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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Supercritical fluid extraction as a preparation method for mass spectrometry of dried blood spots.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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The potential of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) as a preparation method for mass spectrometry of dried blood spots (DBS) was examined. SFE is generally used for the extraction of hydrophobic compounds, but hydrophilic metabolites such as amino acids, amines, and nucleic-acid-related metabolites could be extracted by adding a low level of methanol as a modifier. Under the optimized conditions, over 200 metabolites were detected from a dried serum spot, of which over 160 metabolites could be analyzed stably (RSD <20%). These results show that SFE is an effective extraction method of metabolites with a wide range of polarity in DBS.
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Protective effects of oral administration of yeast thioredoxin against gastric mucosal injury.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Thioredoxin (TRX) is a redox regulating protein which has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced damage to cells and tissues. In this study, we investigated the effects of orally administered TRX derived from edible yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on gastric mucosa. First, we examined the digestibility of orally administered yeast TRX in mice, and detected yeast TRX in the stomach for 4?h after administration. Next, we investigated the mitigation of gastric mucosal injury after the oral administration of yeast TRX in water-immersion restraint stress and HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcer models. Furthermore, we conducted DNA microarray analysis, using the HCl/ethanol-induced model, which revealed that several groups of genes related to tissue repair were upregulated in ulcer regions in the stomachs of rats administered with yeast TRX. These results demonstrated the viability of the use of oral administrations of yeast TRX to protect the gastric mucosa.
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Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (Them2) and phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP) interact to promote fatty acid oxidation and control glucose utilization.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (Them2) is a mitochondrion-associated long-chain fatty acyl coenzyme A (CoA) thioesterase that is highly expressed in the liver and oxidative tissues. Them2 activity in vitro is increased when it interacts with phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP), a cytosolic lipid binding protein. Them2-/- and Pctp-/- mice exhibit enhanced hepatic insulin sensitivity and increased adaptive thermogenesis, and Them2-/- mice are also resistant to diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Although we showed previously that a Them2-PC-TP complex suppresses insulin signaling, the enzymatic activity of Them2 suggests additional direct involvement in regulating hepatic nutrient homeostasis. Here we used cultured primary hepatocytes to elucidate biochemical and cellular mechanisms by which Them2 and PC-TP regulate lipid and glucose metabolism. Under conditions simulating fasting, Them2-/- and Pctp-/- hepatocytes each exhibited decreased rates of fatty acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis. In results indicative of Them2-dependent regulation by PC-TP, chemical inhibition of PC-TP failed to reproduce these changes in Them2-/- hepatocytes. In contrast, rates of glucose oxidation and lipogenesis in the presence of high glucose concentrations were decreased only in Them2-/- hepatocytes. These findings reveal a primary role for Them2 in promoting mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids and glucose in the liver.
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Metabolomics for biomarker discovery in gastroenterological cancer.
Metabolites
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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The study of the omics cascade, which involves comprehensive investigations based on genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, etc., has developed rapidly and now plays an important role in life science research. Among such analyses, metabolome analysis, in which the concentrations of low molecular weight metabolites are comprehensively analyzed, has rapidly developed along with improvements in analytical technology, and hence, has been applied to a variety of research fields including the clinical, cell biology, and plant/food science fields. The metabolome represents the endpoint of the omics cascade and is also the closest point in the cascade to the phenotype. Moreover, it is affected by variations in not only the expression but also the enzymatic activity of several proteins. Therefore, metabolome analysis can be a useful approach for finding effective diagnostic markers and examining unknown pathological conditions. The number of studies involving metabolome analysis has recently been increasing year-on-year. Here, we describe the findings of studies that used metabolome analysis to attempt to discover biomarker candidates for gastroenterological cancer and discuss metabolome analysis-based disease diagnosis.
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Metabolomics-based search for therapeutic agents for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest form of chronic liver disease in developed countries. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which represents advanced stage NAFLD, is increasingly being recognized as a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. However, no effective drugs against NASH have yet been developed. Therefore, we searched for candidate therapeutic agents based on the changes in levels of hepatic metabolites via gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolome analysis of livers from methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet-fed mice, a mouse model of NASH.
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A novel gas chromatography mass spectrometry-based serum diagnostic and assessment approach to ulcerative colitis.
J Crohns Colitis
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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To improve the clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC), more accurate serum diagnostic and assessment methods are required. We used serum metabolomics to develop diagnostic and assessment methods for UC.
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Metabolome analysis for discovering biomarkers of gastroenterological cancer.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Improvements in analytical technologies have made it possible to rapidly determine the concentrations of thousands of metabolites in any biological sample, which has resulted in metabolome analysis being applied to various types of research, such as clinical, cell biology, and plant/food science studies. The metabolome represents all of the end products and by-products of the numerous complex metabolic pathways operating in a biological system. Thus, metabolome analysis allows one to survey the global changes in an organism's metabolic profile and gain a holistic understanding of the changes that occur in organisms during various biological processes, e.g., during disease development. In clinical metabolomic studies, there is a strong possibility that differences in the metabolic profiles of human specimens reflect disease-specific states. Recently, metabolome analysis of biofluids, e.g., blood, urine, or saliva, has been increasingly used for biomarker discovery and disease diagnosis. Mass spectrometry-based techniques have been extensively used for metabolome analysis because they exhibit high selectivity and sensitivity during the identification and quantification of metabolites. Here, we describe metabolome analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the findings of studies that attempted to discover biomarkers of gastroenterological cancer are also outlined. Finally, we discuss metabolome analysis-based disease diagnosis.
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The influences of pepsin concentrations and pH levels on the disinfective activity of ozone nanobubble water against helicobacter pylori.
Digestion
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the utility of ozone nanobubble water (NBW3) for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach, we tested the influence of pepsin concentrations and pH levels on the disinfective activity of NBW3, and the cytotoxicity of NBW3 against mammalian cells and mucosa.
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Whole-genome sequencing of clarithromycin resistant Helicobacter pylori characterizes unidentified variants of multidrug resistant efflux pump genes.
Gut Pathog
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Clarithromycin (CLR) is the key drug in eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, and widespread use of CLR has led to an increase in primary CLR-resistant H. pylori. The known mechanism of CLR resistance has been established in A2146G and A2147G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, but evidence of the involvement of other genetic mechanisms is lacking. Using the MiSeq platform, whole-genome sequencing of the 19 clinical strains and the reference strain ATCC26695 was performed to identify single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of multi-drug resistant efflux pump genes in the CLR-resistant phenotype.
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Predominant mucosal IL-8 mRNA expression in non-cagA Thais is risk for gastric cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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To study gastric mucosal interleukine-8 (IL-8) mRNA expression, the cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) mutation, and serum pepsinogen (PG)?I/II ratio related risk in Thai gastric cancer.
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A novel serum metabolomics-based diagnostic approach to pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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To improve the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer, more accurate serum diagnostic methods are required. We used serum metabolomics as a diagnostic method for pancreatic cancer.
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Supercritical fluid chromatography/Orbitrap mass spectrometry based lipidomics platform coupled with automated lipid identification software for accurate lipid profiling.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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We developed a practical analytical system for high-throughput and comprehensive lipid profiling using a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) system coupled to an Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometer (Orbitrap FT-MS). Using our SFC method, polar lipid molecular species were separated based on not only their fatty acyl moieties but also their polar head groups, using a single octadecylsilyl (ODS) column. In addition, because automatic data processing software was used for the identification of lipid molecular species, the analysis time including data processing was about a half an hour per sample. A variety of lipid molecular species were detected in mouse plasma, and isomers which often co-elute in reverse phase separation were identified accurately and quantified individually. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the chromatographic separation of lipids based on both fatty acyl moieties and polar head groups, using a single ODS column. Our results demonstrate that SFC/MS is a powerful tool for the simultaneous analysis of diverse lipid molecular species.
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Highly sensitive and selective analysis of widely targeted metabolomics using gas chromatography/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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In metabolomics studies, gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight or quadrupole mass spectrometry has frequently been used for the non-targeted analysis of hydrophilic metabolites. However, because the analytical platform employs the deconvolution method to extract single-metabolite information from co-eluted peaks and background noise, the extracted peak is artificial product depending on the mathematical parameters and is not completely compatible with the pure component obtained by analyzing a standard compound. Moreover, it has insufficient ability for quantitative metabolomics. Therefore, highly sensitive and selective methods capable of pure peak extraction without any complicated mathematical techniques are needed. For this purpose, we have developed a novel analytical method using gas chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ/MS). We developed a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method to analyze the trimethylsilyl derivatives of 110 metabolites, using electron ionization. This methodology enables us to utilize two complementary techniques-non-targeted and widely targeted metabolomics in the same sample preparation protocol, which would facilitate the formulation or verification of novel hypotheses in biological sciences. The GC-QqQ/MS analysis can accurately identify a metabolite using multichannel SRM transitions and intensity ratios in the analysis of living organisms. In addition, our methodology offers a wide dynamic range, high sensitivity, and highly reproducible metabolite profiles, which will contribute to the biomarker discoveries and quality evaluations in biology, medicine, and food sciences.
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Butyrate attenuates inflammation and lipolysis generated by the interaction of adipocytes and macrophages.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Paracrine interaction between macrophages and adipocytes in obese visceral fat tissues is thought to be a trigger of chronic inflammation. The immunomodulatory effect of the short chain fatty acid, butyric acid, has been demonstrated. We hypothesize that sodium butyrate (butyrate) attenuates inflammatory responses and lipolysis generated by the interaction of macrophages and adipocytes.
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Microbiota-derived lactate accelerates colon epithelial cell turnover in starvation-refed mice.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Oral food intake influences the morphology and function of intestinal epithelial cells and maintains gastrointestinal cell turnover. However, how exactly these processes are regulated, particularly in the large intestine, remains unclear. Here we identify microbiota-derived lactate as a major factor inducing enterocyte hyperproliferation in starvation-refed mice. Using bromodeoxyuridine staining, we show that colonic epithelial cell turnover arrests during a 12- to 36-h period of starvation and increases 12-24 h after refeeding. Enhanced epithelial cell proliferation depends on the increase in live Lactobacillus murinus, lactate production and dietary fibre content. In the model of colon tumorigenesis, mice exposed to a carcinogen during refeeding develop more aberrant crypt foci than mice fed ad libitum. Furthermore, starvation after carcinogen exposure greatly reduced the incidence of aberrant crypt foci. Our results indicate that the content of food used for refeeding as well as the timing of carcinogen exposure influence the incidence of colon tumorigenesis in mice.
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GC/MS-based metabolomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from glioma patients.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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Metabolomics has recently undergone rapid development; however, metabolomic analysis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not a common practice. We analyzed the metabolite profiles of preoperative CSF samples from 32 patients with histologically confirmed glioma using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). We assessed how alterations in the metabolite levels were related to the World Health Organization (WHO) tumor grades, tumor location, gadolinium enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status. Sixty-one metabolites were identified in the CSF from glioma patients using targeted, quantitative and non-targeted, semi-quantitative analysis. The citric and isocitric acid levels were significantly higher in the glioblastoma (GBM) samples than in the grades I-II and grade III glioma samples. In addition, the lactic and 2-aminopimelic acid levels were relatively higher in the GBM samples than in the grades I-II glioma samples. The CSF levels of the citric, isocitric, and lactic acids were significantly higher in grade I-III gliomas with mutant IDH than in those with wild-type IDH. The tumor location and enhancement obtained using MRI did not significantly affect the metabolite profiles. Higher CSF levels of lactic acid were statistically associated with a poorer prognosis in grades III-IV malignant gliomas. Our study suggests that the metabolomic analysis of CSF from glioma patients may be useful for predicting the glioma grade, metabolic state, and prognosis of gliomas.
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Inhibition of repair-related DNA polymerases by vitamin Ks, their related quinone derivatives and associated inflammatory activity (Review).
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Vitamin Ks (VKs) are fat-soluble quinone compounds known to have various bioactivities. This review describes the inflammatory effects of VKs and their related quinone derivatives based on DNA polymerase (pol) inhibition. VK3, but not VK1 or VK2 (=MK-4), inhibited the activity of human pol ?, which is the DNA replicative pol in mitochondria. Of the intermediate compounds between VK2 and VK3 (namely MK-3, MK-2 and MK-1), MK-2 was the strongest inhibitor of mammalian pols ?, ? and ?, which belong to the B-, Y- and X-families of pols, respectively. Among the VK3 based quinone derivatives, such as 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), 2-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (1,2-dimethyl-NQ), 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) and 5,12-naphthacenequinone (NCQ), NQ was the strongest inhibitor of mammalian pols ? and ?, in particular, DNA repair-related pol ?. Among the all compounds tested, NQ displayed the strongest suppression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a cell culture system using RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. NQ also suppressed the expression of pol ? protein in these cells, after LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells were stimulated to induce pol ? expression. In an in vivo mouse model of LPS-evoked acute inflammation, intraperitoneal injection of NQ into mice suppressed TNF-? production in peritoneal macrophages and serum. In an in vivo colitis mouse model induced using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), NQ markedly suppressed DSS-evoked colitis. The promising anti-inflammatory candidates based on the inhibition of DNA repair-related pols, such as pol ?, by VKs quinone derivatives, such as NQ, are discussed.
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Claudin-2 regulates colorectal inflammation via myosin light chain kinase-dependent signaling.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Claudins have been demonstrated to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the specific role of claudin-2 in colorectal inflammation remains undefined.
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Simultaneous profiling of polar lipids by supercritical fluid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with methylation.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Supercritical fluid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (SFC/MS/MS) with methylation was used for the simultaneous profiling of diverse polar lipids in a mixture. A high throughput, high resolution analysis of nineteen classes of polar lipids including phospholipids, lysophospholipids, and sphingolipids was performed in 6 min. Methylation by trimethylsilyl-diazomethane suppressed peak tailing and improved detection sensitivity of phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidic acid (PA), lysophosphatidylserine (LPS), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), ceramide-1-phosphate (Cer1P), sphingosine-1-phosphate (So1P), and sphinganine-1-phosphate (Sa1P). The limits of detection for PS, PA, LPS, LPI, LPA, Cer1P, So1P, and Sa1P were enhanced 7.5-, 26.7-, 600-, 116.7-, 500-, 75-, 3000-, and 4500-fold, respectively. Global qualitative and quantitative analysis of not only the high-abundance species but also the low-abundance species in the polar lipids was achieved. When the method was applied to mouse liver, 4 PSs, 24 PAs, 3 lysophosphatidylethanolamines, 11 LPSs, 6 lysophosphatidylglycerols, 4 LPIs, 13 LPAs, 7 sphingomyelins, 11 Cer1Ps, So1P, and Sa1P were additionally analyzed. Furthermore, the quantification of various molecular species in each polar lipid was carried out.
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Diagnosis of gastroenterological diseases by metabolome analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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Recently, metabolome analysis has been increasingly applied to biomarker detection and disease diagnosis in medical studies. Metabolome analysis is a strategy for studying the characteristics and interactions of low molecular weight metabolites under a specific set of conditions and is performed using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There is a strong possibility that changes in metabolite levels reflect the functional status of a cell because alterations in their levels occur downstream of DNA, RNA, and protein. Therefore, the metabolite profile of a cell is more likely to represent the current status of a cell than DNA, RNA, or protein. Thus, owing to the rapid development of mass spectrometry analytical techniques metabolome analysis is becoming an important experimental method in life sciences including the medical field. Here, we describe metabolome analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry. Then, the findings of studies about GC-MS-based metabolome analysis of gastroenterological diseases are summarized, and our research results are also introduced. Finally, we discuss the realization of disease diagnosis by metabolome analysis. The development of metabolome analysis using mass spectrometry will aid the discovery of novel biomarkers, hopefully leading to the early detection of various diseases.
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Serum fatty acid profiling of colorectal cancer by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
Biomark Med
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Several screening methods have been applied for the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer, but most colorectal cancer patients are not diagnosed at a localized stage. In order to find novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, profiling of the serum levels of fatty acids, which are the main components of fats and are important factors for human metabolism, was performed using the sera of colorectal cancer patients.
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IFN-? plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of gastric lymphoid follicles formation caused by Helicobacter suis infection.
FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2011
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In this study, we aimed to assess the role of helper T cells in the development of gastric lymphoid follicles induced by Helicobacter suis infection. C57BL/6J mice were orally inoculated with H. suis. Six weeks after infection, gastric lymphoid follicles were observed in the gastric mucosa by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and the number of follicles was increased throughout the infection period. An immunohistological examination showed that the lymphoid follicles were composed of B cells, CD4-positive helper T cells, and dendritic cells (DC). It was also revealed that the mRNA expression level of interferon-? (IFN-?) in the gastric mucosa was significantly increased at 12 weeks after infection. No gastric lymphoid follicles were detected in IFN-?-deficient mice that had been infected with H. suis at 12 weeks after infection, although the development of lymphoid follicles in IL-4-deficient mice infected with H. suis was similar to that seen in the wild-type mice. In conclusion, IFN-?, a Th1 cytokine, is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of gastric lymphoid follicles induced by H. suis infection, and it is suggested that CD4-positive T cells and DC aid in the expansion of gastric lymphoid follicles.
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Dietary flavonoids as cancer-preventive and therapeutic biofactors.
Front Biosci (Schol Ed)
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Flavonoids are present in many plants, and hence, in foods and ingredients derived from them. These polyphenolic compounds have attracted renewed attention as potential anticarcinogens, and the molecular mechanisms of their anticarcinogenic effects and their bioavailability have been extensively explored. In this review, we focus on the major dietary flavonoids; flavones, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols (catechins), and evaluate their roles in cancer prevention. After absorption with or without metabolic conjugation, flavonoids are transported to target organs where they exert their anticarcinogenic activity. The molecular mechanisms of the anticarcinogenic effects of flavonoids include their antagonistic effect on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and regulation of phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes and phase III transporters. Experimental evidence suggests that flavonoids modulate signal transduction pathways at each stage of carcinogenesis. The interactions between flavonoids and biomolecules in vivo must be investigated in detail to identify specific targets. In addition, the potential side effects should be considered when flavonoid supplements are used for cancer prevention. Therefore, the use of flavonoids as chemopreventive agents should be further investigated to establish safe levels of flavonoid intake.
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Inhibitory effects of vitamin K? derivatives on DNA polymerase and inflammatory activity.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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Previously, we reported that vitamin K? (menadione, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) (compound 2) inhibits the activity of human mitochondrial DNA polymerase ? (pol ?). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects (IEs) of vitamin K3 and its derivatives, such as 1,4-naphthoquinone (compound 1) and 1,2-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (compound 3), on the activity of mammalian pols. Among compounds 1-3 (10 ┬ÁM for each), compound 1 was the strongest inhibitor of mammalian pols ? and ?, which belong to the B and X pol families, respectively, whereas compound 2 was the strongest inhibitor of human pol ?, a family A pol. However, these compounds did not affect the activity of human pol ?, a family Y pol. As we previously found a positive relationship between pol ? inhibition and anti-inflammatory action, we examined whether these vitamin K? derivatives are able to inhibit inflammatory responses. Among the three compounds tested, compound 1 caused the greatest reduction in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced acute inflammation in mouse ears. In addition, in a cell culture system using RAW264.7 mouse macrophages, compound 1 displayed the strongest suppression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In an in vivo mouse model of LPS-evoked acute inflammation, the intraperitoneal injection of compound 1 into mice suppressed TNF-? production in their peritoneal macrophages and serum. In an in vivo colitis mouse model induced using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), the vitamin K? derivatives markedly suppressed DSS-evoked colitis. In conclusion, this study has identified several vitamin K? derivatives, such as compound 1, that are promising anti-inflammatory candidates.
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Vitamin K3 attenuates cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis through inhibition of the autophagic pathway.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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The discovery of novel and effective treatment methods would be of great help to patients with acute pancreatitis. The aims of this study were to determine the inhibitory effects of vitamin K3 (VK3) against cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice and to examine the mechanisms behind these effects.
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AP1B plays an important role in intestinal tumorigenesis with the truncating mutation of an APC gene.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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Recent evidence has suggested that carcinoma is accompanied by the loss of cell polarity. An epithelial cell-specific form of the AP-1 clathrin adaptor complex, AP1B, is involved in the polarized transport of membrane proteins to the basolateral surface of epithelial cells. In our study, we investigated whether AP1B is involved in intestinal tumorigenesis. The cellular polarity of intestinal tumor cells was examined using APC(Min/+) mice as an in vivo model and SW480 cells with a truncating mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene as an in vitro model by confocal microscopy. Next, the expression of AP1B in intestinal tumor cells was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting. The localization of ?-catenin and the expression of AP1B in the tumor tissue of patients with colorectal cancer were evaluated by confocal microscopy and real-time PCR, respectively, and the relationships among cell polarity, AP1B expression and intestinal tumorigenesis were examined. Cellular polarity was lost in intestinal tumor cells, and the expression of AP1B was downregulated. In addition, the reduction in the expression level of AP1B correlated with the nuclear localization of ?-catenin in human colorectal cancer. Our study indicates the close associations between AP1B, intestinal tumorigenesis and mutations in the APC gene. This is the first report to reveal the relationships among AP1B, cellular polarity and intestinal tumorigenesis, and achieving a detailed understanding of AP1B will hopefully lead to discovery of therapeutic targets and novel biomarkers for intestinal cancer.
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Serum metabolomics as a novel diagnostic approach for gastrointestinal cancer.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Conventional tumor markers are unsuitable for detecting carcinoma at an early stage and lack clinical efficacy and utility. In this study, we attempted to investigate the differences in serum metabolite profiles of gastrointestinal cancers and healthy volunteers using a metabolomic approach and searched for sensitive and specific metabolomic biomarker candidates. Human serum samples were obtained esophageal (n?=?15), gastric (n?=?11), and colorectal (n?=?12) cancer patients and healthy volunteers (n?=?12). A model for evaluating metabolomic biomarker candidates was constructed using multiple classification analysis, and the results were assessed with receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 58 metabolites, the levels of nine, five and 12 metabolites were significantly changed in the esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer patients, respectively, compared with the healthy volunteers. Multiple classification analysis revealed that the variations in the levels of malonic acid and L-serine largely contributed to the separation of esophageal cancer; gastric cancer was characterized by changes in the levels of 3-hydroxypropionic acid and pyruvic acid; and L-alanine, glucuronoic lactone and L-glutamine contributed to the separation of colorectal cancer. Our approach revealed that some metabolites are more sensitive for detecting gastrointestinal cancer than conventional biomarkers. Our study supports the potential of metabolomics as an early diagnostic tool for cancer.
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Practical non-targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabolomics platform for metabolic phenotype analysis.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is a core analytical method for metabolomics and has been used as a platform in non-targeted analysis, especially for hydrophilic metabolites. Non-targeted GC/MS-based metabolomics generally requires a high-throughput technology to handle a large volume of samples and an accumulated database (reference library) of the retention times and mass spectra of standard compounds for accurate peak identification. In this study, we provide a practical GC/MS platform and an auto peak identification technique that is not restricted to certain types of mass spectrometers. The platform utilizes a quadrupole mass spectrometer capable of high-speed scanning, resulting in greater output compared with Pegasus GC-time of flight (TOF)/MS, which has been an essential instrument for high-throughput experiments. Moreover, we show that our reference library is broadly applicable to other instruments; peak identification can be readily performed using the library without constructing a reference resource. The usefulness and versatility of our system are demonstrated by the analyses of three experimental metabolomics data sets, including standard mixtures and real biological samples.
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Helicobacter suis KB1 derived from pig gastric lymphoid follicles induces the formation of gastric lymphoid follicles in mice through the activation of B cells and CD4 positive cells.
Microbes Infect.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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"Helicobacter heilmannii" ("H. heilmannii"), which belongs to the genus Helicobacter, is a group of bacterial species that display a long spiral-shaped morphology. Recent studies have demonstrated that "H. heilmannii" type 1 is actually H. suis, which mainly colonizes the stomachs of various animals and humans. However, the influence of H. suis on gastric diseases remains to be fully elucidated. In this report, we revealed the relationship between natural H. suis infection and follicular gastritis in the pig stomachs. From sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, urease A, and urease B genes, the presence of H. suis was confirmed in pig gastric lymphoid follicles, and this bacterium was named H. suis KB1. In addition, H. suis KB1 was inoculated into C57BL/6J mice, and the following mouse model of the pathogenesis of follicular gastritis by H. suis infection was established: H. suis KB1 colonizes the mouse stomach, and moreover, induces the development of lymphoid follicles and acquired immune responses characterized by the activation of B cells and CD4 positive cells. These results may lead to better understanding of the relationship between H. suis and gastric diseases, especially follicular gastritis; and furthermore, our findings emphasize the zoonotic aspects of animal-human infection by H. suis.
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A role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in attenuation of colitis.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim homology superfamily, plays an important role in multiple biological functions, and AhR knockout (AhR KO) animals suffer from a variety of organ disorders including a decline in the efficacy of their immune system. In addition, AhR activation is known to aid the maintenance of homeostasis in vivo. In this study, we investigated whether AhR is functionally associated with intestinal immunity.
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A metabolomic approach to lung cancer.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, but no good clinical markers that can be used to diagnose the disease at an early stage and predict its prognosis have been found. Therefore, the discovery of novel clinical markers is required. In this study, metabolomic analysis of lung cancer patients was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Serum samples from 29 healthy volunteers and 33 lung cancer patients with adenocarcinoma (n=12), squamous cell carcinoma (n=11), or small cell carcinoma (n=10) ranging from stage I to stage IV disease and lung tissue samples from 7 lung cancer patients including the tumor tissue and its surrounding normal tissue were used. A total of 58 metabolites (57 individual metabolites) were detected in serum, and 71 metabolites were detected in the lung tissue. The levels of 23 of the 58 serum metabolites were significantly changed in all lung cancer patients compared with healthy volunteers, and the levels of 48 of the 71 metabolites were significantly changed in the tumor tissue compared with the non-tumor tissue. Partial least squares discriminant analysis, which is a form of multiple classification analysis, was performed using the serum sample data, and metabolites that had characteristic alterations in each histological subtype and disease stage were determined. Our results demonstrate that changes in metabolite pattern are useful for assessing the clinical characteristics of lung cancer. Our results will hopefully lead to the establishment of novel diagnostic tools.
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GCMS-based metabolomic study in mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Metabolomics provides data about all the metabolic processes of a cell or organism. So far, the changes that occur in the levels of metabolites during the development of colitis have not been fully elucidated. Here we examined the changes of metabolite levels in the serum and colon tissue of colitis mice using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with the aim of achieving a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
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Inhibitory effects of glycyrrhetinic Acid on DNA polymerase and inflammatory activities.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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We investigated the inhibitory effect of three glycyrrhizin derivatives, such as Glycyrrhizin (compound 1), dipotassium glycyrrhizate (compound 2) and glycyrrhetinic acid (compound 3), on the activity of mammalian pols. Among these derivatives, compound 3 was the strongest inhibitor of mammalian pols ?, ?, ?, and ?, which belong to the B, A, Y, and X families of pols, respectively, whereas compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate inhibition. Among the these derivatives tested, compound 3 displayed strongest suppression of the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a cell-culture system using mouse macrophages RAW264.7 and peritoneal macrophages derived from mice. Moreover, compound 3 was found to inhibit the action of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in engineered human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. In addition, compound 3 caused greater reduction of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-(TPA-) induced acute inflammation in mouse ear than compounds 1 and 2. In conclusion, this study has identified compound 3, which is the aglycone of compounds 1 and 2, as a promising anti-inflammatory candidate based on mammalian pol inhibition.
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Effects of Intermediates between Vitamins K(2) and K(3) on Mammalian DNA Polymerase Inhibition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Previously, we reported that vitamin K(3) (VK(3)), but not VK(1) or VK(2) (=MK-4), inhibits the activity of human DNA polymerase ? (pol ?). In this study, we chemically synthesized three intermediate compounds between VK(2) and VK(3), namely MK-3, MK-2 and MK-1, and investigated the inhibitory effects of all five compounds on the activity of mammalian pols. Among these compounds, MK-2 was the strongest inhibitor of mammalian pols ?, ? and ?, which belong to the B, Y and X families of pols, respectively; whereas VK(3) was the strongest inhibitor of human pol ?, an A-family pol. MK-2 potently inhibited the activity of all animal species of pol tested, and its inhibitory effect on pol ? activity was the strongest with an IC(50) value of 24.6 ?M. However, MK-2 did not affect the activity of plant or prokaryotic pols, or that of other DNA metabolic enzymes such as primase of pol ?, RNA polymerase, polynucleotide kinase or deoxyribonuclease I. Because we previously found a positive relationship between pol ? inhibition and anti-inflammatory action, we examined whether these compounds could inhibit inflammatory responses. Among the five compounds tested, MK-2 caused the greatest reduction in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced acute inflammation in mouse ear. In addition, in a cell culture system using mouse macrophages, MK-2 displayed the strongest suppression of the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, MK-2 was found to inhibit the action of nuclear factor (NF)-?B. In an in vivo mouse model of LPS-evoked acute inflammation, intraperitoneal injection of MK-2 in mice led to suppression of TNF-? production in serum. In conclusion, this study has identified VK(2) and VK(3) intermediates, such as MK-2, that are promising anti-inflammatory candidates.
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Effects of quinone derivatives, such as 1,4-naphthoquinone, on DNA polymerase inhibition and anti-inflammatory action.
Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Previously, we reported that vitamin K(3), which consists of a quinone component, inhibits the activity of human DNA polymerase ? (pol ?). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of 4 quinone derivatives (1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) and 5,12-naphthacenequinone (NCQ)) on the activity of mammalian pols. BQ and NQ potently inhibited the activity of all the pol species: pols ?, ?, ?, ?, ? and ?, and NQ was a stronger pol inhibitor than BQ. Because we previously found a positive relationship between pol l inhibition and anti-inflammatory action, we examined whether these quinone derivatives could inhibit inflammatory responses. BQ and NQ caused a marked reduction in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced acute inflammation in mouse ear, although AQ and NCQ did not. In a cell culture system using mouse macrophages, NQ displayed the strongest suppression in the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) among the quinone derivatives tested. Moreover, NQ was found to inhibit the action of nuclear factor (NF)-?. In an in vivo mouse model of LPS-evoked acute inflammation, intraperitoneal injection of BQ and NQ to mice led to suppression of TNF-? production in serum. These anti-inflammatory responses of NQ were more potent than those of BQ. In conclusion, this study has identified several quinone derivatives, such as NQ, that are promising anti-inflammatory candidates.
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GC/MS-based profiling of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules in ulcerative colitis.
Inflamm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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The roles that amino acids play in immunity and inflammation are well defined, and the relationship between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and certain amino acids has recently attracted attention. In this study, the levels of amino acids and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle-related molecules in the colonic tissues and sera of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) were profiled by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), with the aim of evaluating whether the clinical state induced by UC leads to variations in the amino acid profile.
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Green and black tea suppress hyperglycemia and insulin resistance by retaining the expression of glucose transporter 4 in muscle of high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2010
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To investigate the preventive effects of tea on hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, male C57BL/6J mice were given a high-fat diet containing 29% lard and also green or black tea ad libitum for 14 weeks. Both teas suppressed body weight gain and deposition of white adipose tissue caused by the diet. In addition, they improved hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by stimulating glucose uptake activity accompanied by the translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 to the plasma membrane in muscle. Long-term consumption of the high-fat diet reduced levels of insulin receptor ?-subunit, GLUT4 and AMP-activated protein kinase ? in muscle, and green and black tea suppressed these decreases. The results strongly suggest that green and black tea suppress high-fat diet-evoked hyperglycemia and insulin resistance by retaining the level of GLUT4 and increasing the level of GLUT4 on the plasma membrane in muscle.
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Autophagy in the intestinal epithelium reduces endotoxin-induced inflammatory responses by inhibiting NF-?B activation.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
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Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that is essential for survival, differentiation, development and homeostasis. There is growing evidence that impaired autophagy leads to the pathogenesis of diverse diseases. However, the role of autophagy in intestinal epithelium is not clearly understood, although previous studies have pointed out the possibility for the relationships of autophagy with bowel inflammation. In this study, we investigated the involvement of autophagy in intestinal epithelium with inflammatory responses. We generated the mice with a conditional deletion of Atg7, which is one of the autophagy regulated gene, in intestinal epithelium. In Atg7-deficient small intestinal epithelium, LPS-induced production of TNF-? and IL-1? mRNA was enhanced in comparison to the control small intestinal tissues. In addition, the degree of LPS-induced activation of NF-?B was promoted in Atg7-deficient intestinal epithelium. These results demonstrate that autophagy can attenuate endotoxin-induced inflammatory responses in intestinal epithelium resulting in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.
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Helicobacter heilmannii can induce gastric lymphoid follicles in mice via a Peyers patch-independent pathway.
FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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Helicobacter heilmannii induces gastric lymphoid follicles in mice. However, the pathogenic mechanisms behind the induction of gastric lymphoid follicles by H. heilmannii infection have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of Peyers patches (PP) in H. heilmannii-induced immune responses and the development of gastric lymphoid follicles. C57BL/6J and PP deficient mice were infected with H. heilmannii, and in addition to histological and immunohistological examinations, the expression levels of cytokines and chemokines in gastric mucosa were investigated. Gastric lymphoid follicle formation and the infiltration of dendritic cells, B cells, and helper T cells were milder in the PP-deficient mice 1 month after infection, but they were similar in both types of mice after 3 months. The mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor ? and CC chemokine ligand 2 were significantly high in the H. heilmannii-infected groups, and CXC chemokine ligand 13 expression was significantly increased in the infected C57BL/6J wild-type mice 1 month after infection. These results suggest that PP are not essential for the formation and development of gastric lymphoid follicles induced by H. heilmannii infection, although they are involved in the speed of gastric lymphoid follicle formation.
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Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor induces hepatic steatosis via the upregulation of fatty acid transport.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2010
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The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a basic helix-loop-helix/Per-ARNT-Sim domain transcription factor, which is activated by various xenobiotic ligands. AHR is known to be abundant in liver tissue and to be associated with hepatic steatosis. However, it has not yet been elucidated how the activation of AHR promotes hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study is to clarify the role of AHR in hepatic steatosis. The intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), a potent AHR ligand, into C57BL/6J mice significantly increased the levels of triglycerides and six long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids in the livers of mice, resulting in hepatic microvesicular steatosis. 3MC significantly enhanced the expression level of fatty acid translocase (FAT), a factor regulating the uptake of long-chain fatty acids into hepatocytes, in the liver. In an in vitro experiment using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, 3MC increased the expression level of FAT, and the downregulation of AHR by AHR siRNA led to the suppression of 3MC-induced FAT expression. In addition, the mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?, an upstream factor of FAT, was increased in the livers of 3MC-treated mice. Taking together, AHR activation induces hepatic microvesicular steatosis by increasing the expression level of FAT.
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Monoacetylcurcumin strongly regulates inflammatory responses through inhibition of NF-kappaB activation.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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Curcumin, a component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), is known to exert a variety of biological functions including anti-inflammatory activity. We examined the inhibitory effects of chemically synthesized derivatives of curcumin against inflammatory responses and compared them with those of curcumin, in order to find derivatives with stronger effects than curcumin. In a cell culture system using the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7, monoacetylcurcumin strongly inhibited IkappaB phosphorylation, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, oral administration of monoacetylcurcumin to mice led to greater suppression of TNF-alpha production after LPS stimulation than the administration of curcumin or tetrahydrocurcumin in vivo. Monoacetylcurcumin also inhibited the LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation in the liver. Collectively, monoacetylcurcumin is a potential chemopreventive agent for treating inflammatory responses more effectively than curcumin.
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Gamma interferon produced by antigen-specific CD4+ T cells regulates the mucosal immune responses to Citrobacter rodentium infection.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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Citrobacter rodentium, a murine model pathogen for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, colonizes the surface of intestinal epithelial cells and causes mucosal inflammation. This bacterium is an ideal model for investigating pathogen-host immune interactions in the gut. It is well known that gene transcripts for Th1 cytokines are highly induced in colonic tissue from mice infected with C. rodentium. However, it remains to be seen whether the Th1 or Th2 cytokines produced by antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells provide effective regulation of the host immune defense against C. rodentium infection. To investigate the antigen-specific immune responses, C. rodentium expressing ovalbumin (OVA-C. rodentium), a model antigen, was generated and used to define antigen-specific responses under gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-deficient or interleukin-4 (IL-4)-deficient conditions in vivo. The activation of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells and macrophage phagocytosis were evaluated in the presence of IFN-gamma or IL-4 in vitro. IFN-gamma-deficient mice exhibited a loss of body weight and a higher bacterial concentration in feces during OVA-C. rodentium infection than C57BL/6 (wild type) or IL-4-deficient mice. This occurred through the decreased efficiency of macrophage phagocytosis and the activation of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, a deficiency in antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cell-expressed IFN-gamma led to a higher susceptibility to mucosal and gut-derived systemic OVA-C. rodentium infection. These results show that the IFN-gamma produced by antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells plays an important role in the defense against C. rodentium.
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The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori suppresses the functions of dendritic cell in mice.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
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CagA protein is the most assessed effecter molecule of Helicobacter pylori. In this report, we demonstrate how CagA protein regulates the functions of dendritic cells (DC) against H. pylori infection. In addition, we found that CagA protein was tyrosine-phosphorylated in DC. The responses to cagA-positive H. pylori in DC were reduced in comparison to those induced by cagA-negative H. pylori. CagA-overexpressing DC also exhibited a decline in the responses against LPS stimulation and the differentiation of CD4(+) T cells toward Th1 type cells compared to wild type DC. In addition, the level of phosphorylated IRF3 decreased in CagA-overexpressing DC stimulated with LPS, indicating that activated SHP-2 suppressed the enzymatic activity of TBK1 and consequently IRF3 phosphorylation. These data suggest that CagA protein negatively regulates the functions of DC via CagA phosphorylation and that cagA-positive H. pylori strains suppress host immune responses resulting in their chronic colonization of the stomach.
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2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin impairs an insulin signaling pathway through the induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in adipocytes.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2010
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2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes a wasting syndrome characterized by a loss of body weight accompanied by a decrease in adipose tissue weight, i.e., insulin resistance-like symptoms. Therefore, the effects of TCDD on an insulin signaling pathway in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were investigated to obtain insight into the underlying mechanisms. TCDD downregulated expression of insulin receptor beta-subunit (IRbeta), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity. TCDD also upregulated expression of TNF-alpha, one of insulin resistance-inducing factors. Anti-TNF-alpha neutralization antibody and silencing of TNF-alpha receptor 1 (TNFR1) diminished the TCDD-induced downregulation of IRbeta, IRS1, and GLUT4. Moreover, the experiments using small interfering RNA for an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) revealed that the TCDD-evoked changes of IRbeta, IRS1, GLUT4, and TNF-alpha were dependent on AhR. TCDD also stimulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and their inhibitors abrogated the TCDD-induced downregulation of IRbeta, IRS1, and GLUT4; upregulation of TNF-alpha; and activation of NF-kappaB. Taken together, TCDD stimulates expression and secretion of TNF-alpha in adipocytes through activation of AhR, ERK1/2, and JNK, and the secreted TNF-alpha causes the downregulation of IRbeta, IRS1, and GLUT4 through TNFR1, resulting in insulin resistance.
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Suppression mechanisms of flavonoids on aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated signal transduction.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates biological and toxicological effects by binding to its agonists such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Previously we demonstrated that flavonoids suppressed the TCDD-induced DNA-binding activity of the AhR in a structure-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which flavonoids suppressed the AhR-mediated signal transduction in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells. Flavones and flavonols suppressed the TCDD-induced nuclear translocation of the AhR and dissociation of its partner proteins, heat shock protein 90 and X-associated protein 2, whereas flavanones and catechins did not. Flavonoids of all these four subclasses suppressed the phosphorylation of both AhR and Arnt and the formation of a heterodimer consisting of these proteins. Since certain flavonoids are known to inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), we confirmed the contribution of MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) to the AhR-mediated signal transduction by using U0126, an inhibitor of MEK1/2. U0126 suppressed TCDD-induced phosphorylation of the AhR and Arnt followed by the DNA-binding activity of the AhR. Flavanones and catechins suppressed the TCDD-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2. The inhibition of MEK/ERK phosphorylation is one of the mechanisms by which flavanones and catechins suppress the AhR-mediated signal transduction in Hepa-1c1c7 cells.
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Lipoxin A(4) reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activation.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
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Lipoxins, which are bioactive lipids derived from omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, play important roles in various biological functions. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of lipoxin A(4) (LXA4; 5S,6R,15S-trihydroxy-7,9,13-trans-11-eicosatetraenoic acid) were investigated in in vitro cultured cell experiments and in vivo animal experiments. In mouse peritoneal macrophages and mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells, LXA4 reduced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increase in the mRNA expression level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. LXA4 also reduced the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). In an LPS-induced acute inflammation mouse model, the injection of LXA4 at 5 microg/kg b.wt. led to down-regulation of the TNF-alpha level in serum and the TNF-alpha mRNA expression level in intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, LXA4 reduced the LPS-caused phosphorylation of IkappaB kinases, IkappaB, and NF-kappaB, the degradation of IkappaB, and the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in intestinal epithelial cells. In a coculture system using RAW264.7 cells and human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 cells, treatment with LXA4 to Caco-2 cells led to reduction of LPS-evoked TNF-alpha production in RAW264.7 cells and interleukin-8 mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells. These results indicate that LXA4 exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of NF-kappaB activation, and, therefore, LXA4 may be useful as a therapeutic strategy against intestinal mucosa inflammation.
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Structure-activity relationships of anthraquinones on the suppression of DNA-binding activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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Anthraquinones are widely present in plant kingdom, and clinically used as laxatives. Environmental contaminants, dioxins, develop various adverse effects through transformation of a cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We investigated the effects of 18 anthraquinones and 7 of their structurally related compounds on transformation of the AhR estimated by its DNA-binding activity in the cell-free system. 1,4-Dihydroxyanthraquinone (quinizarin), 1,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone (anthrarufin), 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone (danthron), and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (juglone) strongly suppressed DNA-binding activity of the AhR induced by 0.1 nM 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with their IC(50) values around 1 muM. On the other hand, anthraquinone, 2,6-dihydroxyanthraquinone (anthraflavic acid), and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalendione (lawsone) showed moderate effects. Quantitative structure-activity relationships analysis demonstrated that hydroxyl groups at C1 or C4 but not C3 position of anthraquinone structure are critical for the suppressive effects. In addition, all compounds except lawsone had no agonistic effect. The suppressive effects of anthraquinones in a cultured cell system were also confirmed. In human hepatoma HepG2 cells, chrysophanol, danthron, and rhein also suppressed the DNA-binding activity in a dose-dependent manner, although aloe-emodin showed a moderate effect. The findings of this study may be useful for the design of the novel antagonists of the AhR.
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Linoleoyl ethanolamide reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages and ameliorates 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis in mice.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
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In our previous study, it was found that linoleoyl ethanolamide (LE) is present in sake lees, which are produced as a byproduct during the making of Japanese sake. LE is a fatty acid ethanolamide, which have been demonstrated to exert a variety of biological functions, and in this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of LE were examined using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal experiments. In mouse RAW264.7 macrophages, LE suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-6. In addition, LE inhibited LPS-induced increases in the levels of cyclooxygenase enzyme-2 and prostaglandin E(2), which are indicators of inflammation. The inhibitory effect of LE on the release of TNF-? was stronger than that of dipotassium glycyrrhizinate, which is widely used in external human skin care treatments. LE also suppressed the LPS-induced activation of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65. In a contact dermatitis animal model, applying LE to affected ear skin ameliorated 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at inflamed sites. These results indicate that LE exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-?B signaling, and LE is proposed to be a useful therapeutic agent against contact dermatitis.
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Suppression of lipopolysaccharide and galactosamine-induced hepatic inflammation by red grape pomace.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
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Grape pomace is generated in the production process of wine and grape juices and is an industrial waste. This study investigated whether an intake of grape pomace was able to suppress chronic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and galactosamine (GalN) in vivo. When Sprague-Dawley rats were orally given methanolic extracts from red and white grape pomace, the extracts inhibited the LPS/GalN-evoked activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) dose-dependently, and red grape pomace exerted a stronger effect than white grape one. Next, rats were fed an AIN93 M-based diet containing 5% red grape pomace for 7 days, followed by the intraperitoneal injection of LPS and GalN. The intake of the red grape pomace-supplemented diet was found to suppress the LPS/GalN-induced activation of NF-?B and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins. These results suggest that red grape pomace may contain an abundance of effective compound(s) for anti-inflammatory action.
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A novel serum metabolomics-based diagnostic approach for colorectal cancer.
PLoS ONE
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To improve the quality of life of colorectal cancer patients, it is important to establish new screening methods for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.
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Development of oxidized phosphatidylcholine isomer profiling method using supercritical fluid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A
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Phospholipids that contain polyunsaturated fatty acid are easily oxidized by free radicals or oxidants and can yield numerous oxidation species, including positional and structural isomers. However, it is difficult to separate these oxidation products for structural analysis. In this study, a high-resolution separation analytical system based on supercritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (SFC/MS/MS) was established for the separation and identification of oxidized phosphatidylcholine (PC) isomers derived from esterified linoleic acid or arachidonic acid. Separation of oxidatively modified PC containing hydroxy, epoxy and hydroperoxy groups was achieved by SFC. Positional isomers of hydroxides and epoxides were identified based on MS/MS fragment information. To investigate whether this method is applicable to biological samples, we then analyzed oxidized PC isomers from mouse liver. Oxidized isomers, such as hydroxides, hydroperoxides and epoxides, were simultaneously observed. This method may be a powerful tool for providing further insight into how oxidized phospholipids are produced and are correlated with various diseases.
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Identification of biomarkers of stent restenosis with serum metabolomic profiling using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
Circ. J.
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Despite the establishment of guidelines for the secondary prevention of coronary artery diseases, many patients still develop restenosis after stent implantation. Therefore, novel and noninvasive serum biomarkers that can identify restenosis-prone conditions are necessary to improve the follow-up and treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. Of late, considerable attention is being focused on metabolomics, which is the comprehensive analysis of low-molecular-weight metabolites. This study investigated the use of serum metabolomics in the identification of biomarkers of restenosis.
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Autophagy in the intestinal epithelium is not involved in the pathogenesis of intestinal tumors.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
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Autophagy has been demonstrated to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer, but no consensus has been reached about its precise role. Therefore, we investigated whether autophagy in the intestinal epithelium is involved in the pathogenesis of intestinal tumors. To evaluate the relationship between autophagy and intestinal tumors, GFP-LC3-APC(min/+) mice were generated by mating GFP-LC3 transgenic mice with APC(min/+) mice. Autophagy was weakly induced in the intestinal polyp regions of the mice in comparison to their non-polyp regions. Under starved conditions, autophagy was not induced in the polyp regions, whereas it was observed in the non-polyp regions. Then, to examine whether a lack of autophagy in the intestinal epithelium enhances the induction of intestinal tumor, Atg7flox/flox:vil-cre-APC(min/+) mice, in which Atg7 had been conditionally deleted in the intestinal epithelium, were generated by mating Atg7flox/flox:vil-cre mice with APC(min/+) mice. However, there was no significant difference in the number of intestinal polyps between the Atg7flox/flox:vil-cre-APC(min/+) and the corresponding control Atg7flox/flox-APC(min/+) mice. These results indicate that autophagy in the intestinal epithelium is not involved in the pathogenesis of intestinal tumors, and future research should focus on regulating autophagy as a form of cancer therapy.
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Metabolomic analysis to discover candidate therapeutic agents against acute pancreatitis.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
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Novel and effective drugs against acute pancreatitis are required. Therefore, we examined the changes in the metabolite levels in the serum and pancreatic tissue of mice with cerulein- and arginine-induced pancreatitis using gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) and investigated whether these alterations affected the severity of acute pancreatitis. In the cerulein-induced pancreatitis model, 93 and 129 metabolites were detected in the serum and pancreatic tissue, respectively. In the L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis model, 120 and 133 metabolites were detected in the serum and pancreatic tissue, respectively. Among the metabolites, the concentrations of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and amino acids were altered in pancreatitis, and in pancreatic tissue, the levels of the intermediates involved in the initial part of the TCA cycle were increased and those of the intermediates involved in the latter part of the TCA cycle were decreased. Some metabolites exhibited similar changes in both pancreatitis mouse models, e.g., the levels of glutamic acid and O-phosphoethanolamine were significantly decreased in the pancreatic tissue. Supplementation with glutamic acid and O-phosphoethanolamine attenuated the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Our results suggest that GC/MS-based metabolomics is capable of accurately representing the status of acute pancreatitis, leading to the discovery of therapeutic agents for pancreatitis.
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Autophagy in the intestinal epithelium regulates Citrobacter rodentium infection.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
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Autophagy, a ubiquitous degradation pathway, is important for the survival and homeostasis of cells. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of autophagy in host defense against bacterial infection, but the importance of autophagy in the intestinal epithelium for the regulation of bacterial infection has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we showed that the essential autophagy protein Atg7 is required for resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection in the intestinal epithelium. Infected mice in which Atg7 had been conditionally deleted from the intestinal epithelium exhibited greater clinical evidence of disease and higher expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA in the large intestine. Moreover, C. rodentium clearance was reduced in the Atg7 conditional knockout mice. These results demonstrate that autophagy in intestinal epithelial cells plays an important role in host defense against C. rodentium infection and the regulation of C. rodentium infectious colitis.
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Antagonistic effect of the Ainu-selected traditional beneficial plants on the transformation of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor.
J. Food Sci.
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Transformation of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is the initial step to express the multiple toxicity of halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs and PAHs) including dioxins. Therefore, it has been suggested that suppression of the transformation induced by HAHs and PAHs leads to reduce their toxicological effects. In this study, the antagonistic effect of 110 indigenous plants (192 plant parts) used as medicine and/or food by the Ainu on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced AhR transformation was investigated. Of these, a stalk of Aralia elata (Miq.) Seemann and a bark of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. var. japonica Maxim. exhibited the strong antagonistic effect in a dose-dependent manner. An antioxidative activity and polyphenol content were also measured, and the strong correlation (r= 0.96) between these two parameters could be confirmed. However, correlation coefficients of the antagonistic effect of 192 extracts compared to their antioxidative activity and polyphenol content were 0.17 and 0.20, respectively. These results suggest that the Ainu-selected traditional beneficial plants are useful source for findings of novel AhR antagonists, and the antagonistic activity of these plants may be independent on their antioxidative activity and polyphenol content.
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Highly sensitive and rapid profiling method for carotenoids and their epoxidized products using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
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Epoxy carotenoids, which are products of carotenoid oxidation, are potential oxidative stress markers. However, it is difficult to profile epoxy carotenoids owing to their small amount and difficulty in their separation from hydroxy carotenoids. In this study, a high-performance analytical system based on supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous analysis of carotenoids and epoxy carotenoids. SFC is an effective separation technique for hydrophobic compounds, by which major carotenoids in human serum and their epoxidation products can be analyzed within 20 min. The use of MS/MS increased the sensitivity; the detection limit for each carotenoid was of the sub-fmol order. When the constructed method was applied to biological samples such as human serum and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the precise detection of the target carotenoids was disturbed by several isomers. However, highly selective detection of epoxy carotenoids was performed by targeting product ions that were generated with a structure-specific neutral loss of 80Da. Furthermore, the sample volume needed for the analysis was only 0.1ml for the serum, indicating the efficiency of this system in performing small-scale analyses. Using the analytical system developed in this study, highly sensitive and selective analysis of epoxy carotenoids could be performed in a short time. These features show the usefulness of this system in application to screening analysis of carotenoid profiles that are easily modified by oxidative stress.
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Regulation of the metabolite profile by an APC gene mutation in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Sci.
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Mutation of the APC gene occurs during the early stages of colorectal cancer development. To obtain new insights into the mechanisms underlying the aberrant activation of the Wnt pathway that accompanies APC mutation, we carried out a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based semiquantitative metabolome analysis. In vitro experiments comparing SW480 cells expressing normal APC and truncated APC indicated that the levels of metabolites involved in the latter stages of the intracellular tricarboxylic acid cycle, including succinic acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid, were significantly higher in the SW480 cells expressing the truncated APC. In an in vivo study, we found that the levels of most amino acids were higher in the non-polyp tissues of APC(min/+) mice than in the normal tissues of the control mice and the polyp tissues of APC(min/+) mice. Ribitol, the levels of which were decreased in the polyp lesions of the APC(min/+) mice and the SW480 cells expressing the truncated APC, reduced the growth of SW480 cells with the APC mutation, but did not affect the growth of SW480 transfectants expressing full-length APC. The level of sarcosine was found to be significantly higher in the polyp tissues of APC(min/+) mice than in their non-polyp tissues and the normal tissues of the control mice, and the treatment of SW480 cells with 50 ?M sarcosine resulted in a significant increase in their growth rate. These findings suggest that APC mutation causes changes in energetic metabolite pathways and that these alterations might be involved in the development of colorectal cancer.
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