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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Alternating 2,6-/3,5-substituted pyridine-acetylene macrocycles: ?-stacking self-assemblies enhanced by intermolecular dipole-dipole interaction.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Macrocyclic compounds consisting of three 2,6-pyridylene and three 3,5-pyridylene units linked by acetylene bonds were synthesized by a Sonogashira reaction. The X-ray structures showed ?-stacked pairs of two macrocycles, in which a 2,6-pyridylene unit of the one molecule overlaps a 3,5-pyridylene of the other molecule because of dipole-dipole interaction. Atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements revealed fibril structures indicating the stacking of the rigid planar macrocycles. Hydrogen-bonding ability of the macrocyclic inside was demonstrated by the addition of octyl ?-D-glucopyranoside.
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[Relationships between concentrations of dioxin isomers and symptoms, and among concentrations and half-lives of dioxin isomers, in patients with Yusho disease].
Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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The relationships among dioxin isomers are not well understood. This study aimed to clarify the relationships among isomers using two methods. First, the relationships between isomers and symptoms were analyzed by analysis of variance. Second, concentrations and half-lives were determined for each isomer in each patient, and correlation coefficients for the concentrations and half-lives among isomers were calculated. Two isomers very similar to 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2, 3, 4, 7, 8-PeCDF) were correlated with symptoms of Yusho disease. The correlation coefficients among three isomers similar to 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-PeCDF were very high at 0.98, indicating that there may be a mechanism which maintains constant ratios among these isomers.
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Individuals half-lives for 2,3,4,7,8-penta-chlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) in blood: correlation with clinical manifestations and laboratory results in subjects with Yusho.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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In 1968, many people developed dioxin poisoning (Yusho) in Japan. Ingestion of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) was considered to be the cause of this poisoning. Although some patients had high concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF in their blood, individuals half-lives of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF were long.
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Non-specific protein modifications by a phytochemical induce heat shock response for self-defense.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Accumulated evidence shows that some phytochemicals provide beneficial effects for human health. Recently, a number of mechanistic studies have revealed that direct interactions between phytochemicals and functional proteins play significant roles in exhibiting their bioactivities. However, their binding selectivities to biological molecules are considered to be lower due to their small and simple structures. In this study, we found that zerumbone, a bioactive sesquiterpene, binds to numerous proteins with little selectivity. Similar to heat-denatured proteins, zerumbone-modified proteins were recognized by heat shock protein 90, a constitutive molecular chaperone, leading to heat shock factor 1-dependent heat shock protein induction in hepa1c1c7 mouse hepatoma cells. Furthermore, oral administration of this phytochemical up-regulated heat shock protein expressions in the livers of Sprague-Dawley rats. Interestingly, pretreatment with zerumbone conferred a thermoresistant phenotype to hepa1c1c7 cells as well as to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. It is also important to note that several phytochemicals with higher hydrophobicity or electrophilicity, including phenethyl isothiocyanate and curcumin, markedly induced heat shock proteins, whereas most of the tested nutrients did not. These results suggest that non-specific protein modifications by xenobiotic phytochemicals cause mild proteostress, thereby inducing heat shock response and leading to potentiation of protein quality control systems. We considered these bioactivities to be xenohormesis, an adaptation mechanism against xenobiotic chemical stresses. Heat shock response by phytochemicals may be a fundamental mechanism underlying their various bioactivities.
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[Relationship between half-lives of blood dioxins and possible metabolic mechanism].
Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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Blood levels of dioxins in Yusho patients have been measured for 10 years. The purposes of this study were to determine the half-lives of dioxins on the basis of the data obtained from Yusho patients and to compare the half-lives of the compounds. Linear regression analysis was performed using the binary logarithmic value of each dioxin level as the dependent variable and the year of measurement as the independent variable. The linear coefficient obtained from this linear regression analysis was the reciprocal number of the half-life. The relationship between the blood dioxin levels estimated in 2004 and the reciprocal number of half-life was evaluated. Of the studied dioxins, the concentrations of some compounds were strongly correlated with that of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF. For 2 such compounds, the correlation coefficient of the reciprocal numbers of half-life were greater than the correlation coefficient of the logarithmic values of the estimated concentrations. Of these 2 compounds, the concentration of 3,3,4,4,5,5-HxCB was at least 50 times less than that of the 2,3,4,7, 8-PeCDF in rice oil: however, their current concentrations are equivalent. Patients with high levels of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF also showed high levels of 3,3,4,4,5,5-HxCB. Yusho patients may have a disease-specific mechanism to supply 3,3,4,4,5,5-HxCB.
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Immediate defibrillation or defibrillation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Prehosp Emerg Care
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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This study aimed to determine whether short cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by emergency medical services before defibrillation (CPR first) has a better outcome than immediate defibrillation followed by CPR (shock first) in patients with ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/pulseless VT) out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
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The working status of Japanese female physicians by area of practice: cohort analysis of taking leave, returning to work, and changing specialties from 1984 to 2004.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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The percentage of females in the physician workforce is increasing in Japan, as in other countries; however, the working status of female physicians has not been sufficiently investigated.
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Collapse-to-emergency medical service cardiopulmonary resuscitation interval and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest: a nationwide observational study.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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The relationship between collapse to emergency medical service (EMS) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) interval and outcome has been well documented. However, most studies have only analyzed cases of cardiac origin and Vf (ventricular fibrillation)/pulseless VT (ventricular tachycardia). We sought to examine all causes of cardiac arrest and analyze the relationship between collapse-to-EMS CPR interval and outcome in a nationwide sample using an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) registry.
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Effect of time and day of admission on 1-month survival and neurologically favourable 1-month survival in out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest patients.
Resuscitation
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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We sought to examine whether the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (OHCA) patients differed between weekday and weekend/holiday admissions, or between daytime and nighttime admissions.
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Brain response provoked by different bladder volumes: a near infrared spectroscopy study.
Neurourol. Urodyn.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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In order to understand frontal lobe responses in bladder sensation in healthy subjects, we examined the cortical localization of response to the different bladder volumes.
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Indenyl-functionalised triethylborane adduct of N-heterocyclic carbene: stepwise coordination of indenyl and NHC ligands toward molybdenum fragment.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Indenyl-functionalised BEt(3)-adduct NHCs were prepared by the reaction of imidazolium pro-ligands with LiBEt(3)H. This compound was converted into the indenyl-coordinate molybdenum complex dangling the NHC·BEt(3) moiety as a substituent. The stepwise coordination of NHC afforded a chelate-type mononuclear complex as well as a bimetallic complex.
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Specialty choice and physicians career paths in Japan: an analysis of National Physician Survey data from 1996 to 2006.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2010
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To investigate trends of specialty distribution and physicians career paths in Japan, and to discuss potential policy implications.
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Residency hospital type and career paths in Japan: an analysis of physician registration cohorts.
Med Teach
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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In 2004, a new postgraduate medical training system was introduced in Japan and a shift of new graduates from university hospitals to other postgraduate education hospitals happened.
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Postgraduate training and career choices: an analysis of the National Physicians Survey in Japan.
Med Educ
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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This study analyses and discusses recent changes in young Japanese doctors career paths, in terms of their distribution in different types of facilities and specialties, following changes to the postgraduate clinical training system in 2004.
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ERAL1 is associated with mitochondrial ribosome and elimination of ERAL1 leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and growth retardation.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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ERAL1, a homologue of Era protein in Escherichia coli, is a member of conserved GTP-binding proteins with RNA-binding activity. Depletion of prokaryotic Era inhibits cell division without affecting chromosome segregation. Previously, we isolated ERAL1 protein as one of proteins which were associated with mitochondrial transcription factor A by using immunoprecipitation. In this study, we analysed the localization and function of ERAL1 in mammalian cells. ERAL1 was localized in mitochondrial matrix and associated with mitoribosomal proteins including the 12S rRNA. siRNA knockdown of ERAL1 decreased mitochondrial translation, caused redistribution of ribosomal small subunits and reduced 12S rRNA. The knockdown of ERAL1 in human HeLa cells elevated mitochondrial superoxide production and slightly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. The knockdown inhibited the growth of HeLa cells with an accumulation of apoptotic cells. These results suggest that ERAL1 is localized in a small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome, plays an important role in the small ribosomal constitution, and is also involved in cell viability.
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Retention rate of physicians in public health administration agencies and their career paths in Japan.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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Physicians who serve as public health specialists at public health centers and health departments in local or central government have significant roles because of their public health expertise. The aim of this study is to analyze the retention and career paths of such specialists in Japan.
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High-energy electron transfer dissociation (HE-ETD) using alkali metal targets for sequence analysis of post-translational peptides.
J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2010
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Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins are important in the activation, localization, and regulation of protein function in vivo. The usefulness of electron capture dissociation (ECD) and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using low-energy (LE) trap type mass spectrometer is associated with no loss of a labile PTM group regarding peptide and protein sequencing. The experimental results of high-energy (HE) collision induced dissociation (CID) using the Xe and Cs targets and LE-ETD were compared for doubly-phosphorylated peptides TGFLT(p)EY(p)VATR (1). Although HE-CID using the Xe target did not provide information on the amino acid sequence, HE-CID using the Cs target provided all the z-type ions without loss of the phosphate groups as a result of HE-ETD process, while LE-ETD using fluoranthene anion gave only z-type ions from z(5) to z(11). The difference in the results of HE-CID between the Xe and Cs targets demonstrated that HE-ETD process with the Cs target took place much more dominantly than collisional activation. The difference between HE-ETD using Cs targets and LE-ETD using the anion demonstrated that mass discrimination was much weaker in the high-energy process. HE-ETD was also applied to three other phosphopeptides YGGMHRQEX(p)VDC (2: X = S, 3: X = T, 4: X = Y). The HE-CID spectra of the doubly-protonated phosphopeptides (= [M + 2H](2+)) of 2, 3, and 4 using the Cs target showed a very similar feature that the c-type ions from c(7) to c(11) and the z-type ions from z(7) to z(11) were formed via N-C alpha bond cleavage without a loss of the phosphate group.
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Effect of initial periodontal therapy on oral health-related quality of life in patients with periodontitis in Japan.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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It is becoming increasingly important for periodontists and dental hygienists to take a biopsychosocial approach to care when considering periodontal interventions. However, information on how patients perceive periodontitis and its treatment is limited. The purpose of the present study is to gain insight into the patient perception of oral health and the impact that periodontitis and treatment have on self-assessed quality of life (QoL).
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Twenty-year changes of penta-chlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) level and symptoms in Yusho patients, using association analysis.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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Recently, methods for measurement of dioxins in the blood have improved. Also, techniques for analyzing large quantities of data have been developed, such as data mining. Even in subjects with elusive characteristics, it is becoming possible to find previously unknown characteristics by checking all combinations of symptoms.
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Characterization and functional properties of sub-fractions of soluble soybean polysaccharides.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2009
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Soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) was fractionated into two sub-fractions, a high-molecular-weight fraction (HMF) and a low-molecular-weight fraction (LMF) by the ethanol-extraction method. Characterization of the sub-fractions, that is, analysis of chemical composition, gel filtration, and SDS-PAGE, revealed that the main component of HMF was a large polysaccharide molecule with covalently-attached peptides, possibly corresponding to the intact SSPS molecule. LMF consisted of free peptides and saccharides of small size, which might have occurred as by-products during the production process of SSPS. HMF exhibited high ability to emulsify oil droplets and stabilize alpha-casein dispersions in an acidic pH region, but this ability of LMF was inferior to HMF. On the other hand, LMF had higher activity to prevent the oxidation of emulsified lipids than HMF. These results suggest that HMF and LMF had different characteristics and functional properties, and that the combination of the two sub-fractions generates the multi-functions of commercial SSPS.
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Root coverage technique with enamel matrix derivative.
Bull. Tokyo Dent. Coll.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2009
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Various periodontal plastic surgical techniques are employed in obtaining root coverage. Recently, the use of an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has been reported in such treatment. We report 2 cases of root coverage surgery with a coronally positioned flap in combination with EMD (CPF+EMD) and connective tissue graft in combination with EMD (CTG+EMD). Case 1: The patient was a 25-year-old woman referred to Suidobashi Hospital, Tokyo Dental College for root coverage surgery on the lower right first premolar. Gingival recession was classified as Miller Class II, as no alveolar bone loss or loss of attachment was observed in the interdental area, although recession had progressed to the mucogingival junction. The patient was diagnosed with local gingival recession caused by excessive tooth brushing. Primary conservative treatment failed to reduce the gingival recession. Subsequently, root coverage surgery with CPF+EMD was carried out. As observation at the 1-year follow-up revealed complete root coverage and no recurrence of root exposure or subjective symptoms, the postoperative course was considered to be favorable. Case 2: The patient was a 39-year-old woman referred to Suidobashi Hospital, Tokyo Dental College for root coverage surgery on the lower left canine. Gingival recession was classified as Miller Class II. Root coverage surgery with CTG+EMD was carried out. As observation at the 2-month follow-up revealed complete root coverage and no recurrence of root exposure, the postoperative course was considered to be favorable. These 2 cases indicate the effectiveness of root coverage surgery with CPF+EMD and CTG+EMD.
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Microbial community structure in autotrophic nitrifying granules characterized by experimental and simulation analyses.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2009
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This study evaluates the community structure in nitrifying granules (average diameter of 1600 mum) produced in an aerobic reactor fed with ammonia as the sole energy source by a multivalent approach combining molecular techniques, microelectrode measurements and mathematical modelling. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria dominated within the first 200 mum below the granule surface, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria a deeper layer between 200 and 300 mum, while heterotrophic bacteria were present in the core of the nitrifying granule. Presence of these groups also became evident from a 16S rRNA clone library. Microprofiles of NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-) and O(2) concentrations measured with microelectrodes showed good agreement with the spatial organization of nitrifying bacteria. One- and two-dimensional numerical biofilm models were constructed to explain the observed granule development as a result of the multiple bacteria-substrate interactions. The interaction between nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria was evaluated by assuming three types of heterotrophic bacterial growth on soluble microbial products from nitrifying bacteria. The models described well the bacterial distribution obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, as well as the measured oxygen, nitrite, nitrate and ammonium concentration profiles. Results of this study are important because they show that a combination of simulation and experimental techniques can better explain the interaction between nitrifying bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria in the granules than individual approaches alone.
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Studies on the adsorption property and structure of polyamine-ended poly(ethylene glycol) derivatives on a gold surface by surface plasmon resonance and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2009
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The adsorption properties and structure of polyamine-ended poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) derivatives on a flat gold surface were studied by means of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using PEG(5k)-block-poly[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate](7.5k) [PEG-b-PAMA(5k/7.5k)] and pentaethylenhexamine-ended PEG(5k) [N6-PEG(5k)], which had 48 and 6 amino groups at the omega-end, respectively. The SPR analysis showed that the amount of PEG-b-PAMA(5k/7.5k) adsorbed onto the gold surface was not affected by the change in pH, and the desorption of this copolymer from the surface was not observed upon the addition of a solution at high salt concentration. The angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) analysis revealed the structure of the PEG-b-PAMA polymer layer constructed on the gold surface: the PAMA segments were concentrated and located at the interface between the PEG layer and the gold surface. On the other hand, in the case of the PEG-graft-PAMA copolymer (PAMA-g-PEG)-modified gold surface, both the PAMA and the PEG segments homogeneously migrated to all regions of the constructed copolymer layer. The adsorbed amounts of N6-PEG(5k) under different pH conditions were constant and 2-3 times higher than those caused by the adsorption of single amino group-terminated PEG(5k) [PEG-NH(2)(5k)] and hydroxyl group-terminated PEG(5k) [PEG-OH(5k)]. The N6-PEG(5k)-modified gold surface showed a higher nonfouling property toward the adsorption of bovine serum albumin compared with the bare and the N6-modified gold surface. These results indicate that polyamine-ended PEGs were strongly immobilized onto the gold surface by polyamine anchors, even though electrostatic interaction between the polyamine and the gold substrate was not the dominant factor in this adsorption event. Furthermore, the formation of an almost complete phase-separated PEG/polyamine layer on the gold surface by polyamine-ended PEGs was strongly suggested.
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Near infrared spectroscopy study of the central nervous activity during artificial changes in bladder sensation in men.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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To investigate the regional specificity of multi-channel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on the detection of urination-related cortical activation in healthy men.
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[Estimated half-life of penta-chlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) and simulation of PeCDF excretion].
Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
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The half-life of 2,3,4,7,8-penta-chlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) in the Yusho patients has been reported to be approximately seven years. In the present study, we estimated the half-life of PeCDF using data from the medical check-ups of more than 300 Yusho patients. We performed linear regression analysis with a binary logarithm of PeCDF blood level in Yusho patients as the dependent variable, and the measurement year as the independent variable. Our results showed that there were many patients who had shown no reduction of their blood PeCDF level for several years. This result contradicts the previously reported half-life period. Therefore, we believe that a more complicated excretion model needs to be established to explain the discrepancy we found. We hypothesized that there might be two mechanisms of PeCDF assimilation in human digestive tract. In the present study, we also used our hypothesis to simulate PeCDF excretion in Yusho patients.
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[Differential correlation of medical/laboratory examinations with blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated quarterphenyls and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran in Yusho patients from 2001 to 2004].
Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
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Since 1968, when the Yusho poisoning incident occurred, annual physical, dermatological, dental, and ophthalmological and laboratory examinations, collectively called Yusho health checks, have been conducted for Yusho patients. The Yusho incident was a health hazard caused by intake of rice-bran oil contaminated with PCB and PeCDF; therefore, since 2001 the levels of dioxins such as PeCDF in the blood have been measured in applicants. Here, we investigated correlations among findings from various medical examinations and those between those findings and PeCDF, PCB, and PCQ.
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Association analysis of food allergens.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Food allergy patients are known to present with allergic reactions to multiple allergens, but extrapolating these associations is difficult. Data mining, a procedure that analyzes characteristic combinations among large amounts of information, is often used to analyze and predict consumer purchasing behaviour. We applied this technique to the extrapolation of food allergen associations in allergy patients. We sent 1510 families our Questionnaire survey for the prevention of food allergies. Responses noting 6549 allergens came from 878 families with 1383 patients, including 402 with anaphylaxis. Some results of the survey have already been published and here we presented the results of our association analysis of combinations of food allergens. Egg, milk, wheat, peanuts, and buckwheat are the most common food allergens. The most common simultaneous combinations of these allergens were egg-milk, egg-wheat, and milk-wheat. The occurrence probability of a combination (i.e. one person suffering from a certain allergen also suffers from another) is called confidence. Confidence was higher for chicken-egg, abalone-salmon eggs, and matsutake mushroom-milk. As well, the combinations of crab-shrimp, squid-shrimp, and squid-crab also indicated higher values in a statistical examination of the occurrence probabilities of these allergen combinations (Z-score). From the results of the association analysis, we speculated that some food allergens, such as abalone, orange, salmon, chicken, pork, matsutake mushroom, peach and apple did not independently induce food allergies. We also found that combinations, such as crab-shrimp, squid-shrimp, squid-crab, chicken-beef, and salmon-mackerel had strong associations.
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A future estimate of physician distribution in hospitals and clinics in Japan.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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To make future estimates of physician distributions in hospitals and clinics to better understand the impact of recent health policy changes in post graduate clinical education, and to discuss possible policy implications.
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Assessment of oral self-care in patients with periodontitis: a pilot study in a dental school clinic in Japan.
BMC Oral Health
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2009
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Oral hygiene education is central to every stage of periodontal treatment. Successful management of periodontal disease depends on the patients capacity for oral self-care. In the present study, the oral self-care and perceptions of patients attending a dental school clinic in Japan were assessed using a short questionnaire referring to existing oral health models.
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Estimation of physician supply by specialty and the distribution impact of increasing female physicians in Japan.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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Japan has experienced two large changes which affect the supply and distribution of physicians. They are increases in medical school enrollment capacity and in the proportion of female physicians. The purpose of this study is to estimate the future supply of physicians by specialty and to predict the associated impact of increased female physicians, as well as to discuss the possible policy implications.
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Variation in half-life of penta-chlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) blood level among Yusho patients.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2009
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Yusho (oil disease) is the name given to a food poisoning incident caused by rice bran oil that occurred in west Japan in 1968. The causative agents of Yusho are currently considered to be polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their by-products, such as dioxin like compounds. The levels of 2,3,4,7,8-penta-cholorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) are measured in the blood of Yusho patients who attend medical check-ups. The objectives of this study were to determine the half-life of PeCDF in these patients. Linear regression analysis was performed with the binary logarithm of PeCDF blood levels in Yusho patients as the dependent variable and the measurement year as the independent variable. The linear coefficient determined in this analysis is the reciprocal of the half-life. The half-life of PeCDF varied among patients. Among patients with PeCDF blood levels of 50pgg(-1) or higher, there were two groups: one showing a half-life of approximately 7 years and the other showing no reduction in PeCDF levels over time. The results indicate that there is a group of patients whose PeCDF levels are maintained at a high level. Our study suggests that a more complicated model is required to explain PeCDF excretion in humans.
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Cutaneous symptoms such as acneform eruption and pigmentation are closely associated with blood levels of 2,3,4,7,8-penta-chlorodibenzofurans in Yusho patients, using data mining analysis.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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Yusho an intoxication caused by oral dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls occurred in 1968. Patients suffered from various systemic symptoms, including general fatigue, nausea, muscular and articular pain, acneform eruptions, black comedones, cutaneous and oral pigmentation, and increased eye discharge. The major causative factor was the contamination of rice oil with 2,3,4,7,8-penta-chlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF). Recent technical advances have allowed us to measure blood levels of PeCDF. However, there is little information on which symptoms and laboratory data are directly associated with PeCDF levels.
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Molecular dynamics studies of the structural change in 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB) in the crystalline state under high pressure.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations were performed to reveal the effect of high pressure on the crystal of 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB). The coordinates of the individual atoms in the DATB crystal structure were obtained using X-ray diffraction analysis. The primary simulation cell consists of 54 molecules in a monoclinic cell, corresponding to 27 unit cells obtained by replicating the experimentally determined unit cell. The pressure dependence of intermolecular distance concerning hydrogen bonds in the DATB crystal was investigated in the range of 1 atm to 25.0 GPa by increasing the pressure at every 0.5 GPa. Intermolecular distances of the hydrogen bonds between the nitro and amino groups decrease with increasing pressure up to 25.0 GPa, except in the range of 7.5 to 8.5 GPa. A unique structural change in the DATB crystal occurred at approximately 7.5 GPa. Intermolecular distances began to remarkably increase at 7.5 GPa and kept increasing until 8.5 GPa. To clarify the origin of this strange behavior, we used the same pressure regions as those above to analyze the changes in the dihedral angles defined by the plane of the nitro or amino group and by the aromatic rings of hydrogen bonds. The results showed a strong correlation between the increment of the intermolecular distances and the changes in the dihedral angles for these groups. Moreover, when the pressure dependence of the crystal parameter was analyzed, it was found that the a-axis length did not change despite the change in the lengths of the other two axes. The direction of the a axis corresponds to the direction of intermolecular hydrogen bond networks in the crystal. The results of the present MD calculations explained our previous results for Raman spectra measurements. Further analysis showed that these hydrogen bonds play an important role in stabilizing the energy change of the crystal system.
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Mutation and functional analysis of ABCC2/multidrug resistance protein 2 in a Japanese patient with Dubin-Johnson syndrome.
Hepatol. Res.
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Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS) is a recessive inherited disorder characterized by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. It is caused by dysfunction of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 2 (ABCC2/MRP2) on the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. We performed mutational analysis of the ABCC2/MRP2 gene in a Japanese female with DJS. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of the two identified DJS-associated mutations on MRP2 function. We found a compound heterozygous mutation in the patient: W709R (c.2124T>C), a missense mutation in exon 17, and R1310X (c.3928C>T), a nonsense mutation in exon 28. DJS-associated mutations have been shown to impair the protein maturation and transport activity of ABCC2/MRP2. We established HEK293 cell lines stably expressing one of the two identified DJS-associated mutations. Expressed W709R MRP2 was mainly core-glycosylated, predominantly retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, and exhibited no transport activity, suggesting that this mutation causes deficient maturation and impaired protein sorting. No MRP2 protein was expressed from HEK293 cells transfected with an R1310X-containing construct. This compound heterozygous mutation of the MRP2 gene causes dysfunction of the MRP2 protein and the hyperbilirubinemia seen in DJS.
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Protein instability and functional defects caused by mutations of dihydro-orotate dehydrogenase in Miller syndrome patients.
Biosci. Rep.
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Miller syndrome is a recessive inherited disorder characterized by postaxial acrofacial dysostosis. It is caused by dysfunction of the DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase) gene, which encodes a key enzyme in the pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis pathway and is localized at mitochondria intermembrane space. We investigated the consequence of three missense mutations, G202A, R346W and R135C of DHODH, which were previously identified in patients with Miller syndrome. First, we established HeLa cell lines stably expressing DHODH with Miller syndrome-causative mutations: G202A, R346W and R135C. These three mutant proteins retained the proper mitochondrial localization based on immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial subfractionation studies. The G202A, R346W DHODH proteins showed reduced protein stability. On the other hand, the third one R135C, in which the mutation lies at the ubiquinone-binding site, was stable but possessed no enzymatic activity. In conclusion, the G202A and R346W mutation causes deficient protein stability, and the R135C mutation does not affect stability but impairs the substrate-induced enzymatic activity, suggesting that impairment of DHODH activity is linked to the Miller syndrome phenotype.
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Carbon fiber as an excellent support material for wastewater treatment biofilms.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
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Fibrous materials made of carbon fiber (CF), aromatic polyamide (AP), preoxidized polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and polyethylene (PE), which are widely used in the textile industry, were evaluated as biofilm supports for wastewater treatment. We found that CF has a high capacity for adsorbing nitrifying bacterial sludge. The adhesion rate of four pure strains-Cytophaga hutchinsonii, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli-was highest to CF. The ?-potentials of the fibrous supports, and the cell surface potentials of these bacteria on the basis of the soft particle theory, were experimentally determined. Bacterial cell adhesion to the fibrous supports could be explained by Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory. Interaction energy profiles based on this theory indicated the disappearance of the energy barrier in bacterial cell adhesion to the CF support, whereas an insurmountable energy barrier was observed in the adhesion to the other fibrous supports. This result was attributed to the less negative ?-potential of CF and the relatively large Hamaker constant for the CF/bacterium interaction in water; through simulations, the latter factor was found to make a greater contribution to lowering the energy barrier. In practice and theory, CF is an excellent material as a microbial and biofilm support for wastewater treatment.
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Localization of mRNAs encoding human mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation proteins.
Mitochondrion
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The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins are encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. The nuclear-encoded OXPHOS mRNAs have specific subcellular localizations, but little is known about which localize near mitochondria. Here, we compared mRNAs in mitochondria-bound polysome fractions with those in cytosolic, free polysome fractions. mRNAs encoding hydrophobic OXPHOS proteins, which insert into the inner membrane, were localized near mitochondria. Conversely, OXPHOS gene which mRNAs were predominantly localized in cytosol had less than one transmembrane domain. The RNA-binding protein Y-box binding protein-1 is localized at the mitochondrial outer membrane and bound to the OXPHOS mRNAs. Our findings offer new insight into mitochondrial co-translational import in human cells.
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Ribonucleoprotein Y-box-binding protein-1 regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) protein expression after serum stimulation through binding to OXPHOS mRNA.
Biochem. J.
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Mitochondria play key roles in essential cellular functions, such as energy production, metabolic pathways and aging. Growth factor-mediated expression of the mitochondrial OXPHOS (oxidative phosphorylation) complex proteins has been proposed to play a fundamental role in metabolic homoeostasis. Although protein translation is affected by general RNA-binding proteins, very little is known about the mechanism involved in mitochondrial OXPHOS protein translation. In the present study, serum stimulation induced nuclear-encoded OXPHOS protein expression, such as NDUFA9 [NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1? subcomplex, 9, 39 kDa], NDUFB8 [NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1? subcomplex, 8, 19 kDa], SDHB [succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit B, iron sulfur (Ip)] and UQCRFS1 (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, Rieske iron-sulfur polypeptide 1), and mitochondrial ATP production, in a translation-dependent manner. We also observed that the major ribonucleoprotein YB-1 (Y-box-binding protein-1) preferentially bound to these OXPHOS mRNAs and regulated the recruitment of mRNAs from inactive mRNPs (messenger ribonucleoprotein particles) to active polysomes. YB-1 depletion led to up-regulation of mitochondrial function through induction of OXPHOS protein translation from inactive mRNP release. In contrast, YB-1 overexpression suppressed the translation of these OXPHOS mRNAs through reduced polysome formation, suggesting that YB-1 regulated the translation of mitochondrial OXPHOS mRNAs through mRNA binding. Taken together, our findings suggest that YB-1 is a critical factor for translation that may control OXPHOS activity.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.