JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Law enforcement duties and sudden cardiac death among police officers in United States: case distribution study.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the association between risk of sudden cardiac death and stressful law enforcement duties compared with routine/non-emergency duties.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R in combination with anti-angiogenesis therapy on a pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) and cell line mouse models.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R treatment following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy on VEGF-positive human pancreatic cancer. A pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) that was VEGF-positive and an orthotopic VEGF-positive human pancreatic cancer cell line (MiaPaCa-2-GFP) as well as a VEGF-negative cell line (Panc-1) were tested. Nude mice with these tumors were treated with gemcitabine (GEM), bevacizumab (BEV), and S. typhimurium A1-R. BEV/GEM followed by S. typhimurium A1-R significantly reduced tumor weight compared to BEV/GEM treatment alone in the PDOX and MiaPaCa-2 models. Neither treatment was as effective in the VEGF-negative model as in the VEGF-positive models. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium A1-R following anti-angiogenic therapy is effective on pancreatic cancer including the PDOX model, suggesting its clinical potential.
Related JoVE Video
Successful fluorescence-guided surgery on human colon cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft mouse models using a fluorophore-conjugated anti-CEA antibody and a portable imaging system.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) can enable successful cancer surgery where bright-light surgery often cannot. There are three important issues for FGS going forward toward the clinic: (a) proper tumor labeling, (b) a simple portable imaging system for the operating room, and (c) patient-like mouse models in which to develop the technology. The present report addresses all three.
Related JoVE Video
Fluorescence-guided surgery in combination with UVC irradiation cures metastatic human pancreatic cancer in orthotopic mouse models.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine if ultraviolet light (UVC) irradiation in combination with fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) can eradicate metastatic human pancreatic cancer in orthotopic nude-mouse models. Two weeks after orthotopic implantation of human MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), in nude mice, bright-light surgery (BLS) was performed on all tumor-bearing mice (n?=?24). After BLS, mice were randomized into 3 treatment groups; BLS-only (n?=?8) or FGS (n?=?8) or FGS-UVC (n?=?8). The residual tumors were resected using a hand-held portable imaging system under fluorescence navigation in mice treated with FGS and FGS-UVC. The surgical resection bed was irradiated with 2700 J/m2 UVC (254 nm) in the mice treated with FGS-UVC. The average residual tumor area after FGS (n?=?16) was significantly smaller than after BLS only (n?=?24) (0.135±0.137 mm2 and 3.338±2.929 mm2, respectively; p?=?0.007). The BLS treated mice had significantly reduced survival compared to FGS- and FGS-UVC-treated mice for both relapse-free survival (RFS) (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively) and overall survival (OS) (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). FGS-UVC-treated mice had increased RFS and OS compared to FGS-only treated mice (p?=?0.008 and p?=?0.025, respectively); with RFS lasting at least 150 days indicating the animals were cured. The results of the present study suggest that UVC irradiation in combination with FGS has clinical potential to increase survival.
Related JoVE Video
Continuous taurocholic acid exposure promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma progression due to reduced cell loss resulting from enhanced vascular development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Refluxogenic effects of smoking and alcohol abuse may be related to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The present study attempts to clarify the effects of continuous taurocholic acid (TCA) exposure, which is neither mutagenic nor genotoxic, on ESCC progression.
Related JoVE Video
Hand-held high-resolution fluorescence imaging system for fluorescence-guided surgery of patient and cell-line pancreatic tumors growing orthotopically in nude mice.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we investigated the advantages of fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) in mice of a portable hand-sized imaging system compared with a large fluorescence imaging system or a long-working-distance fluorescence microscope.
Related JoVE Video
Long-lasting single-neuron labeling by in vivo electroporation without microscopic guidance.
J. Neurosci. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to make a direct link between the morphological and functional study of the nervous system, we established an experimental protocol for labeling individual neurons persistently without microscopic guidance by injecting a plasmid encoding fluorescent protein electroporatively after recording their activity extracellularly. Using a glass pipette filled with electrolyte solution containing a plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), single-neuron recording and electroporation were performed on anesthetized rats. When performing the electroporation at the completion of recording, the degree of contact between the target neuron and the electrode tip was adjusted by monitoring the change of the trace of recorded action potentials and the increase of electrode resistance. The expression of GFP and its immunostaining with a polyclonal antibody enabled us to clearly see the basic structural components such as cell bodies, axons, dendrites, and even smaller components such as spines. Identification of the morphological subtypes of neurons was possible with every labeled neuron. The optimum condition for labeling was a 30% increase of the electrode resistance, and the labeling success rate evaluated 3 days after labeling was 40%. The rate evaluated one month after labeling was only slightly lower (33%). We also confirmed experimentally that this recording and labeling procedure can be similarly successful in head-fixed behaving rats. This new experimental protocol will be a breakthrough in systems neuroscience because it makes a direct link between the morphology and behavior-related activity of single neurons.
Related JoVE Video
Intact structure of EGAM1 homeoproteins and basic amino acid residues in the common homeodomain of EGAM1 and EGAM1C contribute to their nuclear localization in mouse embryonic stem cells.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recently, we identified the structurally related homeoproteins EGAM1, EGAM1N, and EGAM1C in both preimplantation mouse embryos and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These EGAM1 homeoproteins act as positive or negative regulators of differentiation and cell growth in mouse ES cells, such that these proteins are considered transcriptional regulators. In this study, we investigated their nuclear localization and identified the amino acid residues crucial for the nuclear translocation of EGAM1 and EGAM1C. When expressed exogenously in pluripotent ES cells and somatic NIH3T3 cells, all EGAM1 homeoproteins localized to the nucleus. Analysis using the web-based tool PSORTII predicted a potential nuclear localization signal (NLS) motif, RKDLIRSWFITQRHR, in the homeodomain shared by EGAM1 and EGAM1C. The introduction of mutations, such as mutations from K or R, both basic amino acid residues, to A, in this potential NLS resulted in significant impairment of the nuclear localization of both EGAM1 and EGAM1C. In contrast, GFP fusion proteins of all the full-length EGAM1 homeoproteins failed to localize to the nucleus. These results, when taken together, suggest that basic amino acid residues in the common homeodomain of EGAM1 and EGAM1C and the intact structures of the EGAM1 homeoproteins contribute, at least in part, to the nuclear localization of these proteins in mouse ES cells.
Related JoVE Video
Production of bioactive bovine fibroblast growth factor 4 in E. coli based on the common nucleotide sequence of its structural gene in three breeds.
Anim. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) is considered a crucial gene in the proper development of bovine embryos. We recently determined the FGF4 gene sequence in eight cattle derived from three breeds and revealed a common nucleotide sequence of the structural gene encoding FGF4, which leads to the deletion and mutation of amino acid sequences in the mature FGF4 (Pro(32) -Leu(206) ) compared with the sequence previously reported. In the present study, HisbFGF4, a 6× histidine-tagged bovine FGF4 (Pro(32) -Leu(206) ), was produced in Escherichia coli based on the validated nucleotide sequence and purified by heparin column chromatography. In primary bovine fibroblasts, HisbFGF4 showed significant mitogenic activity, whereas, intriguingly, the activity of a commercially available recombinant human FGF4 (Gly(25) -Leu(206) ) produced in E. coli was weaker than that of HisbFGF4. In conclusion, the present study provides a simple method for the production of a bioactive bovine FGF4 derivative in E. coli utilizing its structural gene elucidated by us.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanisms underlying cancer progression caused by ezrin overexpression in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ezrin is a member of the ezrin, radixin, and moesin family that provides a functional link between the plasma membrane and the cortical actin cytoskeleton. A correlation between ezrin overexpression and aggressive cancer behavior has been recently reported in various tumor types. However, its roles in the mechanisms underlying progression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Common amino acid sequences deduced from coding exons of the porcine FGF4 gene in two breeds and production of the encoded protein in Escherichia coli.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) is considered a crucial gene in the development of mammalian embryos. Here we identified common amino acid sequences predicted from coding exons of the FGF4 gene in five pigs of two breeds, and HispFGF4, a 6× histidine-tagged porcine FGF4, was produced in Escherichia coli. HispFGF4 was purified efficiently from the supernatant of cell lysate by heparin column chromatography. In a porcine embryonic fibroblast cell line, HispFGF4 showed significant mitogenic activities at concentrations as low as 0.001 nM (p<0.01). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the complete nucleotide sequence of coding exons for the porcine FGF4 protein in two breeds, together with the production of a recombinant, bioactive porcine FGF4 derivative.
Related JoVE Video
Rabies virus vector transgene expression level and cytotoxicity improvement induced by deletion of glycoprotein gene.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus (RV) is required for binding to neuronal receptors and for viral entry. G-deleted RV vector is a powerful tool for investigating the organization and function of the neural circuits. It gives the investigator the ability to genetically target initial infection to particular neurons and to control trans-synaptic propagation. In this study we have quantitatively evaluated the effect of G gene deletion on the cytotoxicity and transgene expression level of the RV vector. We compared the characteristics of the propagation-competent RV vector (rHEP5.0-CVSG-mRFP) and the G-deleted RV vector (rHEP5.0-?G-mRFP), both of which are based on the attenuated HEP-Flury strain and express monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) as a transgene. rHEP5.0-?G-mRFP showed lower cytotoxicity than rHEP5.0-CVSG-mRFP, and within 16 days of infection we found no change in the basic electrophysiological properties of neurons infected with the rHEP5.0-?G-mRFP. The mRFP expression level of rHEP5.0-?G-mRFP was much higher than that of rHEP5.0-CVSG-mRFP, and 3 days after infection the retrogradely infected neurons were clearly visualized by the expressed fluorescent protein without any staining. This may be due to the low cytotoxicity and/or the presumed change in the polymerase gene (L) expression level of the G-deleted RV vector. Although the mechanisms remains to be clarified, the results of this study indicate that deletion of the G gene greatly improves the usability of the RV vector for studying the organization and function of the neural circuits by decreasing the cytotoxicity and increasing the transgene expression level.
Related JoVE Video
Organization of multisynaptic inputs to the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus: retrograde trans-synaptic tracing with rabies virus vector in the rat.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Behavioral, anatomical, and gene expression studies have shown functional dissociations between the dorsal and ventral hippocampus with regard to their involvement in spatial cognition, emotion, and stress. In this study we examined the difference of the multisynaptic inputs to the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus (DG) in the rat by using retrograde trans-synaptic tracing of recombinant rabies virus vectors. Three days after the vectors were injected into the dorsal or ventral DG, monosynaptic neuronal labeling was present in the entorhinal cortex, medial septum, diagonal band, and supramammillary nucleus, each of which is known to project to the DG directly. As in previous tracing studies, topographical patterns related to the dorsal and ventral DG were seen in these regions. Five days after infection, more of the neurons in these regions were labeled and labeled neurons were also seen in cortical and subcortical regions, including the piriform and medial prefrontal cortices, the endopiriform nucleus, the claustrum, the cortical amygdala, the medial raphe nucleus, the medial habenular nucleus, the interpeduncular nucleus, and the lateral septum. As in the monosynaptically labeled regions, a topographical distribution of labeled neurons was evident in most of these disynaptically labeled regions. These data indicate that the cortical and subcortical inputs to the dorsal and ventral DG are conveyed through parallel disynaptic pathways. This second-order input difference in the dorsal and ventral DG is likely to contribute to the functional differentiation of the hippocampus along the dorsoventral axis.
Related JoVE Video
Differential roles of internal and terminal double bonds in docosahexaenoic acid: Comparative study of cytotoxicity of polyunsaturated fatty acids to HT-29 human colorectal tumor cell line.
Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The role of the double bonds in docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(?4,7,10,13,16,19); DHA) in cytotoxic lipid peroxidation was studied in a superoxide dismutase-defective human colorectal tumor cell line, HT-29. In a conventional culture, DHA and other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to induce acute lipid peroxidation and subsequent cell death. PUFAs that lack one or both the terminal double bonds (?19 and ?4) but share ?7,10,13,16 such as 22:5(?7,10,13,16,19), 22:5(?4,7,10,13,16), and 22:4(?7,10,13,16) were more effective than DHA. Lipid peroxidation and cell death were completely inhibited, except by 22:4(?7,10,13,16) when radical-mediated reactions were suppressed by culturing cells in 2% O(2) in the presence of vitamin E. DHA and C22:5 PUFAs but not 22:4(?7,10,13,16) were efficiently incorporated in phosphatidylinositol, regardless of the culturing conditions. These and other results suggested that the internal unsaturations ?7,10,13,16 were sensitive to lipid peroxidation, whereas the terminal ones ?19 and ?4 appeared to be involved in assimilation into phospholipids.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of constitutive Akt (PKB) phosphorylation by docosahexaenoic acid in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-453.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many breast cancer cells express aberrantly activated receptor tyrosine kinases and are associated with deregulated phosphorylation of Akt (PKB). They are also often associated with a high level of free monounsaturated (MUFA) and saturated (SFA) fatty acids. We studied the effect of DHA and other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on these anomalies in a human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-453. Inhibitors of the Akt T308 kinase (PDK1) or S473 kinase (mTORC2, DNA-dependent protein kinase and integrin-linked kinase) and combinations of two of them incompletely inhibited, or even enhanced, the phosphorylation in this cell line. In contrast, it was found that DHA as well as other PUFAs inhibited Akt phosphorylation on T308 after 24h. These PUFAs also blocked phosphorylation of S473, although certain omega-6 PUFAs were ineffective. After 48h, only DHA inhibited Akt phosphorylation on the both residues. DHA, and other PUFAs though less efficiently, also elevated the expression of a mitochondrial enzyme, 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase, which catalyzes process necessary for ?-oxidation of PUFAs. These PUFAs were present in the cells at high concentrations and reduced the amount of free and phospholipid-bound MUFAs. DHA most efficiently blocked deregulated cell proliferation while the effects of other PUFAs were moderate. These results suggest that DHA suppressed the growth of the cancer cell through its specifically persistent block of Akt phosphorylation in conjunction with modulation of fatty acid metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Severe inhibition of in vitro cardiomyogenesis in mouse embryonic stem cells ectopically expressing EGAM1C homeoprotein.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Embryoid bodies were prepared from mouse embryonic stem cells expressing exogenous EGAM1C to analyze their ability to differentiate toward terminally differentiated cell types. The generation of cardiomyocytes was severely suppressed in Egam1c transfectants without upregulation of Nkx2-5, a crucial gene for cardiomyogenesis. These results indicate that EGAM1C is capable of affecting terminal differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells.
Related JoVE Video
Occurrence of a bacterial membrane microdomain at the cell division site enriched in phospholipids with polyunsaturated hydrocarbon chains.
J. Biol. Chem.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we found that phospholipids containing an eicosapentaenyl group form a novel membrane microdomain at the cell division site of a Gram-negative bacterium, Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10, using chemically synthesized fluorescent probes. The occurrence of membrane microdomains in eukaryotes and prokaryotes has been demonstrated with various imaging tools for phospholipids with different polar headgroups. However, few studies have focused on the hydrocarbon chain-dependent localization of membrane-resident phospholipids in vivo. We previously found that lack of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid found at the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids, causes a defect in cell division after DNA replication of S. livingstonensis Ac10. Here, we synthesized phospholipid probes labeled with a fluorescent 7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl (NBD) group to study the localization of EPA-containing phospholipids by fluorescence microscopy. A fluorescent probe in which EPA was bound to the glycerol backbone via an ester bond was found to be unsuitable for imaging because EPA was released from the probe by in vivo hydrolysis. To overcome this problem, we synthesized hydrolysis-resistant ether-type phospholipid probes. Using these probes, we found that the fluorescence localized between two nucleoids at the cell center during cell division when the cells were grown in the presence of the eicosapentaenyl group-containing probe (N-NBD-1-oleoyl-2-eicosapentaenyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine), whereas this localization was not observed with the oleyl group-containing control probe (N-NBD-1-oleoyl-2-oleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine). Thus, phospholipids containing an eicosapentaenyl group are specifically enriched at the cell division site. Formation of a membrane microdomain enriched in EPA-containing phospholipids at the nucleoid occlusion site probably facilitates cell division.
Related JoVE Video
Preferential emergence of cell types expressing markers for primitive endoderm lineages in mouse embryonic stem cells expressing exogenous EGAM1 homeoprotein.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have been considered as a valuable renewable source of materials in regenerative medicine. Recently, we identified the homeoprotein EGAM1 both in preimplantation mouse embryos and mouse ES cells. Expression of the Egam1 transcript and its encoded protein was detectable in differentiating mouse ES cells, while it was almost undetectable in undifferentiated cells. In the present study, in order to clarify the effect of forced expression of EGAM1 on the differentiation of mouse ES cells in vitro, transfectants expressing exogenous EGAM1 were generated. Egam1 transfectants promoted differentiation into cell types expressing Gata6, Gata4, Afp, or Plat, genes associated with emergence of the extra-embryonic endoderm lineages. On the other hand, Egam1 transfectants inhibited the expression of specific genes for the embryonic lineages, including Fgf5 (epiblast) and T (mesoderm), in addition to Cdx2, a specific gene for the extra-embryonic trophectoderm lineages. Changes in the percentage of cells recognizing by antibodies against specific marker proteins closely correlated with the expression patterns of their transcripts. Taken together, the results obtained in this study suggested that mouse ES cells expressing exogenous EGAM1 preferentially differentiate into extra-embryonic primitive endoderm lineages, rather than embryonic lineages or extra-embryonic trophectoderm lineages.
Related JoVE Video
Common nucleotide sequence of structural gene encoding fibroblast growth factor 4 in eight cattle derived from three breeds.
Anim. Sci. J.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) is considered as a crucial gene for the proper development of bovine embryos. However, the complete nucleotide sequences of the structural genes encoding FGF4 in identified breeds are still unknown. In the present study, direct sequencing of PCR products derived from genomic DNA samples obtained from three Japanese Black, two Japanese Shorthorn and three Holstein cattle, revealed that the nucleotide sequences of the structural gene encoding FGF4 matched completely among these eight cattle. On the other hand, differences in the nucleotide sequences, leading to substitutions, insertions or deletions of amino acid residues were detected when compared with the already reported sequence from unidentified breeds. We cannot rule out a possibility that the structural gene elucidated in the present study is widely distributed in cattle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of the structural gene encoding bovine FGF4 in identified breeds.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of ectopic expression of homeoprotein EGAM1C on the cell morphology, growth, and differentiation in a mouse embryonic stem cell line, MG1.19 cells.
Reproduction
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The homeoprotein EGAM1C was identified in preimplantation mouse embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells. To explore the impact of EGAM1C on the hallmarks of mouse ES cells, MG1.19 cells stably expressing EGAM1C at levels similar to those in blastocysts were established using an episomal expression system. In the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (+LIF), control transfectants with an empty vector formed flattened cell colonies, while Egam1c transfectants formed compacted colonies with increased E-CADHERIN expression. In Egam1c transfectants, the cellular contents of POU5F1 (OCT4), SOX2, TBX3, and NANOG increased. Cell growth was accelerated in an undifferentiated state sustained by LIF and in the course of differentiation. During clonal proliferation, EGAM1C stabilized the undifferentiated state. In adherent culture conditions, EGAM1C partly inhibited the progression of differentiation at least within a 4-day culture period in the presence of retinoic acid by preventing the downregulation of LIF signaling with a robust increase in TBX3 expression. Conversely, EGAM1C enhanced the expression of lineage marker genes Fgf5 (epiblast), T (mesoderm), Gata6 (primitive endoderm), and Cdx2 (trophectoderm) in -LIF conditions. In embryoid bodies expressing EGAM1C, the expression of marker genes for extraembryonic cell lineages, including Tpbpa (spongiotrophoblast) and Plat (parietal endoderm), increased. These results demonstrated that the ectopic expression of EGAM1C is capable of affecting the stabilization of an undifferentiated state and the progression of differentiation in MG1.19 ES cells, in addition to affecting cellular morphology and growth.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.