JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Duration of chronic kidney disease reduces attention and executive function in pediatric patients.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood is associated with neurocognitive deficits. Affected children show worse performance on tests of intelligence than their unaffected siblings and skew toward the lower end of the normal range. Here we further assessed this association in 340 pediatric patients (ages 6-21) with mild-moderate CKD in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Childhood cohort from 48 pediatric centers in North America. Participants underwent a battery of age-appropriate tests including Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II), Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Tower task, and the Digit Span Backward task from the age-appropriate Wechsler Intelligence Scale. Test performance was compared across the range of estimated glomerular filtration rate and duration of CKD with relevant covariates including maternal education, household income, IQ, blood pressure, and preterm birth. Among the 340 patients, 35% had poor performance (below the mean by 1.5 or more standard deviations) on at least one test of executive function. By univariate nonparametric comparison and multiple logistic regression, longer duration of CKD was associated with increased odds ratio for poor performance on the CPT-II Errors of Commission, a test of attention regulation and inhibitory control. Thus, in a population with mild-to-moderate CKD, the duration of disease rather than estimated glomerular filtration rate was associated with impaired attention regulation and inhibitory control.Kidney International advance online publication, 24 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.323.
Related JoVE Video
Origins of temporal lobe epilepsy: febrile seizures and febrile status epilepticus.
Neurotherapeutics
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) commonly arise following early-life long seizures, and especially febrile status epilepticus (FSE). However, there are major gaps in our knowledge regarding the causal relationships of FSE, TLE, HS and cognitive disturbances that hamper diagnosis, biomarker development and prevention. The critical questions include: What is the true probability of developing TLE after FSE? Are there predictive markers for those at risk? A fundamental question is whether FSE is simply a marker of individuals who are destined to develop TLE, or if FSE contributes to the risk of developing TLE. If FSE does contribute to epileptogenesis, then does this happen only in the setting of a predisposed brain? These questions are addressed within this review, using information gleaned over the past two decades from clinical studies as well as animal models.
Related JoVE Video
Emergency management of febrile status epilepticus: results of the FEBSTAT study.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Treatment of seizures varies by region, with no standard emergency treatment protocol. Febrile status epilepticus (FSE) is often a child's first seizure; therefore, families are rarely educated about emergency treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Mood, anxiety, and incomplete seizure control affect quality of life after epilepsy surgery.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We examined the complex relationship between depression, anxiety, and seizure control and quality of life (QOL) outcomes after epilepsy surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment of infantile spasms with very high dose prednisolone before high dose adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigated the short-term response to a standardized hormonal therapy protocol for treatment of infantile spasms.
Related JoVE Video
Pretreatment cognitive deficits and treatment effects on attention in childhood absence epilepsy.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the neurocognitive deficits associated with newly diagnosed untreated childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), develop a model describing the factorial structure of items measuring academic achievement and 3 neuropsychological constructs, and determine short-term differential neuropsychological effects on attention among ethosuximide, valproic acid, and lamotrigine.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of anxiety on memory performance in temporal lobe epilepsy.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examined the degree to which anxiety contributed to inconsistent material-specific memory difficulties among 243 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy from the Multisite Epilepsy Study. Visual memory performance on the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) was poorer for those with high versus low levels of anxiety but was not found to be related to the TLE side. The verbal memory score on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was significantly lower for patients with left-sided TLE than for patients with right-sided TLE with low anxiety levels but equally impaired for those with high anxiety levels. These results suggest that we can place more confidence in the ability of verbal memory tests like the CVLT to lateralize to left-sided TLE for those with low anxiety levels, but that verbal memory will be less likely to produce lateralizing information for those with high anxiety levels. This suggests that more caution is needed when interpreting verbal memory tests for those with high anxiety levels. These results indicated that RCFT performance was significantly affected by anxiety and did not lateralize to either side, regardless of anxiety levels. This study adds to the existing literature which suggests that drawing-based visual memory tests do not lateralize among patients with TLE, regardless of anxiety levels.
Related JoVE Video
The established status epilepticus trial 2013.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Benzodiazepine-refractory status epilepticus (established status epilepticus, ESE) is a relatively common emergency condition with several widely used treatments. There are no controlled, randomized, blinded clinical trials to compare the efficacy and tolerability of currently available treatments for ESE. The ESE treatment trial is designed to determine the most effective and/or the least effective treatment of ESE among patients older than 2 years by comparing three arms: fosphenytoin (fPHT) levetiracetam (LVT), and valproic acid (VPA). This is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, Bayesian adaptive, phase III comparative effectiveness trial. Up to 795 patients will be randomized initially 1:1:1, and response-adaptive randomization will occur after 300 patients have been recruited. Randomization will be stratified by three age groups, 2-18, 19-65, and 66 and older. The primary outcome measure is cessation of clinical seizure activity and improving mental status, without serious adverse effects or further intervention at 60 min after administration of study drug. Each subject will be followed until discharge or 30 days from enrollment. This trial will include interim analyses for early success and futility. This trial will be considered a success if the probability that a treatment is the most effective is >0.975 or the probability that a treatment is the least effective is >0.975 for any treatment. Proposed total sample size is 795, which provides 90% power to identify the most effective and/or the least effective treatment when one treatment arm has a true response rate of 65% and the true response rate is 50% in the other two arms.
Related JoVE Video
The epilepsy phenome/genome project.
Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that affects approximately 50 million people worldwide. Both risk of epilepsy and response to treatment partly depend on genetic factors, and gene identification is a promising approach to target new prediction, treatment, and prevention strategies. However, despite significant progress in the identification of genes causing epilepsy in families with a Mendelian inheritance pattern, there is relatively little known about the genetic factors responsible for common forms of epilepsy and so-called epileptic encephalopathies. Study design The Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project (EPGP) is a multi-institutional, retrospective phenotype-genotype study designed to gather and analyze detailed phenotypic information and DNA samples on 5250 participants, including probands with specific forms of epilepsy and, in a subset, parents of probands who do not have epilepsy.
Related JoVE Video
Pretreatment EEG in childhood absence epilepsy: associations with attention and treatment outcome.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), determine pretreatment EEG features and their associations with baseline neuropsychological function and short-term treatment outcome.
Related JoVE Video
SUDEP and other causes of mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are few prospective studies on the causes of mortality in well-characterized cohorts with epilepsy and even fewer that have autopsy data that allow for reliable determination of SUDEP. We report causes of mortality and mortality rates in the Finnish cohort with childhood-onset epilepsy.
Related JoVE Video
Prolonged febrile seizures, clinical characteristics, and acute management.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prolonged febrile seizures (PFS) lasting ?15 min have been associated with increased risk for epilepsy in later life. Initial treatment, mostly prehospital, aims to prevent its evolution to febrile status epilepticus (FSE) and reduce adverse outcome. Paucity of information is available on the immediate treatment before reaching a hospital facility.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for febrile status epilepticus: a case-control study.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify risk factors for developing a first febrile status epilepticus (FSE) among children with a first febrile seizure (FS).
Related JoVE Video
Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Children With Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Associations With Ethnicity, Child Comorbid Symptoms, and Parental Stress.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of complementary and alternative medicine by children with autism and the association of its use with child comorbid symptoms and parental stress was studied in an ethnically diverse population, in a cross-sectional study with structured interviews. The sample included 50 families of children with autism and 50 families of children with other developmental disabilities, matched by age/gender. Interview included the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire, Gastrointestinal Questionnaire, Childrens Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. In this ethnically diverse sample, the use of complementary and alternative medicine was significantly higher for the autism group. In the autism group, use was significantly related to childs irritability, hyperactivity, food allergies, and parental stress; in the developmental disabilities group, there was no association with child comorbid symptoms or parental stress. The results contribute information to health care providers about families of children with autism who are more likely to use complementary and alternative medicine.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment outcomes of West syndrome in infants with Down syndrome.
Pediatr. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
West syndrome constitutes the most frequent of all seizure types in infants with Down syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed records of 12 infants with Down syndrome and West syndrome, accounting for 5% of 239 infants with West syndrome from a comprehensive epilepsy database during a 17-year period. All demonstrated classic hypsarrhythmia on video electroencephalograms. One had clinically responded to clonazepam, and one was not treated because the parents refused any treatment. Seven of 10 infants demonstrated a complete response to high-dose natural adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Four (57%) of these seven infants relapsed. Relapses occurred as long as 2 years after cessation of the initial presentation of infantile spasms. At most recent follow-up (median age, 5 years), 8/12 (67%) were seizure-free, and seven were off any medications. Two of three nonresponders manifested intractable epilepsy and profound mental retardation. Developmentally, 6/8 who could be assessed met criteria for autistic spectrum disorder. Close follow-up is necessary even after successful initial treatment, because relapses are frequent and can occur as long as 2 years later.
Related JoVE Video
Nonconvulsive status epilepticus.
Emerg. Med. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) refers to a prolonged seizure that manifests primarily as altered mental status as opposed to the dramatic convulsions seen in generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus. There are 2 main types of NCSE, each of which has a different presentation, cause, and expected outcome. In the first type of NCSE, patients present with confusion or abnormal behavior, suggesting the diagnosis of absence status epilepticus (ASE) or complex partial status epilepticus (CPSE). The second type of NCSE (subtle status epilepticus [SSE]) must be considered in comatose patients who present after a prolonged generalized tonic-clonic seizure and who may have only subtle motor manifestations of a seizure, such as facial or hand twitchings. Whereas the morbidity and mortality in patients with prolonged ASE or CPSE is low, the mortality associated with SSE can exceed 30% if the seizure duration is greater than 60 minutes.
Related JoVE Video
Prospects for imaging-related biomarkers of human epileptogenesis: a critical review.
Biomark Med
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To facilitate the study of epileptogenesis in humans, noninvasive biomarkers of epileptogenesis are required. No validated biomarker is currently available, but brain imaging techniques provide many attractive candidates. In this article we examine the imaging features of temporal lobe epilepsy, focusing on those that may precede the onset of epilepsy and correlate with epileptogenesis. Hippocampal volumetry and T(2) relaxometry are proposed as candidate biomarkers of epileptogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy following febrile status epilepticus. Preliminary data suggest that these have promise, and the ongoing Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood (FEBSTAT) study will provide more conclusive evidence as to their validity. At this time there are no other clear candidates for imaging-related biomarkers of epileptogenesis in human studies.
Related JoVE Video
Neurocognitive functioning of children and adolescents with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few data exist on the neurocognitive functioning of children with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). The primary objectives of this paper are (1) to determine the neurocognitive status in this population and (2) to identify sociodemographic and health-status variables associated with neurocognitive functioning.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment of infantile spasms: emerging insights from clinical and basic science perspectives.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infantile spasms is an epileptic encephalopathy of early infancy with specific clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) features, limited treatment options, and a poor prognosis. Efforts to develop improved treatment options have been hindered by the lack of experimental models in which to test prospective therapies. The neuropeptide adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is effective in many cases of infantile spasms, although its mechanism(s) of action is unknown. This review describes the emerging candidate mechanisms that can underlie the therapeutic effects of ACTH in infantile spasms. These mechanisms can ultimately help to improve understanding and treatment of the disease. An overview of current treatments of infantile spasms, novel conceptual and experimental approaches to infantile spasms treatment, and a perspective on remaining clinical challenges and current research questions are presented here. This summary derives from a meeting of specialists in infantile spasms clinical care and research held in New York City on June 14, 2010.
Related JoVE Video
Suicide outcomes after resective epilepsy surgery.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
People with epilepsy have a higher risk for suicide than people without epilepsy. The relationship between seizure control and suicide is controversial. A standardized protocol to record history, diagnostic testing, and neuropsychiatric assessments was administered. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were administered presurgically and yearly for up to 5 years. Among the 396 enrolled, 4 of 27 deaths were attributed to suicide. The standardized mortality ratio, compared with suicides in the U.S. population and adjusted for age and gender, was 13.3 (95% CI=3.6-34.0). Only one patient had a BDI score suggestive of severe depression (BDI=33), one had depressive symptoms that did not the meet the depressive range (BDI=7), and the other two reported no depressive symptoms. Two of the patients reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms (BAI=17 and 21, respectively). Suicide may occur after epilepsy surgery, even when patients report excellent seizure control.
Related JoVE Video
Distribution of febrile seizure duration and associations with development.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In prior studies of febrile seizures (FSs), prolonged FSs were defined, absent empirical evidence, as lasting 10 or 15 minutes or more. We assessed the distribution of FS duration in a cohort with first FSs, and the association between FS duration and baseline characteristics of the children.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are few studies on long-term mortality in prospectively followed, well-characterized cohorts of children with epilepsy. We report on long-term mortality in a Finnish cohort of subjects with a diagnosis of epilepsy in childhood.
Related JoVE Video
Cognitive outcomes in children who present with a first unprovoked seizure.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the long-term cognitive and educational outcomes in children prospectively identified at the time of a first unprovoked seizure.
Related JoVE Video
Infantile spasms: a U.S. consensus report.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The diagnosis, evaluation, and management of infantile spasms (IS) continue to pose significant challenges to the treating physician. Although an evidence-based practice guideline with full literature review was published in 2004, diversity in IS evaluation and treatment remains and highlights the need for further consensus to optimize outcomes in IS. For this purpose, a working group committed to the diagnosis, treatment, and establishment of a continuum of care for patients with IS and their families—the Infantile Spasms Working Group (ISWG)—was convened. The ISWG participated in a workshop for which the key objectives were to review the state of our understanding of IS, assess the scientific evidence regarding efficacy of currently available therapeutic options, and arrive at a consensus on protocols for diagnostic workup and management of IS that can serve as a guide to help specialists and general pediatricians optimally manage infants with IS. The overall goal of the workshop was to improve IS outcomes by assisting treating physicians with early recognition and diagnosis of IS, initiation of short duration therapy with a first-line treatment, timely electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation of treatment to evaluate effectiveness, and, if indicated, prompt treatment modification. Differences of opinion among ISWG members occurred in areas where data were lacking; however, this article represents a consensus of the U.S. approach to the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of IS.
Related JoVE Video
Ethosuximide, valproic acid, and lamotrigine in childhood absence epilepsy.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Childhood absence epilepsy, the most common pediatric epilepsy syndrome, is usually treated with ethosuximide, valproic acid, or lamotrigine. The most efficacious and tolerable initial empirical treatment has not been defined.
Related JoVE Video
Health-related quality of life of children with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with healthy children; to evaluate the association between CKD severity and HRQoL; and to identity demographic, socioeconomic, and health-status variables that are associated with impairment in HRQoL in children with mild to moderate CKD.
Related JoVE Video
Pediatric convulsive status epilepticus in Honduras, Central America.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Convulsive status epilepticus (SE) in children is an important public health problem, particularly in low-resource countries. A surveillance study was performed with consecutive enrollment of all children presenting with convulsive SE to Hospital Escuela Materno-Infantil Emergency Department in Tegucigalpa, Honduras over a 13-week period in 2003. In the 47 children with SE, the mean age was 4.5 years and the median seizure duration was 95 min. Mortality and morbidity were higher in children from rural locations, with all six deaths and three cases of new neurologic abnormalities occurring in rural children who had acute symptomatic SE. We conclude that childhood SE is common in the low-resource developing country of Honduras. Given the long delays in obtaining initial treatment in pediatric emergency facilities, availability of prehospital treatment may be of particular importance in this setting.
Related JoVE Video
The use of antiepileptic drugs in pediatric brain tumor patients.
Pediatr. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antiepileptic drugs are frequently used in children with brain tumors. This retrospective study reviewed chronic use of antiepileptic drugs in children with brain tumors at two childrens hospitals between 2000 and 2007. Antiepileptic drugs were used in 32/334 pediatric brain tumor patients (10%). Almost all (94%) had supratentorial tumors, of which 78% were glial tumors. The most common localization was temporal (70%). The most frequently used initial antiepileptic drugs were phenytoin (n = 14) and oxcarbazepine (n = 7). Initial antiepileptic drugs were frequently changed, because of lack of efficacy and adverse effects, as well as concerns about possible drug interactions. At last follow-up, the most common antiepileptic drugs were oxcarbazepine (n = 11) and levetiracetam (n = 10). Levetiracetam was more likely to be used in children who received chemotherapy or radiation therapy (8/14, or 57%) than in those who did not receive adjuvant therapies (3/18, or 17%) (P = 0.03). The patients started on newer-generation antiepileptic drugs (levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine) tended to remain on the same antiepileptic drugs more than did patients on older-generation antiepileptic drugs (valproic acid, phenytoin, phenobarbital) (73% vs 28%) (P = 0.04). Newer antiepileptic drugs, especially those without significant drug-drug interactions, may be a more appropriate first choice in children with brain tumors and seizures.
Related JoVE Video
Open-label, long-term safety study of zonisamide administered to children and adolescents with epilepsy.
Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Zonisamide is licensed in the EU and USA for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults but there are few data about its use in children.
Related JoVE Video
Ethosuximide, valproic acid, and lamotrigine in childhood absence epilepsy: initial monotherapy outcomes at 12 months.
Epilepsia
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Determine the optimal initial monotherapy for children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) based on 12 months of double-blind therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Acute EEG findings in children with febrile status epilepticus: results of the FEBSTAT study.
Neurology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The FEBSTAT (Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures) study is prospectively addressing the relationships among serial EEG, MRI, and clinical follow-up in a cohort of children followed from the time of presentation with febrile status epilepticus (FSE).
Related JoVE Video
Cerebrospinal fluid findings in children with fever-associated status epilepticus: results of the consequences of prolonged febrile seizures (FEBSTAT) study.
J. Pediatr.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This prospective multicenter study of 200 patients with fever-associated status epilepticus (FSE), of whom 136 underwent a nontraumatic lumbar puncture, confirms that FSE rarely causes cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis. CSF glucose and protein levels were unremarkable. Temperature, age, seizure focality, and seizure duration did not affect results. CSF pleocytosis should not be attributed to FSE.
Related JoVE Video
Human herpesvirus 6 and 7 in febrile status epilepticus: the FEBSTAT study.
Epilepsia
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In a prospective study, Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood (FEBSTAT), we determined the frequency of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and HHV-7 infection as a cause of febrile status epilepticus (FSE).
Related JoVE Video
Corticosteroids for the treatment of infantile spasms: a systematic review.
J. Child Neurol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosteroids are the usual first-line treatment options for infantile spasms. Despite significant differences, these agents are often lumped together in this context. There is a need to systematically explore the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of infantile spasms, especially in comparison to ACTH. This review identified and analyzed corticosteroid clinical trials and summarized their short-term efficacy and tolerability. Primary outcome was cessation of spasms and abolition of hypsarrhythmia on prolonged video electroencephalographic monitoring. Eight corticosteroid clinical trials were found with only 2 fulfilling the criteria for adequate design. The weighted-mean efficacy of corticosteroids to achieve primary outcome was 31% for these 2 methodologically adequate studies. Including reanalyzed data from 3 other studies, the corticosteroid efficacy was found to be 42%. On the basis of the available evidence, the efficacy of high-dose corticosteroids is similar to low-dose ACTH and inferior to high-dose ACTH, the current standard treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Language differences between monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish young children with autism spectrum disorders.
J. Child Neurol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bilingualism is common worldwide and increasingly prevalent, but there is little information about bilingual children with autism spectrum disorder. The goal of the study was to compare expressive and receptive language skills in monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder. A review of the multidisciplinary evaluations done in toddlers who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder at a university-affiliated center between 2003 and 2010 was performed. Data included demographics, developmental testing, autistic characteristics, and expressive and receptive language skills, obtained from formal speech and language evaluation. A total of 80 toddlers were identified, 40 classified as bilingual English-Spanish. Compared with monolinguals, bilingual children were more likely to vocalize and utilize gestures, with no other differences in language skills. There were no differences in cognitive functioning and autistic features between the groups. In this study, bilingualism did not negatively affect language development in young children with autism spectrum disorder.
Related JoVE Video
MRI abnormalities following febrile status epilepticus in children: the FEBSTAT study.
Neurology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The FEBSTAT study is a prospective study that seeks to determine the acute and long-term consequences of febrile status epilepticus (FSE) in childhood.
Related JoVE Video
Design and phenomenology of the FEBSTAT study.
Epilepsia
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Febrile status epilepticus (FSE) has been associated with hippocampal injury and subsequent hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and temporal lobe epilepsy. The FEBSTAT study was designed to prospectively examine the association between prolonged febrile seizures and development of HS and associated temporal lobe epilepsy, one of the most controversial issues in epilepsy. We report on the baseline phenomenology of the final cohorts as well as detailed aims and methodology.
Related JoVE Video
Abnormalities of joint mobility and gait in children with autism spectrum disorders.
Brain Dev.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aims: Abnormalities of gross motor function in children with autism are well known to clinicians but have not received much empirical documentation and, with the exception of stereotypies, are not among its diagnostic criteria. We recorded the characteristics of gait and prevalence of toe walking, the range of passive joint mobility, and age at walking in children with DSM IV autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and in age- and gender-matched typically developing peers (mean age 4years 6months, range 22months-10years 9months). Methods: We evaluated maximum range of mobility at the elbow, wrist, metacarpo-phalangeal, and ankle joints and videoed children walking and running. Two neurologists blind to diagnosis independently scored features of gait clinically. Results: Children with ASDs had significantly greater joint mobility (p<.002), more gait abnormalities (p<.0001), and on average walked 1.6months later than their non-autistic peers. Interpretation: This study indicates that attention should be directed to motor abnormalities as well as sociability, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors in individuals with ASDs. Motor deficits add to childrens other handicaps. They indicate that ASDs affect a broader range of central nervous system circuitry than often appreciated.
Related JoVE Video
Hippocampal Sclerosis After Febrile Status Epilepticus: The FEBSTAT Study.
Ann. Neurol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective: Whether febrile status epilepticus (FSE) produces hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has long been debated. Our objective is to determine if FSE produces acute hippocampal injury that evolves to HS. Methods: FEBSTAT and two affiliated studies prospectively recruited 226 children aged 1 month to 6 years with FSE and controls with simple febrile seizures. All had acute MRIs and follow-up MRIs were obtained at approximately 1 year later in the majority. Visual interpretation by two neuroradiologists informed only of subject age was augmented by hippocampal volumetrics, analysis of the intra-hippocampal distribution of T2 signal, and apparent diffusion coefficients. Results: Hippocampal T2 hyperintensity, maximum in Sommers sector, occurred acutely after FSE in 22 of 226 children in association with increased volume. Follow-up MRIs obtained on 14 of the 22 with acute T2 hyperintensity showed HS in 10 and reduced hippocampal volume in 12. In contrast, follow-up of 116 children without acute hyperintensity showed abnormal T2 signal in only 1 (following another episode of FSE). Furthermore, compared to controls with simple febrile seizures, FSE subjects with normal acute MRIs had abnormally low right to left hippocampal volume ratios, smaller hippocampi initially and reduced hippocampal growth. Interpretation: Hippocampal T2 hyperintensity after FSE represents acute injury often evolving to a radiological appearance of HS after one year. Furthermore, impaired growth of normal appearing hippocampi after FSE suggests subtle injury even in the absence of T2 hyperintensity. Longer follow-up is needed to determine the relationship of these findings to TLE. ANN NEUROL 2013. © 2013 American Neurological Association.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.