The hypothesis that maternal effects act as an adaptive bridge in translating maternal environments into offspring phenotypes, and thereby affecting population dynamics has not been studied in the well-controlled fields. In this study, the effects of maternal population density on offspring stress axis, reproduction and population dynamics were studied in root voles (Microtus oeconomus). Parental enclosures for breeding offspring were established by introducing six adults per sex into each of 4 (low density) and 30 adults per sex into each of another 4 (high density) enclosures. Live-trapping started 2 weeks after. Offspring captured at age of 10-20 days were removed to laboratory, housed under laboratory conditions until puberty, and subsequently used to establish offspring populations in these same enclosures, after parental populations had been removed. Offspring from each of the two parental sources were assigned into four enclosures with two for each of the two density treatments used in establishing parental populations (referred to as LL and LH for maternally unstressed offspring, assigned in low and highdensity, and HL and HH for maternally stressed offspring, assigned in low and high density). Faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) levels, offspring reproduction traits and population dynamics were tested following repeated live-trapping over two seasons. Differential fluctuations in population size were observed between maternally density-stressed and density-unstressed offspring. Populations in LL and LH groups changed significantly in responding to initial density and reached the similar levels at beginning of the second trapping season. Populations in HL and HH groups, however, were remained relatively steady, and in HL group, the low population size was sustained until end of experiment. Maternal density stress was associated with FCM elevations, reproduction suppression and body mass decrease at sexual maturity in offspring. The FCM elevations and reproduction suppression were independent of offspring population density and correlated with decreased offspring quality. These findings indicate that intrinsic state alterations induced by maternal stress impair offspring capacity in response to immediate environment, and these alterations are likely mediated by maternal stress system. The maladaptive reproduction suppression seen in HL group suggests intrinsic population density as one of ecological factors generating delayed density-dependent effects.
Dew forming on plant leaves through water condensation plays a significant ecological role in arid and semi-arid areas as an ignorable fraction of water resources. In this study, an artificial intelligent climate chamber and an automatic temperature-control system for leaves were implemented to regulate the ambient temperature, the leaf surface temperature and the leaf inclination for dew formation. The impact of leaf inclination, ambient temperature and dew point-leaf temperature depression on the rate and quantity of dew accumulation on leaf surface were analyzed. The results indicated that the accumulation rate and the maximum volume of dew on leaves decreased with increasing the leaf inclination while increased with the increment of dew point-leaf temperature depression, ambient temperature and relative humidity. Under the horizontal configuration, dew accumulated linearly on leaf surface over time until the maximum volume (0.80 mm) was reached. However, dew would fall down after reaching the maximum volume when the leaf inclination existed (45 degrees or 90 degrees), significantly slowing down the accumulative rate, and the zigzag pattern for the dynamic of dew accumulation appeared.
Vaccination is the primary strategy for the prevention and control of pandemic influenza. Because influenza virus is highly variable across strains, universal influenza vaccines need to be developed to address this problem. This review describes the research progress in conserved epitopes of influenza virus, the advances in the research and development of universal influenza vaccines based on the relatively conserved sequences of NP, M2e, HA2, and headless HA, the mechanisms of cross-protection, and the methods to improve cross-protection.
The anther-specific gene LLA1271 isolated from lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) anthers is novel and exists in two forms. The protein encoded by LLA1271 may represent an adhesin-like protein first found in higher plants. The protein contains a typical N-terminal signal peptide followed by a highly conserved repeat domain. The LLA1271 gene is temporally expressed at the phase of microspore development. RNA blot and RNA in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that the gene was expressed both in the tapetum and in the microspore. The gene is endo- and exogenously induced by gibberellin. Studies with the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor uniconazole and an inhibitor of ethylene activity, 2,5-norbornadien (NBD), revealed that LLA1271 is negatively regulated by ethylene, and a cross-talk of regulation between gibberellin and ethylene occurs in young anthers. The treatment with NBD caused the tapetum to become densely cytoplasmic and highly polarized, whereas uniconazole arrested tapetal development in a state close to that of a tapetum without treatment. The LLA1271 protein is heat stable and heterogeneous. An immunoblot of separated protein fractions of the anther revealed that the LLA1271 protein was detected in protein fraction of the microspore released from the cell wall by treatment with either 0.5% or 2% Triton X-100. Ectopic expression of LLA1271 resulted in impaired stamen and low pollen germination. Scanning electron microscopy of TAP::LLA1271 pollen showed distorted exine formation and patterning. The LLA1271 protein once synthesized in both the tapetum and microspore is secreted and deposited on the surface of microspores, moderately affecting exine formation and patterning.
Thirty-eight faecal samples from the Plateau zokor, Myospalax baileyi Thomas, collected in the Haibei Area, Qinghai Province, China, were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Seventeen of 38 faecal samples (44.7%) were found to contain coccidian oöcysts representing four new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875, and four of 17 (23.5%) infected zokors were concurrently infected with two or three of these eimerian species. The sporulated oöcysts of Eimeria myospalacensis n. sp. are ovoidal, 9.5-17.0 × 8.0-13.0 (mean 13.0 × 10.4) ?m; a polar granule is present, oöcyst residuum is absent; sporocysts are ovoidal, 4.5-7.5 × 3.0-5.0 (mean 6.3 × 4.2) ?m and have both a Stieda body and residuum. Oöcysts of Eimeria fani n. sp. are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal, 12.5-16.0 × 8.0-11.0 (mean 14.6 × 9.9) ?m; a polar granule is present, but micropyle and residuum are lacking; sporocysts are ovoidal, 4.5-7.5 × 3.0-5.3 (mean 6.7 × 4.4) ?m; a residuum and a Steida body are present. Oöcysts of Eimeria baileyii n. sp. are ellipsoidal, 15.0-23.0 × 12.0-18.0 (mean 18.2 × 13.7) ?m; a polar granule is present but oöcyst residuum is absent; sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.0-11.0 × 5.0-7.0 (mean 9.5 × 5.9) ?m and have both a Stieda body and residuum. Oöcysts of Eimeria menyuanensis n. sp. are ovoidal, 12.5-21.0 × 11.0-18.0 (mean 17.1 × 14.6) ?m, with a distinct micropyle c.2.5 ?m wide; a polar granule is present but a residuum is absent; sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.0-12.0 × 5.0-7.0 (mean 10.2 × 6.4) ?m, and have both a Stieda body and residuum.
Spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an uncommon histiologic variant of RMS that has spindle cell morphology. This tumor occurs almost exclusively in childhood and more rarely in adults. Only a few adult cases, including two retroperitoneal cases in male patients, have been documented previously. We describe a rare case of spindle cell RMS of the retroperitoneum in a 37-year-old woman developed during pregnancy and incidentally discovered after vaginal delivery. Computed tomography showed a huge tumor mass, measured 20 × 20 × 15 cm in size, arising in retroperitoneal space. Histologically, the tumor consisted of spindle cells arranged in a fascicular or herringbone growth pattern, morphologically mimicking adult fibrosarcoma, intermingled with scattered rhabdomyoblasts. Mitotic activity ranged from 20 to 28 mitoses per 10 high-power fields and tumor necrosis was evident. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were stained diffusely positive for muscle specific actin, desmin, and vimentin, scattered positive for myogenin, MyoD1 and myoglobin, with a Ki-67 (MIB-1) proliferative labeling index of 46.11%. This tumor also stains positively for CD99, strong cytoplasmic WT1, and nuclear p53. Other markers such as S100 protein, smooth muscle specific actin, CD34, cytokeratin, and epithelial membrane antigen were all negative in the tumor cells. On the basis of the findings, a spindle cell RMS was diagnosed. The neoplasm was incompletely excised because of encasement of major vessels and invasion to adjacent structures, and additional chemotherapy was given.
Sarcomatoid variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is one of the rarest histologic variants of ALCL that consists of large, bizarre, often spindle-shaped, neoplastic cells resembling a soft tissue sarcoma. We report here such a case of ALCL with both pulmonary and multiple nodal involvement in a 47-year-old woman who initially presented with fever, cough, sputum, itching skin, and weight loss. The initial transbronchial lung biopsy showed discohesive pleomorphic malignant cells in a strong inflammatory milieu reminiscent of inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). Subsequent cervical lymph node biopsy revealed a spindle cell sarcoma predominantly composed of plump spindle and oval neoplastic cells in interweaving fascicles, with sparse inflammatory infiltrates, resembling pleomorphic-storiform type of MFH. However, these tumor cells in the lung and node lesions revealed essentially similar immunohistochemical features that were positive for CD30, EMA, TIA-1, granzyme B, and fascin, but negative for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and T- or B-lineage-specific marker. The spindled cells stains diffuse strong positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA), along with vimentin. Further studies showed that the tumor produced large quantities of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, and IL-8, which we believe may contribute to the pathogenesis of sarcomatoid transformation of this tumor, and was associated with the patient's inflammatory symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of sarcomatoid variant of ALK-negative ALCL with null cell phenotype and in situ production of proinflammatory cytokines presenting as multiple nodes and pulmonary involvement.
Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a rare malignant dysontogenetic neoplasm primarily affecting younger children, even in newborns with an unfavorable outcome. PPB is histologically composed of a primitive, variably mixed blastematous and sarcomatous components, and exclusively subclassified as type I (purely cystic), type II (both cystic and solid elements) and type III (completely solid) by increasing histological evidence of malignancy. At present, well-documented cases or cases of truly precise presentation of either pathological or immunohistochemical findings in PPB are rare. The authors report one case of PPB in a 44-month-old child presenting as a solid and cystic mass with special emphasis on its radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects. The histological diagnosis was PPB, which would belong to the type II category.
Diabetes mellitus is associated with many kinds of complications. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions have critical roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic gastroparesis. Curcumin is known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effect of curcumin on diabetic gastric motility in a Sprague Dawley rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle for the effective treatment of cancers. The mechanism of chemo-resistance is still poorly understood, however, mounting evidence supports a role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in modulating key cellular pathways mediating response to chemotherapy. microRNA-21 (miR-21) has been implicated in many cancers and contributed to chemo-resistance, but its role in gastric cancer drug resistance still remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether miR-21 mediated resistance of the gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 to the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin (DDP). Our study found that the expression of miR-21 upregulated in the cisplatin resistant cell line SGC7901/DDP compared to its parental line SGC7901. Moreover, over-expression of miR-21 significantly decreased antiproliferative effects and apoptosis induced by cisplatin, while knockdown of miR-21 dramatically increased antiproliferative effects and apoptosis induction by cisplatin. In addition, miR-21 induced cell survival and cisplatin resistance through downregulating the expression of phosphatase and tension homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and activation of Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt using PI3K inhibitor LY 294002 could abrogate miR-21 induced cell survival. These results suggest that miR-21 may provide a novel mechanism for understanding cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer by modulating PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway.
Development of antibiotic resistance may alter the virulence properties of bacterial organisms. In this study, nine clinical ceftriaxone-susceptible Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strains were subjected to stepwise selection with increasing concentrations of ceftriaxone in culture media. Mutations in virulence-associated genes and antibiotic efflux genes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The expression levels of virulence genes invA and stn as well as efflux pump genes tolC, arcA, and arcB before and after the selection were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The stepwise selection resulted in the development of Salmonella strains that were highly resistant to ceftriaxone. Sequence analysis did not reveal any mutations or deletions in the examined virulence genes and regulatory gene, but a silent mutation (T423C) in acrR (encoding a repressor for the efflux pump) was detected in most of the ceftriaxone-resistant strains. The qRT-PCR revealed increased expression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump and decreased expression of invA and stn in the ceftriaxone-resistant strains. Moreover, decreased invasion into cultured epithelial cells and reduced growth rates were observed with the resistant strains. These results suggest that acquisition of ceftriaxone resistance is associated with the overexpression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump and leads to reduced virulence in Salmonella Typhimurium.
Plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance (PMQR) genes were determined by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) in 250 Escherichia coli isolates from food-producing animals in Guangdong, China, in 2009-2010. Then, the prevalence of plasmid-mediated ?-lactamase and 16S rRNA methylase genes was determined by PCRs among the PMQR-positive isolates. One hundred fifty-seven (62.8%) isolates were found to harbor at least one PMQR gene, and qnrS (84) and oqxAB (97) were the most two prevalent PMQR genes. ?-lactamase (ESBL and/or AmpC type) genes were detected in 106 of the 157 PMQR-positive strains. The bla(TEM-1) (78) was the most prevalent ?-lactamase gene in the 157 PMQR-positive isolates, followed by bla(CMY-2) (28), bla(CTX-M) (25), bla(SHV-1) (3), and bla(DHA-1) (3). Twenty-nine were detected to produce more than one type of ?-lactamase. The rmtB was the most prevalent 16S rRNA methylase gene detected (11.5%, 18/157), and armA was detected in only two (1.27%, 2/157) isolates, with one isolate coharboring rmtB and armA. Sixteen isolates were found to coharbor the three types of resistance genes detected in this study. Only 1 transconjugant JGDA2 harboring oqxAB, aac(6)-Ib-cr, bla(DHA-1), and rmtB was obtained from the 16 isolates harboring the three types of resistance genes, by conjugation experiment. The results of Southern blot hybridization revealed that oqxAB, bla(DHA-1), and rmtB were colocated on the same plasmid of ?54?kb in the JGDA2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the coexistence of the oqxAB, rmtB, and bla(DHA-1) resistance genes on the same plasmid in one E. coli strain.
The association of PMQR and ESBLs in negative-bacteria isolates has been of great concern. The present study was performed to investigate the prevalence of co-transferability of oqxAB and bla CTX-M genes among the 696 Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates from food-producing animals in South China, and to characterize these plasmids.
PEGylated lipid membrane structure and phase behavior are important areas of study because of their potential in various biochemical, biomedical, and pharmaceutical applications. Here, we study mixed bilayers of DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and PEGylated DOPCs (on phosphorus) in water using the MARTINI coarse-grained force field and show that the self-assembled structures can be changed between micelles and bilayers by applying different isotropic and semiisotropic (i.e., surface tension) pressure conditions. Radial distribution functions as well as radii of gyration confirm that structures are distinctly different. The results indicate that environmental conditions can be used to transform, manipulate, and eventually control lipid assemblies.
Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a rare locally aggressive vascular neoplasm characterized by infiltrating nodules and sheets of spindle cells, and unmistakable resemblance to Kaposis sarcoma. KHE occurs mainly in newborns and infants and presents most commonly in the skin, deep soft tissue, and bone. We report a case of KHE in a 36-year-old female who presented with a spleen mass and underwent splenectomy. Macroscopic examination revealed a large, dark-red, firm mass in the spleen. Histologically, the tumor consisted of irregular, infiltrating nodules of densely packed spindle-shaped tumor cells closely associated with small slit-like and sieve-like blood vessels, which were separated with hyalinized hypocellular fibrous stroma. Immunohistochemically, both spindle and epithelioid cells were positive for CD34, CD31, and vimentin, but negative for EMA, cytokeratin, CD21, CD35, CD1a, and S-100 protein. The well-formed capillaries and mature vessels but not spindle tumor cell showed reactivity for factor VIII- related antigen. Alpha-Smooth muscle actin was detected in pericytes surrounding small round or slit-like capillaries. The final histologic diagnosis was KHE. Follow-up 6 month after operation revealed no sign of recurrence or metastasis.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of KHE arising in the spleen.
A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, on the active oxygen metabolism and photosynthetic characteristics of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings under Cd stress. The results showed that under the stress, applying 100 micromol x L(-1) SNP promoted the activities of plant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) significantly, increased the leaf- and root calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) contents and the leaf chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), transpiration rate (T(r)), and stomatal conductance (G(s)), and decreased the contents of H2O2 and MDA and the concentration of intercellular CO2 (C(i)). The addition of hemoglobin, a NO scavenger, eliminated the effects of SNP, while applying 100 micromol x L(-1) sodium nitrate or nitrite (the decomposition products of NO or its donor SNP) or 100 micromol x L(-1) sodium ferrocyanide (an analog of SNP) had no significant alleviation effects on Cd stress. This study suggested that exogenous NO could promote the scavenging of reactive oxygen, keep the mineral nutrition in balance, and alleviate the damage of Cd stress to the leaf photosynthetic apparatus, making the tomato seedlings preserve their photosynthetic efficiency.
We investigated geochemical susceptivity of groundwater in representative karst groundwater system. The results indicated that Ca2+ and Mg2+, correlative the average values of geochemical susceptivity index (GSI) were 0.73 and 0.19; HCO3- and SO4(2-), interrelated the average values of geochemical susceptivity index were 0.92 and 0.37, are the principal cations and anions in karstic groundwater system, respectively. And the major elements are obviously characterized by the geochemical susceptivity. The rank order of geochemical susceptivity for major elements in study region is HCO3- > Ca2+ > SO4(2+) > Mg2+ > Cl- > Na+ > NO3- > K+. The susceptive regions of groundwater system were zoned by the geochemical susceptivity index of HCO3- (GSI(HCO3-)), which classified as GSI(HCO3-) < 0.5 is low-susceptivity zone, 0.5 < GSI(HCO3-) < 1 is moderate-susceptivity zone and GSI(HCO3-) > 1 is high-susceptivity zone, respectively. The groundwater systems in high-susceptivity zone may become as a collected and genetic room for pollutants. Furthermore, both continual or active exchange and mutual recharge between surface water and groundwater in high-susceptivity zones might induce intersectant pollution and serious cycle.
Self-assembly of AB diblock copolymer confined in concentric-cylindrical nanopores was studied using MesoDyn simulation. Our calculation shows that in this confined geometry a zoo of exotic structures can be formed. These structures include bicontinuous phases like carbon nanotube, imperfect single helixes and double helixes. Moreover, the dependence of the chain conformation on the volume fraction, concentration, the interactions between blocks and the diameter of the cylindrical pore are investigated. The results of these simulations can be used to predict the diblock copolymer morphologies confined in concentric-cylindrical nanopores and should be helpful in designing polymeric nanomaterials in the future.
Human nuclear respiratory factor 2 alpha subunit (NRF-2?) is fundamentally important to cell function and the development. We aimed to establish the monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the human NRF-2? protein and to investigate its distribution in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and tumor-adjacent tissues. The 6× His-NRF-2? fusion protein was successfully induced and purified. One monoclonal antibody (MAb) against human NRF-2?, 1-D10-E1-B11-G3 (IgG1), effective in detecting the recombinant and the cellular protein, was characterized. Using immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of NRF-2? was investigated in 38 cases of HCC specimens and 14 cases of tumor-adjacent specimens. Staining was found positive in 9 cases of HCC tissues (23.7%) and 8 cases of normal hepatic tissues (57.1%). The higher-grade frequency of expression of NRF-2? in tumor-adjacent tissues was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than that in tumor tissues, suggesting that NRF-2? may play important roles in carcinogenesis of HCC.
A novel red-pigmented, Gram-negative, motile, fluorescent, rod-shaped strain, DZ0503SBS1(T), with a single lateral flagellum, was isolated from the intestine of the nematode Heterorhabditidoides chongmingensis. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the strain is a member of the genus Serratia, sharing highest sequence similarities with Serratia marcescens subsp. sakuensis JCM 11315(T) (99.8 %), S. marcescens subsp. marcescens DSM 30121(T) (99.5 %) and Serratia ureilytica LMG 22860(T) (98.3 %). Similarities between the rpoB gene sequence of strain DZ0503SBS1(T) and those of S. marcescens subsp. sakuensis JCM 11315(T), S. marcescens subsp. marcescens DSM 30121(T) and S. ureilytica LMG 22860(T) were 98.0, 97.4 and 98.3 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization values of strain DZ0503SBS1(T) with S. marcescens subsp. sakuensis JCM 11315(T), S. marcescens subsp. marcescens DSM 30121(T) and S. ureilytica LMG 22860(T) were 68.2, 65.1 and 53.0 %, respectively. The major isoprenoid quinone of strain DZ0503SBS1(T) was Q-8 and the predominant fatty acids were C(16 : 0) (34.76 %), cyclo-C(17 : 0) (20.03 %) and cyclo-C(19 : 0)omega8c (17.24 %). The cyclo-C(19 : 0)omega8c content (17.24 %) was significantly different from those found in S. marcescens subsp. sakuensis JCM 11315(T) and S. marcescens subsp. marcescens DSM 30121(T). Some characteristics of strain DZ0503SBS1(T), i.e. fluorescence and its symbiotic association with nematodes, have not been reported previously in any species of the genus Serratia. Phenotypic and biochemical characteristics and molecular data show that strain DZ0503SBS1(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Serratia nematodiphila sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is DZ0503SBS1(T) (=KCTC 22130(T) =CGMCC 1.6853(T)).
Hantavirus (HTV) infection is known to induce innate cellular response, a more specified cellular response in the host cells. However, whether it stimulates synthesis of stress proteins, particularly associations of viral proteins, is entirely unknown. The primary focus of this research is using Vero E6 cells infected with Hantaan 76-118 (HTNV) as an in vitro infection model to examine the individual contribution of HTV infection to heat shock response. This study shows that HTNV infection rapidly induced HSP70 expression in Vero E6 cells, which underwent a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttle that lasted for more than 3 d. The increased HSP70 was preceded by induction of HSP70 mRNA. The physical association of HSP70 with viral nucleocapsid protein (NP) in infected cells was demonstrated by co-localization and immunoprecipation. Vero E6 cells that constitutively overexpress HSP70 after stable transfection with HSP70 gene, when infected with HTNV, showed selectively reduced NP synthesis. These findings suggest HSP70 is actively involved in the control of the expression level of viral structural proteins and possibly involved in virus assembly by binding of NP to HSP70. Overexpression of HSP70 does not favor viral propagation.
Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma, especially of extranodal origin, is an extremely rare malignancy of FDC origin, with only 1 case previously documented in the thyroid. The authors report the case of a 58-year-old female who presented with a painless mass in her neck. The neoplastic cells expressed monocyte/macrophage-specific marker CD68 (KP-1) and lysozymes and the dendritic cell-associated antigens CD35 and Fascin but was negative for CD1a, CD21, and CD23, most consistent with a diagnosis of FDC sarcoma. BIOMED-2 multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis showed B-cell clonality in both tumor and its adjacent coexisting Hashimotos thyroiditis. To the authors knowledge, this is the first report of a rare entity of FDC sarcoma primarily involving the thyroid gland coexisting with Hashimotos thyroiditis.
A taxonomic study was performed on strain HR1(T), which was isolated from a desert soil sample collected from Xinjiang Province (China). Cells were aerobic, Gram-positive-staining, pink-pigmented, sporulating rods with a single lateral flagellum. The organism can grow at 15-42 degrees C and pH 5.0-10.0, optimally at 30-37 degrees C and pH 6.0-8.0. Growth is inhibited by 6 % NaCl. Analysis of almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolate represents a distinct taxon within the genus Saccharibacillus; Saccharibacillus sacchari LMG 24085(T) was the nearest relative (97.9 % sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization showed 29.6 % genetic relatedness between strain HR1(T) and S. sacchari LMG 24085(T). The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the predominant fatty acid was anteiso-C(15 : 0) (50.3 %). The G+C content of the DNA was 50.5 mol%. Therefore, based on phenotypic criteria and the phylogenetic position, strain HR1(T) belongs to a previously unidentified species of the genus Saccharibacillus, for which the name Saccharibacillus kuerlensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HR1(T) (=KCTC 13182(T) =JCM 14865(T) =CGMCC 1.6964(T)).
Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an extremely rare true histiocytic malignancy. We report a case of HS arising from thyroid gland in a 69 year-old man. Following subtotal thyroidectomy, a histopathologic, immunohistologic, and genotypic examination revealed HS. This tumor was composed of large spindle or round epithelioid cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. The neoplastic cells were positive for macrophage-associated antigen CD68, CD163, and lysozymes, as well as CD45, HLA- DR, DP, DQ, and S100, most consistent with a diagnosis of HS. The BIOMED-2 multiplex PCR analysis showed polyclonal B- and T-cell populations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a rare entity HS involving thyroid gland using a comprehensive immunophenotyping panel including CD163 as well as molecular studies to establish the true histiocytic nature of these lesions.
Tumor cells need large energy and nucleic acids to proliferate and grow. For most of their energy needs, cancer cells depend more on glycolysis. For most of their nucleic acids needs, cancer cells depend more on the nonoxidative pathway of the pentose phosphate pathway. Transketolase(TKT) is a crucial enzyme in the nonoxidative pathway of the PPP.
To determine whether preoperative contrast delay-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (DE-CMR) could help predict long-term survival of patients with severe chronic aortic regurgitation and extremely dilated left ventricular chamber after aortic valve replacement.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and salvianolic acid B (SA-B) intralesional combined injection in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF).
Scholars and policy makers have for centuries constructed and used developmental hierarchies to characterize different countries. The hypotheses motivating this paper are that such social constructions have been circulated internationally, are constructed similarly in various countries, and follow the social constructions of elite international organizations, such as the United Nations. This paper uses data from 15 surveys in 13 diverse countries to study how developmental hierarchies are understood in everyday life. Our research shows that most people have constructions of developmental hierarchies that are similar across countries and are similar to the developmental hierarchies constructed by the United Nations. These findings suggest that developmental hierarchies are widely understood around the world and are widely available to ordinary people as they make decisions about many aspects of life.
In this study, the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) was investigated in 495 Escherichia coli isolates from diseased food-producing animals in Guangdong province, China. The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the gyrA and parC genes were analysed for mutations in 55 isolates harbouring only oqxAB and all isolates harbouring other PMQR genes. Overall, 282 (57.0?%) E. coli isolates had at least one PMQR gene. oqxAB was detected in 215 isolates and predominated the PMQR genes, followed by qnrS (63 isolates), aac(6)-Ib-cr (56 isolates), qnrB (39 isolates) and qepA (18 isolates). qnrA, qnrC and qnrD were not found in any of the isolates. The rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin and nalidixic acid were 75.2, 81.0, 70.5 and 97.4?%, respectively, among the 495 isolates. Eight types of mutation in gyrA were detected in 154 PMQR-positive isolates, and 147 isolates were found to have mutations in parC. PFGE analysis indicated that the PMQR-positive E. coli isolates were genetically diverse. This study demonstrated that the number of mutations in QRDRs of gyrA and/or parC was significantly associated with the MICs of quinolones (P<0.01). The rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and nalidixic acid in PMQR-positive isolates were significantly higher than those in PMQR-negative isolates (P<0.05). In addition, the prevalence of oqxAB had significant Spearman correlation coefficients in relation to the MICs of all four tested quinolones (P<0.01).
Streptococcus suis isolates from diseased pigs were examined for susceptibility to nine antimicrobials, possession of virulence-associated factors (VFs), and distribution of serotypes. The association between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and serotypes as well as VFs was subsequently assessed. Among the isolates investigated, serotype 2 (66.04%) was mostly prevalent, followed by serotypes 1 (23.27%), 9 (1.26%), and 7 (0.63%), whereas 14 isolates were untypable by the polymerase chain reaction typing method used. Analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the isolates had diverse DNA macrorestriction patterns. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance among the S. suis isolates was higher than that reported from other countries. It is notable that multiple antimicrobial resistance (three or more antimicrobials) was observed with 98.73% of the S. suis isolates, and the dominant resistance phenotype was erythromycin-tilmicosin-clindamycin-chloramphenicol-levofloxacin-ceftiofur-kanamycin-tetracycline-penicillin (35.85%). The most prevalent VFs were those encoded by muramidase-released protein (61.64%), followed by suilysin (56.60%) and extracellular factor (46.54%). Presence of VFs and the possession of certain AMR phenotypes were significantly associated as determined by statistical analysis. Together, these findings indicate that the clinical S. suis isolates obtained from diseased pigs in China are genetically diverse, are resistant to multiple antibiotics of clinical importance, and carry known virulence factors.
We investigated the effectiveness and safety of topical application of 5 mg allicin adhesive tablets in the treatment of minor recurrent aphthous ulcerations (MiRAU).
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