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), interleukin-1?, connective tissue growth factor, and collagen expression. The antifibrotic effect of rutin was accompanied by reductions in ?-smooth muscle actin-positive matrix-producing cells and Smad2/3 activity critical to the fibrogenic potential of TGF-?1. Rutin attenuated BDL-induced oxidative stress, leukocyte accumulation, NF-?B activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production. Further studies demonstrated an inhibitory effect of rutin on the redox-sensitive intracellular signaling molecule extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Rutin also attenuated BDL-induced reduction in NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Taken together, the beneficial effects of rutin were shown to be associated with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects as well as the downregulation of NF-?B and TGF-?/Smad signaling, probably via interference of ERK activation and/or enhancement of Nrf2, HO-1, and AMPK activity.
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Molecular identification for epigallocatechin-3-gallate-mediated antioxidant intervention on the H2O2-induced oxidative stress in H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been documented for its beneficial effects protecting oxidative stress to cardiac cells. Previously, we have shown the EGCG-mediated cardiac protection by attenuating reactive oxygen species and cytosolic Ca2+ in cardiac cells during oxidative stress and myocardial ischemia. Here, we aimed to seek a deeper elucidation of the molecular anti-oxidative capabilities of EGCG in an H2O2-induced oxidative stress model of myocardial ischemia injury using H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts.
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N?-carboxymethyllysine-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress promotes endothelial cell injury through Nox4/MKP-3 interaction.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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N(?)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) is an important driver of diabetic vascular complications and endothelial cell dysfunction. However, how CML dictates specific cellular responses and the roles of protein tyrosine phosphatases and ERK phosphorylation remain unclear. We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization of MAPK phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) is critical in regulating ERK inactivation and promoting NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) activation in CML-induced endothelial cell injury. We demonstrated that serum CML levels were significantly increased in type 2 diabetes patients and diabetic animals. CML induced ER stress and apoptosis, reduced ERK activation, and increased MKP-3 protein activity in HUVECs and SVECs. MKP-3 siRNA transfection, but not that of MKP-1 or MKP-2, abolished the effects of CML on HUVECs. Nox4-mediated activation of MKP-3 regulated the switch to ERK dephosphorylation. CML also increased the integration of MKP-3 with ERK, which was blocked by silencing MKP-3. Exposure of antioxidants abolished CML-increased MKP-3 activity and protein expression. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of both MKP-3 and CML was increased, but phospho-ERK staining was decreased in the aortic endothelium of streptozotocin-induced and high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice. Our results indicate that an MKP-3 pathway might regulate ERK dephosphorylation through Nox4 during CML-triggered endothelial cell dysfunction/injury, suggesting that therapeutic strategies targeting the Nox4/MKP-3 interaction or MKP-3 activation may have clinical implications for diabetic vascular complications.
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Shorter daily dwelling time in peritoneal dialysis attenuates the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of mesothelial cells.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy is known to induce morphological and functional changes in the peritoneal membrane. Long-term exposure to conventional bio-incompatible dialysate and peritonitis is the main etiology of inflammation. Consequently, the peritoneal membrane undergoes structural changes, including angiogenesis, fibrosis, and hyalinizing vasculopathy, which ultimately results in technique failure. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of mesothelial cells (MCs) plays an important role during the above process; however, the clinical parameters associated with the EMT process of MCs remain to be explored.
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[Vascular access management and education for hemodialysis patients].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Appropriate management and care of vascular access are very important to hemodialysis patient care. Access is the cornerstone of hemodialysis therapy. Vascular access with good function and few complications not only promotes hemodialysis therapy success but also facilitates the ability of patients to restore normalcy to life. Proper vascular access maintenance requires good cooperation between medical care personnel and patients. Nurses are responsible to apply their professional knowledge and technology in clinical practice and educate and encourage patients to take care of themselves. Patients are responsible to apply learned self-care knowledge to their daily life. Such cooperation is essential to enhancing the effectiveness of comprehensive care. This article provides an overview of vascular access issues in hemodialysis therapy, including related nursing assessment, management, and proper cannulation procedures. Enhancing patient self-care abilities and working together with patients on proper vascular access care can prolong vascular access site viability.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, but not body weight, correlated with a reduction in depression scale scores in men with metabolic syndrome: a prospective weight-reduction study.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Obesity, a critical component of metabolic syndrome (MetS), is associated with depression. Deficiency of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the mechanism of depression. We hypothesized that weight reduction would improve depressive symptoms via increasing BDNF levels in obese men.
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Risk factors of sensitization to human leukocyte antigen in end-stage renal disease patients.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Pre-sensitization to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is closely related to the prognosis of renal transplantation. Concerning the risk factors for HLA sensitization, most studies focused only on selected transplant candidates.
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Inhibition of miR-146a prevents enterovirus-induced death by restoring the production of type I interferon.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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There are no antivirals or vaccines available to treat Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections. Although the type I interferon response, elicited upon virus infection, is critical to establishing host antiviral innate immunity, EV71 fails to induce this response efficiently. Here we provide new insights into potential anti-EV71 therapy by showing that neutralization of EV71-induced miR-146a prevents death in mice by restarting the production of type I interferon. EV71 infection upregulates miR-146a, which targets IRAK1 and TRAF6 involved in TLR signalling and type I interferon production. We further identify AP1 as being responsible for the EV71-induced expression of miR-146a. Surprisingly, knocking out miR-146a or neutralizing virus-induced miR-146a by specific antagomiR restores expressions of IRAK1 and TRAF6, augments IFN? production, inhibits viral propagation and improves survival in the mouse model. Our results suggest that enterovirus-induced miR-146a facilitates viral pathogenesis by suppressing IFN production and provide a clue to developing preventive and therapeutic strategies for enterovirus infections.
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Increased risk of Parkinson's disease in patients with end-stage renal disease: a retrospective cohort study.
Neuroepidemiology
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Studies on dyskinesia and Parkinson's syndrome associated with chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have been mainly limited to case reports or case series studies. This population-based study investigated the risk of Parkinson's disease in patients with ESRD.
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Preparation and physicochemical properties of whole-bean soymilk.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Whole-bean soymilk has been prepared by using media-milling. Some characteristics of media-milled soymilk have been determined and compared with filtered soymilk (similar to commercial ones) and whole-bean soymilk prepared by blending. There existed particles in the nano/submicrometer scale in both media-milled and filtered soymilk. The particles in blended soymilk were greater than 1 ?m. Media-milled soymilk was the most stable among three samples, even after autoclaving. Solid recovery (98.44 ± 0.16%), viscosity (160.59 ± 4.26 cps), dietary fiber (22.68 ± 0.97% on dry basis), total polyphenol recovery (95.15 ± 7.09%), and isoflavone content (4.42 ± 0.03 mg/g dry solid) of media-milled samples were greater than those of filtered ones. Aglycones, the most bioactive form of isoflavone, in autoclaved media-milled soymilk were more than 2-fold those in autoclaved filtered soymilk. With almost no okara generated, the media-milled soymilk retained fiber in soybeans which would be beneficial to human health.
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Haemolytic uremic syndrome following fire ant bites.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a severe, life-threatening disease with symptoms such as haemolytic anaemia, renal failure, and a low platelet count. Possible aetiology includes bacterial infections, medication, post-hematopoietic cell transplantation, pregnancy, autoimmune disease, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
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Correlation between reduction of superior interventricular groove epicardial fat thickness and improvement of insulin resistance after weight loss in obese men.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has been recognized that reduction of abdominal visceral fat and subcutaneous fat are associated with improvement in insulin-resistance (IR) after weight loss. However, few studies have investigated the correlation of reduction in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) with improvement of IR index after weight loss in obese non-diabetic men with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
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Post-meal ?-cell function predicts the efficacy of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin monotherapy after addition of glibenclamide or acarbose.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aimed to explore parameters which will predict good control of HbA1c after adding a second anti-diabetic drug in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy.
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Fatigue and Sleep Disturbance Related to Perceived Stress in Chinese HIV-Positive Individuals: A Mixed Methods Study.
J AIDS Clin Res
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
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Few studies of HIV+ individuals in China have examined the associations between HIV-related stress with sleep disturbance and fatigue, which are common complaints among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We carried out this study to examine the relationships among perceived stress, sleep disturbance, and fatigue in PLWHA in China.
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13% Efficiency Hybrid Organic/Silicon-Nanowire Heterojunction Solar Cell via Interface Engineering.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Interface carrier recombination currently hinders the performance of hybrid organic-silicon heterojunction solar cells for high-efficiency low-cost photovoltaics. Here, we introduce an intermediate 1,1-bis[(di-4-tolylamino)phenyl]cyclohexane (TAPC) layer into hybrid heterojunction solar cells based on silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and conjugate polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The highest power conversion efficiency reaches a record 13.01%, which is largely ascribed to the modified organic surface morphology and suppressed saturation current that boost the open-circuit voltage and fill factor. We show that the insertion of TAPC increases the minority carrier lifetime because of an energy offset at the heterojunction interface. Furthermore, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy reveals that TAPC can effectively block the strong oxidation reaction occurring between PEDOT:PSS and silicon, which improves the device characteristics and assurances for reliability. These learnings point toward future directions for versatile interface engineering techniques for the attainment of highly efficient hybrid photovoltaics.
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Association Between Periodontitis Needing Surgical Treatment and Subsequent Diabetes Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Backgrounds: It is well known that diabetic patients have higher extent and severity of periodontitis, but the backward relationship is little investigated. We assessed the relationship between periodontitis needing dental surgery and subsequent type 2 diabetes in those non-diabetes. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study employing data from the national health insurance system of Taiwan. The periodontitis cohort involved 22,299 patients, excluding those with diabetes already or diagnosed with diabetes within 1 year from baseline. Each study subject was randomly frequency matched by age, gender and index year with 1 individual from the general population without periodontitis. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of periodontitis on the risk of diabetes. Results: The mean follow up period is 5.47± 3.54 years. Overall, the subsequent incidence of type 2 diabetes was 1.24-fold higher in the periodontitis cohort than in the control cohort, with an adjusted hazard ration of 1.19(95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.29) after controlling for sex, age and co-morbidities. Conclusions: This is the largest and nation-based study examining the risk of diabetes in Asian patients with periodontitis. Those periodontitis patients needing dental surgery have increased risk of future diabetes within 2 years than those periodontitis participants without dental surgery.
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Risk of Stroke in Long-term Dialysis Patients Compared With the General Population.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Patients undergoing maintenance dialysis are at increased risk of stroke.
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Psychometric evaluation of a Chinese version of the Lee Fatigue Scale-Short Form in women during pregnancy and postpartum.
Int J Nurs Stud
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Fatigue is among the most prevalent and distressing symptoms in pregnant and postpartum women. Estimating fatigue severity with a psychometrically sound instrument provides the most fundamental information for understanding womens fatigue experience and assessing the need for intervention to improve maternal and infant health outcomes.
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Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels.
, Cristen J Willer, Ellen M Schmidt, Sebanti Sengupta, Gina M Peloso, Stefan Gustafsson, Stavroula Kanoni, Andrea Ganna, Jin Chen, Martin L Buchkovich, Samia Mora, Jacques S Beckmann, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Hsing-Yi Chang, Ayse Demirkan, Heleen M den Hertog, Ron Do, Louise A Donnelly, Georg B Ehret, Tonu Esko, Mary F Feitosa, Teresa Ferreira, Krista Fischer, Pierre Fontanillas, Ross M Fraser, Daniel F Freitag, Deepti Gurdasani, Kauko Heikkilä, Elina Hyppönen, Aaron Isaacs, Anne U Jackson, Asa Johansson, Toby Johnson, Marika Kaakinen, Johannes Kettunen, Marcus E Kleber, Xiaohui Li, Jian'an Luan, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Patrik K E Magnusson, Massimo Mangino, Evelin Mihailov, May E Montasser, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Ilja M Nolte, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Cameron D Palmer, Markus Perola, Ann-Kristin Petersen, Serena Sanna, Richa Saxena, Susan K Service, Sonia Shah, Dmitry Shungin, Carlo Sidore, Ci Song, Rona J Strawbridge, Ida Surakka, Toshiko Tanaka, Tanya M Teslovich, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Evita G van den Herik, Benjamin F Voight, Kelly A Volcik, Lindsay L Waite, Andrew Wong, Ying Wu, Weihua Zhang, Devin Absher, Gershim Asiki, Inês Barroso, Latonya F Been, Jennifer L Bolton, Lori L Bonnycastle, Paolo Brambilla, Mary S Burnett, Giancarlo Cesana, Maria Dimitriou, Alex S F Doney, Angela Döring, Paul Elliott, Stephen E Epstein, Gudmundur Ingi Eyjolfsson, Bruna Gigante, Mark O Goodarzi, Harald Grallert, Martha L Gravito, Christopher J Groves, Göran Hallmans, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Caroline Hayward, Dena Hernandez, Andrew A Hicks, Hilma Holm, Yi-Jen Hung, Thomas Illig, Michelle R Jones, Pontiano Kaleebu, John J P Kastelein, Kay-Tee Khaw, Eric Kim, Norman Klopp, Pirjo Komulainen, Meena Kumari, Claudia Langenberg, Terho Lehtimäki, Shih-Yi Lin, Jaana Lindström, Ruth J F Loos, François Mach, Wendy L McArdle, Christa Meisinger, Braxton D Mitchell, Gabrielle Müller, Ramaiah Nagaraja, Narisu Narisu, Tuomo V M Nieminen, Rebecca N Nsubuga, Isleifur Olafsson, Ken K Ong, Aarno Palotie, Theodore Papamarkou, Cristina Pomilla, Anneli Pouta, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly, Paul M Ridker, Fernando Rivadeneira, Igor Rudan, Aimo Ruokonen, Nilesh Samani, Hubert Scharnagl, Janet Seeley, Kaisa Silander, Alena Stančáková, Kathleen Stirrups, Amy J Swift, Laurence Tiret, André G Uitterlinden, L Joost van Pelt, Sailaja Vedantam, Nicholas Wainwright, Cisca Wijmenga, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Tom Wilsgaard, James F Wilson, Elizabeth H Young, Jing Hua Zhao, Linda S Adair, Dominique Arveiler, Themistocles L Assimes, Stefania Bandinelli, Franklyn Bennett, Murielle Bochud, Bernhard O Boehm, Dorret I Boomsma, Ingrid B Borecki, Stefan R Bornstein, Pascal Bovet, Michel Burnier, Harry Campbell, Aravinda Chakravarti, John C Chambers, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Francis S Collins, Richard S Cooper, John Danesh, George Dedoussis, Ulf de Faire, Alan B Feranil, Jean Ferrières, Luigi Ferrucci, Nelson B Freimer, Christian Gieger, Leif C Groop, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, Anders Hamsten, Tamara B Harris, Aroon Hingorani, Joel N Hirschhorn, Albert Hofman, G Kees Hovingh, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Steve E Humphries, Steven C Hunt, Kristian Hveem, Carlos Iribarren, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Antti Jula, Mika Kähönen, Jaakko Kaprio, Antero Kesäniemi, Mika Kivimäki, Jaspal S Kooner, Peter J Koudstaal, Ronald M Krauss, Diana Kuh, Johanna Kuusisto, Kirsten O Kyvik, Markku Laakso, Timo A Lakka, Lars Lind, Cecilia M Lindgren, Nicholas G Martin, Winfried März, Mark I McCarthy, Colin A McKenzie, Pierre Meneton, Andres Metspalu, Leena Moilanen, Andrew D Morris, Patricia B Munroe, Inger Njølstad, Nancy L Pedersen, Chris Power, Peter P Pramstaller, Jackie F Price, Bruce M Psaty, Thomas Quertermous, Rainer Rauramaa, Danish Saleheen, Veikko Salomaa, Dharambir K Sanghera, Jouko Saramies, Peter E H Schwarz, Wayne H-H Sheu, Alan R Shuldiner, Agneta Siegbahn, Tim D Spector, Kari Stefansson, David P Strachan, Bamidele O Tayo, Elena Tremoli, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Matti Uusitupa, Cornelia M van Duijn, Peter Vollenweider, Lars Wallentin, Nicholas J Wareham, John B Whitfield, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, José M Ordovás, Eric Boerwinkle, Colin N A Palmer, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Daniel I Chasman, Jerome I Rotter, Paul W Franks, Samuli Ripatti, L Adrienne Cupples, Manjinder S Sandhu, Stephen S Rich, Michael Boehnke, Panos Deloukas, Sekar Kathiresan, Karen L Mohlke, Erik Ingelsson, Gonçalo R Abecasis.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5 × 10(-8), including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipid levels are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits, including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index. Our results demonstrate the value of using genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestry and provide insights into the biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological and therapeutic research.
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Stress and sleep disturbances in female college students.
Am J Health Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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To describe the sleep characteristics and examine the associations among perceived stress, sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and physical symptoms among female college students.
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Clinicopathologic analysis of coxsackievirus a6 new variant induced widespread mucocutaneous bullous reactions mimicking severe cutaneous adverse reactions.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Background.?The cutaneous manifestations of human enterovirus (HEV) infection are usually limited, such as hand-foot-mouth disease. By comparison, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reaction (SCAR), mainly caused by drugs. During the HEV outbreaks in 2010-2012 in Taiwan, we identified 21 patients who developed widespread blistering mucocutaneous reactions without any suspected drug causality. Methods.?We screened possible pathogen(s) for detecting human herpes virus (HHV1-HHV7), HEV, or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections using throat swab virus cultures, real-time PCR, DNA sequencing, immunochemistry and electron microscopy analyses. Results.?Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) DNA was identified in the blistering skin lesions in 6 of 21 patients. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells expressing granulysin predominantly infiltrated into the skin lesions, sharing the histopathological features with SJS. Intact CVA6 viral particles were identified in the blister fluids and skin lesions by electron microscopy. The phylogenetic analysis of the viral genome showed the CVA6 DNA sequence sharing higher similarity (97.6%-98.1%) to CVA6 strains reported from Finland at 2008. Conclusions.?This study identifies a new variant of CVA6 as the causative agent for severe mucocutaneous blistering reactions mimicking SCAR. An awareness of this unusual presentation of HEV infection is needed in the epidemic area.
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Caspase-1 deficient mice are more susceptible to influenza A virus infection with PA variation.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Reassortment within polymerase genes causes changes in the pathogenicity of influenza A viruses. We previously reported that the 2009 pH1N1 PA enhanced the pathogenicity of seasonal H1N1. We examined the effects of the PA gene from the HPAI H5N1 following its introduction into currently circulating seasonal influenza viruses.
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Evolutionarily conserved residues at an oligomerization interface of the influenza A virus neuraminidase are essential for viral survival.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Neuraminidase (NA) is a homotetramer viral surface glycoprotein that is essential for virus release during influenza virus infections. Previous studies have not explored why influenza NA forms a tetramer when the bacterial monomer NA already exhibits excellent NA enzymatic activity levels. In this study, we focused on 28 highly conserved residues among all NA subtypes, identifying 21 of 28 positions as crucial residues for viral survival by using reverse genetics. Maintaining NA enzymatic activity levels is critical and numerous conserved residues were located at the oligomerization interface; however, these mutations did not affect NA enzymatic activity levels or NA cellular localization, but rather affected the stability of NA oligomerization, suggesting that the oligomerization of NA is essential for viral viability. An increased understanding of the biological functions of NA, in particular NA oligomerization, could facilitate an alternative design for antivirals to combat influenza virus infections.
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Dynamic and dual effects of glycated hemoglobin on estimated glomerular filtration rate in type 2 diabetic outpatients.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of incident end-stage renal disease in Taiwan. Previous studies on the consistent benefits of glycemic control in diabetic nephropathy focused primarily on delaying microalbuminuria. However, this effect on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) remains controversial. This study aims to establish a model that explains the controversial effects of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) on GFR.
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Salvage of external iliac artery dissection immediately after renal transplant.
Exp Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Renal transplant is the preferred treatment for patients with uremia. The renal transplant procedure is well established with a high success rate, but surgical complications are encountered occasionally. We report a case of sudden onset of anuria of the graft kidney owing to acute external iliac artery dissection diagnosed by Doppler sonography. Urgent endarterectomy with thrombus removal of false lumen prevented ischemia and occlusion of the right femoral artery. Without accurate diagnosis and management, this complication could have caused graft loss and death. We believe that renal transplant requires attentive teamwork to keep the graft functioning well.
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Early utilization of hypertonic peritoneal dialysate and subsequent risks of non-traumatic amputation among peritoneal dialysis patients: a nationwide retrospective longitudinal study.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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The hemodialysis (HD) population has a particularly high incidence of amputation, which is likely associated with decreased tissue oxygenation during HD. However, information about the risk factors leading to amputation in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is limited. Here, we have investigated the association between the use of hypertonic peritoneal dialysate (HPD) and subsequent amputation in PD patients.
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Smoking cessation in women at the time of an invasive cardiovascular procedure and 3 months later.
J Cardiovasc Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Female smokers with coronary heart disease (CHD) are at an increased risk for negative health effects. The time of invasive cardiovascular (CV) interventions is a critical opportunity to make lifestyle changes to reduce future CV interventions.
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Surgical treatment for patients with periodontal disease reduces risk of end-stage renal disease: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Background: The association between periodontal disease treatment and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains unclear. This study aims to determine whether surgical periodontal treatment reduces ESRD risk. Methods: From the insurance claims data of patients with periodontal disease who were free of ESRD from 1997 to 2009, 35,496 patients were identified who underwent surgery for subgingival curettage and/or periodontal flap and are considered the treatment cohort. For comparison, 141,824 patients who did not undergo these treatments were considered the no-treatment cohort. Follow-ups were performed until the end of 2009 to estimate the incidence and risk of ESRD in these two cohorts. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the related hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of ESRD. Results: The incidence of ESRD was lower in the treatment cohort than in the no-treatment cohort (4.66 versus 7.38 per 10,000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 0.59 (95% CI = 0.46 to 0.75). Sex- and age-specific analysis showed that the incidence rate ratio of the treatment cohort to the no-treatment cohort was higher for women than for men and declined with age. The risks of ESRD were consistently lower in the treatment cohort even when compared by comorbidity. Conclusions: Patients with periodontal disease who undergo procedures for subgingival curettage and/or periodontal flap have a remarkably decreased risk of ESRD.
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Effects of targeted interventions on lifestyle modifications of chronic kidney disease patients: randomized controlled trial.
West J Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Targeting interventions to an individuals readiness to modify lifestyle factors, specifically diet and exercise behaviors, may delay chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. This study examined the effects of a targeted Lifestyle Modification Program based on the readiness to change health-promotion lifestyle behaviors, renal protection knowledge, and physical indicators of patients with early CKD. A repeated-measures design randomized 160 CKD patients from four southern Taiwan outpatient nephrology clinics into control and intervention groups. Data were collected five times over a year with a participant retention rate of 64.4%. The intervention group demonstrated significant improvement with regard to diet behavior modifications. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed a significant improving trend of renal function protection knowledge, stress management, and interpersonal relations. Targeted interventions for patients in the early phases of CKD promotes adherence to proper diet, exercise behavior, and positive lifestyle modifications.
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Is avian influenza A (H7N9) virus staggering its way to humans?
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Human infections by a new avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have been reported. As of April 23, 2013, there were 108 confirmed cases including 22 deaths in China.
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Shorter GT repeats in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter are associated with a lower severity score in coronary artery disease.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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The glutathione thymidine repeats [(GT)n] of the heme oxygenase (HO)-1 gene promoter have been shown to be correlated with the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD), patients with shorter repeats being less likely to have CAD. In this study, we investigated whether (GT)n repeats in the HO-1 promoter were related to a quantitative angiographic severity of CAD.
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Simultaneous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation mitigates simulator sickness symptoms in healthy adults: a crossover study.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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BACKGROUND: Flight simulators have been used to train pilots to experience and recognize spatial disorientation, a condition in which pilots incorrectly perceive the position, location, and movement of their aircrafts. However, during or after simulator training, simulator sickness (SS) may develop. Spatial disorientation and SS share common symptoms and signs and may involve a similar mechanism of dys-synchronization of neural inputs from the vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive systems. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), a maneuver used for pain control, was found to influence autonomic cardiovascular responses and enhance visuospatial abilities, postural control, and cognitive function. The purpose of present study was to investigate the protective effects of TENS on SS. METHODS: Fifteen healthy young men (age: 28.6 +/- 0.9 years, height: 172.5 +/- 1.4 cm, body weight: 69.3 +/- 1.3 kg, body mass index: 23.4 +/- 1.8 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject crossover study. SS was induced by a flight simulator. TENS treatment involved 30 minutes simultaneous electrical stimulation of the posterior neck and the right Zusanli acupoint. Each subject completed 4 sessions (control, SS, TENS, and TENS + SS) in a randomized order. Outcome indicators included SS symptom severity and cognitive function, evaluated with the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) and d2 test of attention, respectively. Sleepiness was rated using the Visual Analogue Scales for Sleepiness Symptoms (VAS-SS). Autonomic and stress responses were evaluated by heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary stress biomarkers (salivary alpha-amylase activity and salivary cortisol concentration). RESULTS: Simulator exposure increased SS symptoms (SSQ and VAS-SS scores) and decreased the task response speed and concentration. The heart rate, salivary stress biomarker levels, and the sympathetic parameter of HRV increased with simulator exposure, but parasympathetic parameters decreased (p < 0.05). After TENS treatment, SS symptom severity significantly decreased and the subjects were more able to concentrate and made fewer cognitive test errors (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sympathetic activity increased and parasympathetic activity decreased after simulator exposure. TENS was effective in reducing SS symptoms and alleviating cognitive impairment.Trial registration number: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12612001172897.
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Rhodiola crenulata Extract Alleviates Hypoxic Pulmonary Edema in Rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Sudden exposure of nonacclimatized individuals to high altitude can easily lead to high altitude illnesses. High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is the most lethal form of high altitude illness. The present study was designed to investigate the ability of Rhodiola crenulata extract (RCE), an herbal medicine traditionally used as an antiacute mountain sickness remedy, to attenuate hypoxia-induced pulmonary injury. Exposure of animals to hypobaric hypoxia led to a significant increase in pathological indicators for pulmonary edema, including the lung water content, disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier, and protein-rich fluid in the lungs. In addition, hypobaric hypoxia also increased oxidative stress markers, including (ROS) production, (MDA) level, and (MPO) activity. Furthermore, overexpression of plasma (ET-1), (VEGF) in (BALF), and (HIF-1 ? ) in lung tissue was also found. However, pretreatment with RCE relieved the HAPE findings by curtailing all of the hypoxia-induced lung injury parameters. These findings suggest that RCE confers effective protection for maintaining the integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier by alleviating the elevated ET-1 and VEGF levels; it does so by reducing hypoxia-induced oxidative stress. Our results offer substantial evidence to support arguments in favor of traditional applications of Rhodiola crenulata for antihigh altitude illness.
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Sleep loss and its effects on health of family caregivers of individuals with primary malignant brain tumors.
Res Nurs Health
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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Sleep loss places caregivers at risk for poor health. Understanding correlates of sleep loss and relationships to health may enable improvement of health of caregivers of individuals with primary malignant brain tumors (PMBT). In this cross-sectional, descriptive study of 133 caregivers, relationships were examined between sleep loss and physical, mental, emotional, and social health at time of patient diagnosis. Sleep loss was not related to physical health. Shorter total sleep time was associated with greater fatigue and social support. Sleep quality was positively associated with quality of life. Further study is needed of the role of sleep loss in the PMBT caregiving trajectory and its long-term relationship with health outcomes.
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Rhodiola crenulata and Its Bioactive Components, Salidroside and Tyrosol, Reverse the Hypoxia-Induced Reduction of Plasma-Membrane-Associated Na,K-ATPase Expression via Inhibition of ROS-AMPK-PKC ? Pathway.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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Exposure to hypoxia leads to impaired pulmonary sodium transport, which is associated with Na,K-ATPase dysfunction in the alveolar epithelium. The present study is designed to examine the effect and mechanism of Rhodiola crenulata extract (RCE) and its bioactive components on hypoxia-mediated Na,K-ATPase endocytosis. A549 cells were exposed to hypoxia in the presence or absence of RCE, salidroside, or tyrosol. The generation of intracellular ROS was measured by using the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA, and the endocytosis was determined by measuring the expression level of Na,K-ATPase in the PM fraction. Rats exposed to a hypobaric hypoxia chamber were used to investigate the efficacy and underlying mechanism of RCE in vivo. Our results showed that RCE and its bioactive compounds significantly prevented the hypoxia-mediated endocytosis of Na,K-ATPase via the inhibition of the ROS-AMPK-PKC ? pathway in A549 cells. Furthermore, RCE also showed a comparable preventive effect on the reduction of Na,K-ATPase endocytosis and inhibition of AMPK-PKC ? pathway in the rodent model. Our study is the first to offer substantial evidence to support the efficacy of Rhodiola products against hypoxia-associated Na,K-ATPase endocytosis and clarify the ethnopharmacological relevance of Rhodiola crenulata as a popular folk medicine for high-altitude illness.
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Sleep characteristics of family caregivers of individuals with a primary malignant brain tumor.
Oncol Nurs Forum
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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To describe the sleep characteristics of family caregivers of individuals with a primary malignant brain tumor (PMBT).
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Reducing anterior tibial translation by applying functional electrical stimulation in dynamic knee extension exercises: quantitative results acquired via marker tracking.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon)
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Pain that accompanies anterior cruciate ligament deficiency during dynamic knee extension exercises is usually caused by excessive anterior tibial translation, which can be restricted if the anterior cruciate ligament was intact.
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The force synergy of human digits in static and dynamic cylindrical grasps.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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This study explores the force synergy of human digits in both static and dynamic cylindrical grasping conditions. The patterns of digit force distribution, error compensation, and the relationships among digit forces are examined to quantify the synergetic patterns and coordination of multi-finger movements. This study recruited 24 healthy participants to perform cylindrical grasps using a glass simulator under normal grasping and one-finger restricted conditions. Parameters such as the grasping force, patterns of digit force distribution, and the force coefficient of variation are determined. Correlation coefficients and principal component analysis (PCA) are used to estimate the synergy strength under the dynamic grasping condition. Specific distribution patterns of digit forces are identified for various conditions. The compensation of adjacent fingers for the force in the normal direction of an absent finger agrees with the principle of error compensation. For digit forces in anti-gravity directions, the distribution patterns vary significantly by participant. The forces exerted by the thumb are closely related to those exerted by other fingers under all conditions. The index-middle and middle-ring finger pairs demonstrate a significant relationship. The PCA results show that the normal forces of digits are highly coordinated. This study reveals that normal force synergy exists under both static and dynamic cylindrical grasping conditions.
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Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.
Ron Do, Cristen J Willer, Ellen M Schmidt, Sebanti Sengupta, Chi Gao, Gina M Peloso, Stefan Gustafsson, Stavroula Kanoni, Andrea Ganna, Jin Chen, Martin L Buchkovich, Samia Mora, Jacques S Beckmann, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Hsing-Yi Chang, Ayse Demirkan, Heleen M den Hertog, Louise A Donnelly, Georg B Ehret, Tonu Esko, Mary F Feitosa, Teresa Ferreira, Krista Fischer, Pierre Fontanillas, Ross M Fraser, Daniel F Freitag, Deepti Gurdasani, Kauko Heikkilä, Elina Hyppönen, Aaron Isaacs, Anne U Jackson, Asa Johansson, Toby Johnson, Marika Kaakinen, Johannes Kettunen, Marcus E Kleber, Xiaohui Li, Jian'an Luan, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Patrik K E Magnusson, Massimo Mangino, Evelin Mihailov, May E Montasser, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Ilja M Nolte, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Cameron D Palmer, Markus Perola, Ann-Kristin Petersen, Serena Sanna, Richa Saxena, Susan K Service, Sonia Shah, Dmitry Shungin, Carlo Sidore, Ci Song, Rona J Strawbridge, Ida Surakka, Toshiko Tanaka, Tanya M Teslovich, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Evita G van den Herik, Benjamin F Voight, Kelly A Volcik, Lindsay L Waite, Andrew Wong, Ying Wu, Weihua Zhang, Devin Absher, Gershim Asiki, Inês Barroso, Latonya F Been, Jennifer L Bolton, Lori L Bonnycastle, Paolo Brambilla, Mary S Burnett, Giancarlo Cesana, Maria Dimitriou, Alex S F Doney, Angela Döring, Paul Elliott, Stephen E Epstein, Gudmundur Ingi Eyjolfsson, Bruna Gigante, Mark O Goodarzi, Harald Grallert, Martha L Gravito, Christopher J Groves, Göran Hallmans, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Caroline Hayward, Dena Hernandez, Andrew A Hicks, Hilma Holm, Yi-Jen Hung, Thomas Illig, Michelle R Jones, Pontiano Kaleebu, John J P Kastelein, Kay-Tee Khaw, Eric Kim, Norman Klopp, Pirjo Komulainen, Meena Kumari, Claudia Langenberg, Terho Lehtimäki, Shih-Yi Lin, Jaana Lindström, Ruth J F Loos, François Mach, Wendy L McArdle, Christa Meisinger, Braxton D Mitchell, Gabrielle Müller, Ramaiah Nagaraja, Narisu Narisu, Tuomo V M Nieminen, Rebecca N Nsubuga, Isleifur Olafsson, Ken K Ong, Aarno Palotie, Theodore Papamarkou, Cristina Pomilla, Anneli Pouta, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly, Paul M Ridker, Fernando Rivadeneira, Igor Rudan, Aimo Ruokonen, Nilesh Samani, Hubert Scharnagl, Janet Seeley, Kaisa Silander, Alena Stančáková, Kathleen Stirrups, Amy J Swift, Laurence Tiret, André G Uitterlinden, L Joost van Pelt, Sailaja Vedantam, Nicholas Wainwright, Cisca Wijmenga, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Tom Wilsgaard, James F Wilson, Elizabeth H Young, Jing Hua Zhao, Linda S Adair, Dominique Arveiler, Themistocles L Assimes, Stefania Bandinelli, Franklyn Bennett, Murielle Bochud, Bernhard O Boehm, Dorret I Boomsma, Ingrid B Borecki, Stefan R Bornstein, Pascal Bovet, Michel Burnier, Harry Campbell, Aravinda Chakravarti, John C Chambers, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Francis S Collins, Richard S Cooper, John Danesh, George Dedoussis, Ulf de Faire, Alan B Feranil, Jean Ferrières, Luigi Ferrucci, Nelson B Freimer, Christian Gieger, Leif C Groop, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, Anders Hamsten, Tamara B Harris, Aroon Hingorani, Joel N Hirschhorn, Albert Hofman, G Kees Hovingh, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Steve E Humphries, Steven C Hunt, Kristian Hveem, Carlos Iribarren, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Antti Jula, Mika Kähönen, Jaakko Kaprio, Antero Kesäniemi, Mika Kivimäki, Jaspal S Kooner, Peter J Koudstaal, Ronald M Krauss, Diana Kuh, Johanna Kuusisto, Kirsten O Kyvik, Markku Laakso, Timo A Lakka, Lars Lind, Cecilia M Lindgren, Nicholas G Martin, Winfried März, Mark I McCarthy, Colin A McKenzie, Pierre Meneton, Andres Metspalu, Leena Moilanen, Andrew D Morris, Patricia B Munroe, Inger Njølstad, Nancy L Pedersen, Chris Power, Peter P Pramstaller, Jackie F Price, Bruce M Psaty, Thomas Quertermous, Rainer Rauramaa, Danish Saleheen, Veikko Salomaa, Dharambir K Sanghera, Jouko Saramies, Peter E H Schwarz, Wayne H-H Sheu, Alan R Shuldiner, Agneta Siegbahn, Tim D Spector, Kari Stefansson, David P Strachan, Bamidele O Tayo, Elena Tremoli, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Matti Uusitupa, Cornelia M van Duijn, Peter Vollenweider, Lars Wallentin, Nicholas J Wareham, John B Whitfield, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, David Altshuler, José M Ordovás, Eric Boerwinkle, Colin N A Palmer, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Daniel I Chasman, Jerome I Rotter, Paul W Franks, Samuli Ripatti, L Adrienne Cupples, Manjinder S Sandhu, Stephen S Rich, Michael Boehnke, Panos Deloukas, Karen L Mohlke, Erik Ingelsson, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Mark J Daly, Benjamin M Neale, Sekar Kathiresan.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphisms effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.
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Chinese Medicinal Formula (MHGWT) for Relieving Diabetic Neuropathic Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Objective. To investigate the effects of modified Hungqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang (MHGWT), a formula that comprises Chinese medicinal herbs, in relieving neuropathic pain in diabetics. Method. Between March 2008 and April 2009, 112 participants were randomly assigned to either the MHGWT group, whose members received MHGWT (n = 56), or the control group, whose members received a placebo (n = 56). Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) was rated using the 15-item Short-Form Brief Pain Inventory (SF-BPI), the 17-item Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), the 13-item Modified Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MMNSI), and the 36-item "SF-36." Nerve conduction studies (NCSs) were performed before and after treatment. Results. After 12 weeks of treatment, the SF-MPQ and SF-BPI scores of the MHGWT group were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced and a significant difference between the groups was observed (P < 0.05). The levels of NCS in the MHGWT group were nonsignificantly (P > 0.05) reduced, and no significant difference in NCS level was observed between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions. MHGWT shows promise in relieving DNP and deserves further investigation.
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Heat shock protein-90-beta facilitates enterovirus 71 viral particles assembly.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Molecular chaperones are reported to be crucial for virus propagation, but are not yet addressed in Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71). Here we describe the specific association of heat shock protein-90-beta (Hsp90?), but not alpha form (Hsp90?), with EV71 viral particles by the co-purification with virions using sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, and by the colocalization with viral particles, as assessed by immunogold electron microscopy. The reduction of the Hsp90? protein using RNA interference decreased the correct assembly of viral particles, without affecting EV71 replication levels. Tracking ectopically expressed Hsp90? protein associated with EV71 virions revealed that Hsp90? protein was transmitted to new host cells through its direct association with infectious viral particles. Our findings suggest a new antiviral strategy in which extracellular Hsp90? protein is targeted to decrease the infectivity of EV71 and other enteroviruses, without affecting the broader functions of this constitutively expressed molecular chaperone.
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The effect of removing plugs and adding arch support to foam based insoles on plantar pressures in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
J Foot Ankle Res
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Removable plug insoles appear to be beneficial for patients with diabetic neuropathic feet to offload local plantar pressure. However, quantitative evidence of pressure reduction by means of plug removal is limited. The value of additional insole accessories, such as arch additions, has not been tested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of removing plugs from foam based insoles, and subsequently adding extra arch support, on plantar pressures.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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