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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Immunolocalization of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) and Its Receptors (CRHR1 and CRHR2) in Human Endometrial Carcinoma: CRHR1 as a Potent Prognostic Factor.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a major regulator of the stress response, regulates various biological functions through its interaction with CRH receptors 1 (CRHR1) and 2 (CRHR2). CRH, CRHR1, and CRHR2 have recently been reported in several types of carcinoma, but the significance of these proteins has remained largely unknown in human endometrial carcinoma.
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Lubiprostone Increases Spontaneous Bowel Movement Frequency and Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Idiopathic Constipation.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Lubiprostone is an activator of the type 2 chloride channel that facilitates spontaneous bowel movement (SBM). We performed phase 3 studies to determine whether lubiprostone increases the frequency of SBM in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) in Japan, and whether long-term administration of lubiprostone increases the quality of life of patients with CIC.
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Gastrointestinal specific anxiety in irritable bowel syndrome: validation of the Japanese version of the visceral sensitivity index for university students.
Biopsychosoc Med
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The visceral sensitivity index (VSI) is a useful self-report measure of the gastrointestinal symptom-specific anxiety (GSA) of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Previous research has shown that worsening GSA in IBS patients is related to the severity of GI symptoms, suggesting that GSA is an important endpoint for intervention. However, there is currently no Japanese version of the VSI. We therefore translated the VSI into Japanese (VSI-J) and verified its reliability and validity.
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A questionnaire-based survey on the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease in East Asian countries in 2012.
Digestion
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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The prevalence and incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are lower in East Asia than in Western countries; however, marked increases have recently been reported. The clinical diagnosis and medical management of IBD in East Asia differ from those in Western countries. A questionnaire-based survey was performed to gather physicians' current opinions on IBD in different East Asian countries.
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Irritable bowel syndrome is positively related to metabolic syndrome: a population-based cross-sectional study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Irritable bowel syndrome is a common gastrointestinal disorder that may affect dietary pattern, food digestion, and nutrient absorption. The nutrition-related factors are closely related to metabolic syndrome, implying that irritable bowel syndrome may be a potential risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, few epidemiological studies are available which are related to this potential link. The purpose of this study is to determine whether irritable bowel syndrome is related to metabolic syndrome among middle-aged people. We designed a cross-sectional study of 1,096 subjects to evaluate the relationship between irritable bowel syndrome and metabolic syndrome and its components. Diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was based on the Japanese version of the Rome III Questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the American Heart Association scientific statements of 2009. Dietary consumption was assessed via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Principal-components analysis was used to derive 3 major dietary patterns: "Japanese", "sweets-fruits", and "Izakaya (Japanese Pub) "from 39 food groups. The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome and metabolic syndrome were 19.4% and 14.6%, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the dietary pattern factor score tertiles and irritable bowel syndrome. After adjustment for potential confounders (including dietary pattern), the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of having metabolic syndrome and elevated triglycerides for subjects with irritable bowel syndrome as compared with non-irritable bowel syndrome are 2.01(1.13-3.55) and 1.50(1.03-2.18), respectively. Irritable bowel syndrome is significantly related to metabolic syndrome and it components. This study is the first to show that irritable bowel syndrome was significantly related to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and elevated triglycerides among an adult population. The findings suggest that the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome may be a potentially beneficial factor for the prevention of metabolic syndrome. Further study is needed to clarify this association.
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IBS: Autonomic dysregulation in IBS.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Cheng et al. recently reported that patients with IBS have impaired cardiac sympathetic and vagal response to colonic stimulation owing to the procedure of flexible sigmoidoscopy. The importance of this blunted response of the autonomic nervous system in patients with IBS was discussed alongside the basis of visceral perception.
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Effect of Ramosetron on Stool Consistency in Male Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Ramosetron, a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine)-3 receptor antagonist with high selectivity, reduced stress-induced diarrhea and defecation caused by corticotropin-releasing hormone in rats. However, there have been no clinical trials of its effect in patients with diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether ramosetron reduces diarrhea in these patients.
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Stress and visceral pain: focusing on irritable bowel syndrome.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Recent advances in brain science have shown that the brain function encoding emotion depends on interoceptive signals such as visceral pain. Visceral pain arose early in our evolutionary history. Bottom-up processing from gut-to-brain and top-down autonomic/neuroendocrine mechanisms in brain-to-gut signaling constitute a circuit. Brain imaging techniques have enabled us to depict the visceral pain pathway as well as the related emotional circuit. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic recurrent abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort associated with bowel dysfunction. It is also thought to be a disorder of the brain-gut link associated with an exaggerated response to stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, is an obvious candidate in the pathophysiology of IBS. Indeed, administration of CRH has been shown to aggravate the visceral sensorimotor response in IBS patients, and the administration of peptidergic CRH antagonists seems to alleviate IBS pathophysiology. Serotonin (5-HT) is another likely candidate associated with brain-gut function in IBS, as 5-HT3 antagonists, 5-HT4 agonists, and antidepressants were demonstrated to regulate 5-HT neurotransmission in IBS patients. Autonomic nervous system function, the neuroimmune axis, and the brain-gut-microbiota axis show specific profiles in IBS patients. Further studies on stress and visceral pain neuropathways in IBS patients are warranted.
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Effects of preceding stimulation on brain activation in response to colonic distention in humans.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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It has been suggested that the pattern of distension (moderate following mild and vice versa) might influence brain activation and the experience of hypersensitivity, offset analgesia, and anticipation. Nevertheless, how the pattern of stimulation affects sensitization and/or desensitization to visceral stimulation remains unknown.
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Sex differences in brain response to anticipated and experienced visceral pain in healthy subjects.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Women demonstrate higher pain sensitivity and prevalence of chronic visceral pain conditions such as functional gastrointestinal disorders than men. The role of sex differences in the brain processing of visceral pain is still unclear. In 16 male and 16 female healthy subjects we compared personality, anxiety levels, skin conductance response (SCR), and brain processing using functional MRI during anticipation and pain induced by esophageal distension at pain toleration level. There was no significant difference in personality scores, anxiety levels, SCR, and subjective ratings of pain between sexes. In group analysis, both men and women demonstrated a similar pattern of brain activation and deactivation during anticipation and pain consistent with previous reports. However, during anticipation women showed significantly greater activation in the cuneus, precuneus, and supplementary motor area (SMA) and stronger deactivation in the right amygdala and left parahippocampal gyrus, whereas men demonstrated greater activation in the cerebellum. During pain, women demonstrated greater activation in the midcingulate cortex, anterior insula, premotor cortex, and cerebellum and stronger deactivation in the caudate, whereas men showed increased activity in the SMA. The pattern of brain activity suggests that, during anticipation, women may demonstrate stronger limbic inhibition, which is considered to be a cognitive modulation strategy for impending painful stimulation. During pain, women significantly activate brain areas associated with the affective and motivation components of pain. These responses may underlie the sex differences that exist in pain conditions, whereby women may attribute more emotional importance to painful stimuli compared with men.
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The alexithymic brain: the neural pathways linking alexithymia to physical disorders.
Biopsychosoc Med
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in identifying and describing feelings and is associated with psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. The mechanisms underlying the link between emotional dysregulation and psychosomatic disorders are unclear. Recent progress in neuroimaging has provided important information regarding emotional experience in alexithymia. We have conducted three brain imaging studies on alexithymia, which we describe herein. This article considers the role of emotion in the development of physical symptoms and discusses a possible pathway that we have identified in our neuroimaging studies linking alexithymia with psychosomatic disorders. In terms of socio-affective processing, alexithymics demonstrate lower reactivity in brain regions associated with emotion. Many studies have reported reduced activation in limbic areas (e.g., cingulate cortex, anterior insula, amygdala) and the prefrontal cortex when alexithymics attempt to feel other peoples feelings or retrieve their own emotional episodes, compared to nonalexithymics. With respect to primitive emotional reactions such as the response to pain, alexithymics show amplified activity in areas considered to be involved in physical sensation. In addition to greater hormonal arousal responses in alexithymics during visceral pain, increased activity has been reported in the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and midbrain. Moreover, in complex social situations, alexithymics may not be able to use feelings to guide their behavior appropriately. The Iowa gambling task (IGT) was developed to assess decision-making processes based on emotion-guided evaluation. When alexithymics perform the IGT, they fail to learn an advantageous decision-making strategy and show reduced activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, a key area for successful performance of the IGT, and increased activity in the caudate, a region associated with impulsive choice. The neural machinery in alexithymia is therefore activated more on the physiologic, motor-expressive level and less in the cognitive-experiential domains of the emotional response system. Affects may play an important role in alleviating intrinsic physiologic reactions and adapting to the environment. Deficient development of emotional neural structures may lead to hypersensitivity to bodily sensations and unhealthy behaviors, a possible mechanism linking alexithymia to psychosomatic disorders.
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Neural basis of impaired cognitive flexibility in patients with anorexia nervosa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Impaired cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa (AN) causes clinical problems and makes the disease hard to treat, but its neural basis has yet to be fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the brain activity of individuals with AN while performing a task requiring cognitive flexibility on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), which is one of the most frequently used neurocognitive measures of cognitive flexibility and problem-solving ability.
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Neural substrates of decision making as measured with the Iowa Gambling Task in men with alexithymia.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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Individuals with alexithymia have a reduced ability to use their feelings to guide their behavior appropriately in social situations. To reveal the capacity to use emotional signals in alexithymia under conditions of uncertainty, this study investigates neural substrates and performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which was developed to assess decision making based on emotion-guided evaluation.
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Lifestyle and psychological factors related to irritable bowel syndrome in nursing and medical school students.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2011
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder comprising abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort, and disordered defecation. The prevalence of IBS is 10-15% in the general population. This study investigated the prevalence of IBS and the relationship between IBS and stress, lifestyle, and dietary habits among nursing and medical school students.
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Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on rectal function and emotion in humans.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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A previous brain imaging study demonstrated activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during visceral nociception, and this activation was associated with anxiety. We hypothesized that functional modulation of the right DLPFC by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can reveal the actual role of right DLPFC in brain-gut interactions in humans.
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Visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Altered central processing, abnormal gastrointestinal motility and visceral hypersensitivity may be possible major pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). These factors affect each other and are probably associated with development of IBS symptoms. It has been confirmed that lower pain threshold to colonic distention was observed in most of patients with IBS than healthy subjects. We have investigated pain perception of the descending colon among different subtypes of IBS. There was no difference in pain threshold to colonic distention between IBS with diarrhea and constipation. Some brain regions such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) may play a major role for generating pain and/or pain-related emotion in humans. IBS patients showed greater activation in the perigenual ACC during painful rectal distention compared with healthy subjects. Inflammation, stress and the combination of both stimuli can induce significant increase in visceral sensitivity in animal models. Serotonin (5-HT) can modulate visceral perception. It has been thought that 5-HT(3) receptors may play an important role for conveying visceral sensation from the gut. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) may also modulate visceral pain hypersensitivity in IBS. CRH receptor-1 antagonist significantly prevented an increase in gut sensitivity in rats. It has been demonstrated that non-specific CRH receptor antagonist ?-helical CRH significantly reduced abdominal pain score during gut stimulus in patients with IBS. In conclusion, visceral hypersensitivity is common in IBS patients and probably plays a major role in development of the symptoms and both central and peripheral factors may enhance the pain sensitivity.
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Gene, environment, and brain-gut interactions in irritable bowel syndrome.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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The genetic predisposition and influence of environment may underlie in the pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This phenomenon, gene x environment interaction together with brain-gut interactions is emerging area to be clarified in IBS research. Earlier studies focused on candidate genes of neurotransmitters, cytokines, and growth factors. Among them, some studies but not all studies revealed association between phenotypes of IBS and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-related genes, noradrenaline-related genes, and cytokine genes. Recent prospective cohort study showed that genes encoding immune and adhesion molecules were associated with post-infectious etiology of IBS. Psychosocial stressors and intraluminal factors especially microbiota are keys to develop IBS. IBS patients may have abnormal gut microbiota as well as increased organic acids. IBS is disorder that relates to brain-gut interactions, emotional dysregulation, and illness behaviors. Brain imaging with or without combination of visceral stimulation enables us to depict the detailed information of brain-gut interactions. In IBS patients, thalamus, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and brainstem were more activated in response to visceral stimulation than controls. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and 5-HT are the candidate substances which regulate exaggerated brain-gut response. In conclusion, gene x environment interaction together with brain-gut interactions may play crucial roles in IBS development. Further fundamental research on this issue is warranted.
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The features of adolescent irritable bowel syndrome in Japan.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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The onset of IBS is in adolescence in many cases. However, the features of adolescent IBS were generally lacking. The objective of this research was to know the features of adolescent IBS in Japan.
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Biopsychosocial model of irritable bowel syndrome.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic disorder seen in gastroenterology and primary care practice. It is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with disturbed bowel function. It is a heterogeneous disorder with varying treatments, and in this regard physicians sometimes struggle with finding the optimal approach to management of patients with IBS. This disorder induces high health care costs and variably reduces health-related quality of life. IBS is in the class of functional gastrointestinal disorders, and results from dysregulation of central and enteric nervous system interactions. Psychosocial factors are closely related to their gut physiology, associated cognitions, symptom manifestations and illness behavior. Therefore, it is important for the physician to recognize the psychosocial issues of patients with IBS and in addition to build a good patient-physician relationship in order to optimize treatment. This review focuses on the interaction between psychological and physiological factors associated with IBS by using a biopsychosocial model. In this article, we describe (1) the predisposing psychological features seen in early life; (2) the psychological factors associated with life stress, the symptom presentation, and their associated coping patterns; (3) gut pathophysiology with emphasis on disturbances in motility, visceral hypersensitivity and brain-gut interactions; and finally (4) the clinical outcomes and effective treatments including psychotherapeutic methods.
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Validation of the Japanese version of comorbid conditions questionnaire (CCQ-J) and recent physical symptoms questionnaire (RPSQ-J).
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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The comorbid conditions questionnaire (CCQ) and the recent physical symptoms questionnaire (RPSQ) have been validated in the US for the evaluation of comorbid physical conditions in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A lack of instruments to assess somatization in Japanese subjects with IBS warrants development of the Japanese versions of these questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to validate the Japanese versions created, the CCQ-J and RPSQ-J.
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Brain activity following esophageal acid infusion using positron emission tomography.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2010
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To investigate symptoms and brain activity following esophageal acid infusion.
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Asian consensus on irritable bowel syndrome.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2010
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Many of the ideas on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are derived from studies conducted in Western societies. Their relevance to Asian societies has not been critically examined. Our objectives were to bring to attention important data from Asian studies, articulate the experience and views of our Asian experts, and provide a relevant guide on this poorly understood condition for doctors and scientists working in Asia.
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Brain activation associated with changes in heart rate, heart rate variability, and plasma catecholamines during rectal distention.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2009
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To test the hypothesis that gut stimulation provokes autonomic arousal via activation of regional cerebral cortices. How the human brain processes interoceptive signals and forms initial autonomic arousal is one of the key questions to be answered in research on emotion.
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Increased brain histamine H1 receptor binding in patients with anorexia nervosa.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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The central histaminergic neuron system modulates various brain functions, including eating behavior. We hypothesized that women have higher density of histamine H1 receptor (H1R) in the limbic system than men and that the density of central H1R is increased in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN).
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Long sleep duration and cause-specific mortality according to physical function and self-rated health: the Ohsaki Cohort Study.
J Sleep Res
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Although several studies have examined the association between sleep duration and all-cause or cause-specific mortality, it is unclear whether long sleep duration might merely reflect decreased physical strength and poorer health status. We therefore examined the association between sleep duration and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and conducted stratified analysis based on physical function and self-rated health. This study used prospective data from the Ohsaki Cohort Study, conducted in Miyagi Prefecture, in northern Japan. This study population comprised 49 256 subjects aged 40-79 years at the baseline survey. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all-cause and cause-specific mortality according to the five categories of sleep duration (?6, 7, 8, 9, ?10 h day(-1) ), treating 7 h as the reference group, employing Coxs proportional hazard regression analysis. We found that long sleep duration was associated with mortality. The HRs (95% CIs) of subjects who slept more than 10 h were 1.37 (1.27-1.47), 1.49 (1.30-1.71) and 1.53 (1.36-1.73) for mortality due to all causes, total cardiovascular disease and other causes of death mortality, respectively. The association between long sleep duration and stroke mortality was especially marked among subjects with limited physical function and poorer health status. However, we did not observe such a trend for mortality due to all causes, total cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease, cancer or other causes of death. We conclude that, with the exception of stroke mortality, the association between long sleep duration and mortality is not modified by physical function or health status.
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Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 gene variants in irritable bowel syndrome.
PLoS ONE
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Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) acts mainly via the CRH receptor 1 (CRH-R1) and plays a crucial role in the stress-induced pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several studies have demonstrated that variants of the CRH-R1 gene carry a potential risk for depression, but evidence for an association between CRH-R1 genotypes and IBS is lacking. We tested the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of CRH-R1 moderate the IBS phenotype and negative emotion in IBS patients.
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Questionnaire-based survey conducted in 2011 concerning endoscopic management of Barretts esophagus in East Asian countries.
Digestion
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Endoscopic definitions and management of Barretts esophagus vary widely among countries. To examine the current situation regarding diagnosis, epidemiology, management and treatment of Barretts esophagus in East Asian countries using a questionnaire-based survey.
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Altered cognitive function of prefrontal cortex during error feedback in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, based on FMRI and dynamic causal modeling.
Gastroenterology
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Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have increased activity in the insula and reduced activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in response to visceral stimulation. We investigated whether they have latent impairments in cognitive flexibility because of dysfunction in the DLPFC and insula and altered connectivity between brain regions.
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Enhanced auditory brainstem response and parental bonding style in children with gastrointestinal symptoms.
PLoS ONE
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The electrophysiological properties of the brain and influence of parental bonding in childhood irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are unclear. We hypothesized that children with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms like IBS may show exaggerated brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) responses and receive more inadequate parental bonding.
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Effects of ?-(1,3-1,6)-D-glucan on irritable bowel syndrome-related colonic hypersensitivity.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits. Since the prevalence of IBS is very high and thus, involves elevated health-care costs, treatment of this condition by methods other than prescribed medicines could be beneficial. ?-(1,3)-D-glucan with ?-(1,6) branches (?-glucan) has been used as a nutritional supplement for many years. In this study, we examined the effect of ?-glucan on fecal pellet output and visceral pain response in animal models of IBS. Oral administration of ?-glucan suppressed the restraint stress- or drug-induced fecal pellet output. ?-Glucan also suppressed the visceral pain response to colorectal distension. These results suggest that ?-glucan could be beneficial for the treatment and prevention of IBS.
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Management and pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders.
Digestion
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Since 2005, every annual meeting of the Japanese Gastroenterological Association has included a core symposium for functional gastrointestinal disorders. At the 6th annual meeting, the core symposium was Pathophysiology and New Treatment. At the 7th annual meeting, the core symposium was Pathophysiology and Motility. This review summarizes the papers presented at these meetings. At the 6th meeting, we recognized that Japanese researchers successfully produced and developed many agents that are safe and effective for the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor-associated compounds, lubiprostone, Japanese herbal medicine, and other drugs. Data were validated from a clinical as well as an experimental viewpoint. Findings included the effects of sumatriptan and nizatidine, acylated or des-acylated ghrelin, T-cell-activating anti-CD3 antibody, and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1. At the 7th meeting, not only functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but also non-erosive esophageal reflux disease (NERD) and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction were actively discussed from a motility viewpoint, including papers about sham feeding and gastric motility, genetic polymorphism and motility, the role of transient receptor potential A1 on gastric accommodation, esophageal motility and NERD, diagnosis and treatment of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, immunological basis of motility in IBS, developing non-invasive colonic function test, and fecal distribution in IBS patients.
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Serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism and alexithymia.
Neuropsychobiology
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Recent neurobiological studies have reported that alexithymia may result from altered brain function related to emotional processing. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been shown to regulate central nervous system development associated with psychological processing. We investigated the possibility that polymorphism of the 5-HT transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) is associated with alexithymia.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.