In this study, we determined the expression and activation of p38 MAPK in matured porcine oocytes subjected to heat shock (HS). When MII oocytes were heated, only the phosphorylated p38 levels relative to the total p38 levels decreased (P < 0.01) after HS, but no clear relationship with HS treatments was observed in the ERK, JNK and p90(rsk) expressions of matured oocytes. To confirm p38 activation in matured oocytes, immunocytochemical staining was performed to localize its expression and distribution in the ooplasm, and the results were largely consistent with previous Western blot analyses. Moreover, when matured oocytes were co-cultured with a P38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, for 4 h at 41.5 C, the activation of its immediate downstream substrate MAPKAPK-2 was not inhibited within any of the treatment groups. It appears that the MAPKAPK2 levels increased only under prolonged culture (HS4h and C4h) compared with the control group. In conclusion, p38 activity in porcine oocytes was decreased after exposure to HS and prolonged culture. These alterations of p38 and activation of MAPKAPK2 may be associated with porcine oocyte viability under HS conditions, and a potential cross-talk between p38 MAPK and other signaling cascades may exist, which warrants additional investigation.
Rad23 was identified as a DNA repair protein; although a role in protein degradation has been described. The protein degradation function of Rad23 contributes to cell cycle progression, stress response, ER proteolysis, DNA repair. Rad23 binds the proteasome through a ubiquitin-like (UbL) domain, and contains ubiquitin-associated (UBA) motifs that bind multiubiquitin chains. These domains allow Rad23 to function as a substrate shuttle-factor. This property is shared by structurally similar proteins (Dsk2 and Ddi1), and is conserved among the human and mouse counterparts of Rad23. Despite much effort, the regulation of Rad23 interactions with ubiquitinated substrates and the proteasome is unknown. We report here that Rad23 is extensively phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro. Serine residues in UbL are phosphorylated, and influence Rad23 interaction with proteasomes. Replacement of these serine residues with acidic residues, to mimic phosphorylation, reduced proteasome binding. We reported that when UbL is overexpressed, it can compete with Rad23 for proteasome interaction and inhibit substrate turnover. This effect is not observed with UbL containing acidic substitutions, consistent with results that phosphorylation inhibits interaction with the proteasome. Loss of both Rad23 and Rpn10 caused pleiotropic defects that were suppressed by overexpressing either Rad23 or Rpn10. Rad23 bearing a UbL domain with acidic substitutions failed to suppress rad23? rpn10?, confirming the importance of regulated Rad23/proteasome binding. Strikingly, Threonine-75 in human HR23B also regulates interaction with the proteasome, suggesting that phosphorylation is a conserved mechanism for controlling Rad23/proteasome interaction.
Upregulation of the metastasis-promoting S100A4 protein has been linked to tumor migration and invasion, and clinical studies have demonstrated that significant expression of S100A4 in primary tumors is indicative of poor prognosis. However, the involvement of S100A4 in the drug responsiveness of gastric cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we used gastric cancer cell lines as a model to investigate the involvement of S100A4 in drug responsiveness. We overexpressed S100A4 in AGS and SCM-1 cells, which are characterized by relatively low-level expression of endogenous S100A4, and found that this significantly enhanced cell migration but did not affect cell survival in the presence of six common anticancer drugs. Moreover, in vitro cell proliferation was unchanged. Using RNA interference, we suppressed S100A4 expression in MKN-45 and TMK-1 cells (which are characterized by high-level expression of endogenous S100A4), and found that knockdown of S100A4 markedly attenuated cell motility but did not affect cell survival in the presence of six common anticancer drugs. Further study revealed that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of S100A4 (rs1803245; c.29A>T), which substitutes an Asp residue with Val (D10V), is localized within the conserved binding surface for Annexin II. Cells overexpressing S100A4D10V showed a significant reduction in cell migration ability, but no change in cell survival, upon anticancer drug treatment. Taken together, our novel results indicate that the expression level of S100A4 does not significantly affect cell survival following anticancer drug treatment. Thus, depending on the cell context, the metastasis-promoting effects of S100A4 may not be positively correlated with anticancer drug resistance in the clinic.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possess unique properties that have been exploited in several medical applications. However, a more comprehensive understanding of the environmental safety of AuNPs is imperative for use of these nanomaterials. Here, we describe the impacts of AuNPs in various mammalian cell models using an automatic and dye-free method for continuous monitoring of cell growth based on the measurement of cell impedance. Several well-established cytotoxicity assays were also used for comparison. AuNPs induced a concentration-dependent decrease in cell growth. This inhibitory effect was associated with apoptosis induction in Vero cells but not in MRC-5 or NIH3T3 cells. Interestingly, cDNA microarray analyses in MRC-5 cells supported the involvement of DNA damage and repair responses, cell-cycle regulation, and oxidative stress in AuNP-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Moreover, autophagy appeared to play a role in AuNPs-induced attenuation of cell growth in NIH3T3 cells. In this study, we present a comprehensive overview of AuNP-induced cytotoxicity in a variety of mammalian cell lines, comparing several cytotoxicity assays. Collectively, these assays offer convincing evidence of the cytotoxicity of AuNPs and support the value of a systematic approach for analyzing the toxicology of nanoparticles.
Many in vitro studies have revealed that the interference of dye molecules in traditional nanoparticle cytotoxicity assays results in controversial conclusions. The aim of this study is to establish an extensive and systematic method for evaluating biological effects of gold nanoparticles in mammalian cell lines.
Gastric cancer is a common human malignancy and a major contributor to cancer-related deaths worldwide. Unfortunately, the prognosis of most gastric cancer patients is poor because they are generally diagnosed at a late stage after the cancer has already metastasized. Most current research, therefore, emphasizes selective targeting of cancer cells by apoptosis-inducing agents. One such therapeutic agent is capsaicin, a component of chili peppers that has been shown to possess anti-growth activity against various cancer cell lines. Here, we examined the effect of capsaicin on SNU-1 and TMC-1 gastric cancer cells and found differing outcomes between the two cell lines. Our results show that capsaicin induced significant cytotoxicity with increases in oxidative stress, PARP cleavage, and apoptosis in sensitive SNU-1 cells. In contrast, TMC-1 cells were much less sensitive to capsaicin, exhibiting low cytotoxicity and very little apoptosis in response to capsaicin treatment. Capsaicin-induced apoptosis in SNU-1 cells was associated with down-regulation of tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX) mRNA and protein. On the contrary, tNOX expression was scarcely affected by capsaicin in TMC-1 cells. We further showed that tNOX-knockdown sensitized TMC-1 cells to capsaicin-induced apoptosis and G1 phase accumulation, and led to decreased cell growth, demonstrating that tNOX is essential for cancer cell growth. Collectively, these results indicate that capsaicin induces divergent effects of the growth of gastric cancer cells that parallel its effects on tNOX expression, and demonstrate that forced tNOX down-regulation restored capsaicin-induced growth inhibition in TMC-1 cells.
DNA-damaging agents are commonly used as anticancer therapeutics. Unfortunately, such drugs induced DNA damages as well as DNA repair are important in mediating drug resistance to cancer treatments. To evaluate changes in DNA repair proteins that occur in DNA damage agent treatment, we challenged human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells with cisplatin. hHR23/RAD23, an accessory protein involved in nucleotide-excision repair (NER) at an early lesion-recognition step, was upregulated by cisplatin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Upregulation of hHR23 expression by low-dose cisplatin was accompanied by an increase in p53, p21, and XPC protein levels. Importantly, knockdown of hHR23B by RNA interference decreased DNA repair activity, cell survival, and induction of p53 and XPC following treatment with cisplatin. Conversely, overexpression of hHR23B enhanced repair activity towards cisplatin-damaged DNA. Inhibition of MEK/ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathways attenuated cisplatin-induced hHR23 expression, indicating that these pathways are involved in the process. The increase in hHR23 protein expression mediated by MEK/ERK signaling was due to increased translational efficiency resulting from phosphorylation/activation of the translation-initiating factor eIF-4B. Taken together, these results suggest that cisplatin-induced increases in hHR23 levels are regulated by proliferative signaling pathways and important for DNA repair.
Cinnamaldehyde has been demonstrated to stimulate glutathione production and the expression of phase II detoxifying enzymes in HepG2 cells. The mechanism underlying this cinnamaldehyde-mediated gene expression relies on Nrf2 transcriptional activity. Therefore, the molecular signaling events in cinnamaldehyde-mediated detoxifying enzyme expression were further investigated in this study. Cinnamaldehyde activated ERK1/2, Akt, and JNK signaling pathways, but not the p38 MAP kinase pathway, subsequently leading to Nrf2 nuclear translocation and eventually increasing phase II enzyme expression. In contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2, Akt, or JNK pathways attenuated Nrf2 nuclear translocation and phase II enzyme expression. Depletion of Nrf2 by small RNA interference (si-RNA) showed that the protein levels of phase II enzymes were no longer induced by cinnamaldehyde. A luciferase reporter assay and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) also demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde-activated signaling resulted in the increased transcriptional activity of Nrf2 through binding to the ARE4 enhancer sequence. Altogether, these data suggest that ERK1/2, Akt, and JNK pathways activated by cinnamaldehyde collectively control Nrf2 nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity, leading to the increase of phase II enzyme expression. Application of an appropriate chemopreventive agent such as cinnamaldehyde could potentially be an alternative strategy for cancer chemoprevention.
The evidence that nuclear proteins can be degraded by cytosolic proteasomes has received considerable experimental support. However, the presence of proteasome subunits in the nucleus also suggests that protein degradation could occur within this organelle. We determined that Sts1 can target proteasomes to the nucleus and facilitate the degradation of a nuclear protein. Specific sts1 mutants showed reduced nuclear proteasomes at the nonpermissive temperature. In contrast, high expression of Sts1 increased the levels of nuclear proteasomes. Sts1 targets proteasomes to the nucleus by interacting with Srp1, a nuclear import factor that binds nuclear localization signals. Deletion of the NLS in Sts1 prevented its interaction with Srp1 and caused proteasome mislocalization. In agreement with this observation, a mutation in Srp1 that weakened its interaction with Sts1 also reduced nuclear targeting of proteasomes. We reported that Sts1 could suppress growth and proteolytic defects of rad23? rpn10?. We show here that Sts1 suppresses a previously undetected proteasome localization defect in this mutant. Taken together, these findings explain the suppression of rad23? rpn10? by Sts1 and suggest that the degradation of nuclear substrates requires efficient proteasome localization.
GABA tea is a tea product that contains a high level of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The oxidant and antioxidant roles of GABA tea in DNA damage were investigated in this study. DNA cleavage was observed by GABA-tea extract in the presence of copper ions. Comet assay revealed that combination of GABA-tea extract, but not pure GABA, and Cu(2+) is capable of oxidatively degrading cellular DNA in human peripheral lymphocytes. Using various reactive oxygen scavengers, we found that catalase and sodium azide effectively inhibited GABA-tea extract/Cu(II)-induced DNA degradation, suggesting the essential role of singlet oxygen and H(2)O(2) in the reaction. In addition, neocuproine inhibited the DNA degradation, confirming that Cu(I) is an intermediate in the DNA cleavage reaction. Therefore, we speculate that GABA-tea extract/Cu(II)-induced DNA damage is probably mediated through the formation of H(2)O(2) and the reduction of copper. Furthermore, our data showed that GABA-tea extract was more genotoxic and pro-oxidant than its major catechin constituent, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), leading to DNA cleavage in the presence of Cu(2+). These findings will provide implications for the potential of GABA-tea extract in anticancer property, which may involve copper ions and the consequent pro-oxidant action.
Acidosis is a common stress in solid tumours and is also a major determinant of tumour growth, metabolism, and metastasis. During cellular stress, heat shock proteins play an important role in actin cytoskeleton stability. HLJ1, a member of the DnaJ-like heat shock protein 40, has been characterised as a tumour suppressor gene; however, the effect of acidic stress on HLJ1 is unknown. In this study, we found that the migration ability of human lung adenocarcinoma cells was significantly impaired following the increased protein level of HLJ1 under acidic culture conditions. However, HLJ1 transcriptional activity was no different in the normal and acidic culture medium. Incubation of the cells in an acidic extracellular pH (pHe 6.4) caused up-regulated tyrosine phosphorylation of HLJ1 within 2h. We further identified the sub-cellular distribution of tyrosine phospho-HLJ1 and its tyrosine-phosphorylated sites. Most importantly, acidic stress was observed to remarkably enhance the interaction between HLJ1 and ?-actin, which was a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent association. In conclusion, our results not only validate that HLJ1 is a tyrosine phosphoprotein, but also suggest that the increased level of tyrosine phospho-HLJ1 is crucial for binding with the actin cytoskeleton, especially in acidic pHe. We propose that acidic stress increases the association between HLJ1 and ?-actin to modulate migration of human lung cancer cells.
Erlotinib (Tarceva) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor in the treatment of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we investigated the roles of ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways in regulating Rad51 expression and cytotoxic effects in different NSCLC cell lines treated with erlotinib. Erlotinib decreased cellular levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2, phosphorylated AKT, Rad51 protein, and mRNA in erlotinib-sensitive H1650, A549, and H1869 cells, leading to cell death via apoptosis, but these results were not seen in erlotinib-resistant H520 and H1703 cells. Erlotinib decreased Rad51 protein levels by enhancing Rad51 mRNA and protein instability. Enforced expression of constitutively active MKK1 or AKT vectors could restore Rad51 protein levels, which were inhibited by erlotinib, and decrease erlotinib-induced cytotoxicity. Knocking down endogenous Rad51 expression by si-Rad51 RNA transfection significantly enhanced erlotinib-induced cytotoxicity. In contrast, overexpression of Rad51 by transfection with Rad51 vector could protect the cells from cytotoxic effects induced by erlotinib. Blocking the activations of ERK1/2 and AKT by MKK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor (wortmannin) suppressed the expression of Rad51 and enhanced the erlotinib-induced cell death in erlotinib-resistant cells. In conclusion, suppression of Rad51 may be a novel therapeutic modality in overcoming drug resistance of erlotinib in NSCLC.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles (<100 nm in diameter) have been of interest in a wide range of applications, such as in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals because of their low toxicity. However, recent studies have shown that TiO2 nano-particles (nano-TiO2) induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in various lines of cultured cells as well as tumorigenesis in animal models. The biological roles of nano-TiO2 are shown to be controversial and no comprehensive study paradigm has been developed to investigate their molecular mechanisms. In this study, we showed that short-term exposure to nano-TiO2 enhanced cell proliferation, survival, ERK signaling activation and ROS production in cultured fibroblast cells. Moreover, long-term exposure to nano-TiO2 not only increased cell survival and growth on soft agar but also the numbers of multinucleated cells and micronucleus (MN) as suggested in confocal microscopy analysis. Cell cycle phase analysis showed G2/M delay and slower cell division in long-term exposed cells. Most importantly, long-term TiO2 exposure remarkably affected mitotic progression at anaphase and telophase leading to aberrant multipolar spindles and chromatin alignment/segregation. Moreover, PLK1 was demonstrated as the target for nano-TiO2 in the regulation of mitotic progression and exit. Notably, a higher fraction of sub-G1 phase population appeared in TiO2-exposed cells after releasing from G2/M synchronization. Our results demonstrate that long-term exposure to nano-TiO2 disturbs cell cycle progression and duplicated genome segregation, leading to chromosomal instability and cell transformation.
Emodin, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a natural anthraquinone derivative found in the roots and rhizomes of numerous plants. It reportedly exhibits an anticancer effect on lung cancer. Gefitinib (Iressa) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor for human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the molecular mechanism of how emodin combined with gefitinib decreases NSCLC cell viability is unclear. The recombinase protein Rad51 is essential for homologous recombination repair, and Rad51 overexpression is resistant to DNA double-strand break-inducing cancer therapies. In this study, we found that emodin enhanced the cytotoxicity induced by gefitinib in two NSCLC cells lines, A549 and H1650. Emodin at low doses of 2-10 microM did not affect ERK1/2 activation, mRNA, and Rad51 protein levels; however, it enhanced a gefitinib-induced decrease in phospho-ERK1/2 and Rad51 protein levels by enhancing Rad51 protein instability. Expression of constitutively active MKK1/2 vectors (MKK1/2-CA) significantly rescued the reduced phospho-ERK1/2 and Rad51 protein levels as well as cell viability on gefitinib and emodin cotreatment. Blocking of ERK1/2 activation by U0126 (an MKK1/2 inhibitor) lowered Rad51 protein levels and cell viability in emodin-treated H1650 and A549 cells. Knockdown of Rad51 expression by transfection with si-Rad51 RNA enhanced emodin cytotoxicity. In contrast, Rad51 overexpression protected the cells from the cytotoxic effects induced by emodin and gefitinib. Consequently, emodin-gefitinib cotreatment may serve as the basis for a novel and better therapeutic modality in the management of advanced lung cancer.
Prodigiosin is a bacterial metabolite with potent anticancer activity, which is attributed to its proapoptotic effect selectively active in malignant cells. Still, the molecular mechanisms whereby prodigiosin induces apoptosis remain largely unknown. In particular, the role of survivin, a vital inhibitor of apoptosis, in prodigiosin-induced apoptosis has never been addressed before and hence was the primary goal of this study. Our results showed that prodigiosin dose-dependently induced down-regulation of survivin in multiple breast carcinoma cell lines, including MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231. This down-regulation is mainly regulated at the level of transcription, as prodigiosin reduced the levels of both survivin mRNA and survivin promoter activity but failed to rescue survivin expression when proteasome-mediated degradation is abolished. Importantly, overexpression of survivin rendered cells more resistant to prodigiosin, indicating an essential role of survivin down-regulation in prodigiosin-induced apoptosis. In addition, we found that prodigiosin synergistically enhanced cell death induced by paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug known to up-regulate survivin that in turn confers its own resistance. This paclitaxel sensitization effect of prodigiosin is ascribed to the lowering of survivin expression, because prodigiosin was shown to counteract survivin induction by paclitaxel and, notably, the sensitization effect was severely abrogated in cells that overexpress survivin. Taken together, our results argue that down-regulation of survivin is an integral component mediating prodigiosin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, and further suggest the potential of prodigiosin to sensitize anticancer drugs, including paclitaxel, in the treatment of breast cancer.
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; also known as CCN2) is an inflammatory mediator, and shows elevated levels in regions of severe injury and inflammatory diseases. CTGF is abundantly expressed in osteoarthritis (OA). Migration and infiltration of mononuclear cells to inflammatory sites are playing important roles during OA pathogenesis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is the key chemokine that regulates migration and infiltration of monocytes. However, the effect of CTGF on MCP-1 expression and monocyte migration is largely unknown. Our results showed that MCP-1 was highly expressed in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) as compared with normal SFs. Directly applying OASFs with CTGF increased MCP-1 expression in a concentration- and a time-dependent manner. CTGF mediated MCP-1 production was attenuated by ?v?5 integrin neutralized antibody. Pretreatment with focal adhesion kinase (FAK), MEK, AP-1, and NF-?B inhibitors also inhibited the potentiating action of CTGF. CTGF-mediated increase of NF-?B and AP-1 luciferase activity was inhibited by FAK, MEK, and ERK inhibitors or mutants. In vitro chemotaxis assay showed that OA synovial fluid and supernatants from CTGF treated OASFs increased migration of monocyte. In addition, CTGF-mediated migration was inhibited by the FAK and MEK inhibitors. Taken together, our results indicated that CTGF enhances the migration of monocyte cells by increasing MCP-1 expression through the ?v?5 integrin, FAK, MEK, ERK, and NF-?B/AP-1 signal transduction pathway.
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; also known as CCN2) is an inflammatory mediator, and shows elevated levels in regions of severe injury and inflammatory diseases. CTGF is abundantly expressed in osteoarthritis (OA). However, the relationship between CTGF and IL-6 in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) is mostly unknown.
The anticancer activity of DNA intercalators is related to their ability to intercalate into the DNA duplex with high affinity, thereby interfering with DNA replication and transcription. Polyamines (spermine in particular) are almost exclusively bound to nucleic acids and are involved in many cellular processes that require nucleic acids. Until now, the effects of polyamines on DNA intercalator activities have remained unclear because intercalation is the most important mechanism employed by DNA-binding drugs. Herein, using actinomycin D (ACTD) as a model, we have attempted to elucidate the effects of spermine on the action of ACTD, including its DNA-binding ability, RNA and DNA polymerase interference, and its role in the transcription and replication inhibition of ACTD within cells. We found that spermine interfered with the binding and stabilization of ACTD to DNA. The presence of increasing concentrations of spermine enhanced the transcriptional and replication activities of RNA and DNA polymerases, respectively, in vitro treated with ActD. Moreover, a decrease in intracellular polyamine concentrations stimulated by methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) enhanced the ACTD-induced inhibition of c-myc transcription and DNA replication in several cancer cell lines. The results indicated that spermine attenuates ACTD binding to DNA and its inhibition of transcription and DNA replication both in vitro and within cells. Finally, a synergistic antiproliferative effect of MGBG and ACTD was observed in a cell viability assay. Our findings will be of significant relevance to future developments in combination with cancer therapy by enhancing the anticancer activity of DNA interactors through polyamine depletion.
Mithramycin (Mith) forms a drug-metal complex with a 2:1 stoichiometry by chelation with a Ni(II) ion, which was determined using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Mith exhibits an increased affinity (~55 fold) for Ni(II) in the presence of DNA compared to the absence of DNA, suggesting that DNA acts as an effective template to facilitate chelation. Also, we characterized the DNA-acting properties of a Ni(II) derivative of Mith. Kinetic analysis using surface plasmon resonance and UV melting studies revealed that Ni(II)(Mith)(2) binds to duplex DNA with a higher affinity compared to Mg(II)(Mith)(2). The thermodynamic parameters revealed a higher free energy of formation for duplex DNA in the presence of Ni(II)(Mith)(2) compared to duplex DNA in the presence of Mg(II)(Mith)(2). The results of a DNA-break assay indicated that Ni(II)(Mith)(2) is capable of promoting one-strand cleavage of plasmid DNA in the presence of hydrogen peroxide; the DNA cleavage rate of Ni(II)(Mith)(2) was calculated to be 4.1 × 10(-4) s(-1). In cell-based experiments, Ni(II)(Mith)(2) exhibited a more efficient reduction of c-myc and increased cytotoxicity compared to Mith alone because of its increased DNA-binding and cleavage activity. The evidence obtained in this study suggests that the biological effects of Ni(II)(Mith)(2) require further investigation in the future.
Chromomycin A3 (Chro) is capable of forming a stable dimeric complex via chelation with Ni(II), Fe(II) and Co(II). According to the circular dichroism study, the dimer conformations are significantly different among the Fe(II)-, Co(II)-, and Ni(II)-containing dimeric Chro complexes; however, the dimer conformations were preserved at high temperatures. Furthermore, we conducted a systematic study to determine the effects of these divalent metal ions on the DNA-acting efficacy of dimeric Chro, including its DNA-binding affinity, DNA stabilization capacity, DNA cleavage activity, and the inhibition of transcription both in vitro and within cells. Kinetic analyses using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed that Ni(II)(Chro)(2) exhibited the highest K(a) with a value of 1.26 × 10(7) M(-1), which is approximately 1.6- and 3.7-fold higher than the K(a) values obtained for Co(II)(Chro)(2) and Fe(II)(Chro)(2), respectively. The T(m) and ?G values for the DNA duplex increased after the addition of drug complexes in the following order: Ni(II)(Chro)(2)>Co(II)(Chro)(2)>Fe(II)(Chro)(2). In the DNA integrity assays, the DNA cleavage rate of Co(II)(Chro)(2) (1.2 × 10(-3) s(-1)) is higher than those of Fe(II)(Chro)(2) and Ni(II)(Chro)(2), which were calculated to be 1 × 10(-4) and 3.1 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. Consistent with the SPR and UV melting results, Ni(II)(Chro)(2) possesses the highest inhibitory effect on in vitro transcription and c-myc transcription within cells compared to Co(II)(Chro)(2) and Fe(II)(Chro)(2). By comparing the cytotoxicity among Co(II)(Chro)(2), Fe(II)(Chro)(2), and Ni(II)(Chro)(2) to several cancer cell lines, our studies concluded that Ni(II)(Chro)(2) displayed more potential antitumor activities than Co(II)(Chro)(2) and Fe(II)(Chro)(2) did due to its higher DNA-acting efficacy. Changes to the divalent metal ions in the dimeric Chro complexes have been correlated with improved anticancer profiles. The availability of new metal derivatives of Chro may introduce new possibilities for exploiting the unique properties of this class of compounds for therapeutic applications.
YWHAZ, also known as 14-3-3zeta, has been reportedly elevated in many human tumors, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) but little is known about its specific contribution to lung cancer malignancy. Through a combined array-based comparative genomic hybridization and expression microarray analysis, we identified YWHAZ as a potential metastasis enhancer in lung cancer. Ectopic expression of YWHAZ on low invasive cancer cells showed enhanced cell invasion, migration in vitro, and both the tumorigenic and metastatic potentials in vivo. Gene array analysis has indicated these changes associated with an elevation of pathways relevant to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), with an increase of cell protrusions and branchings. Conversely, knockdown of YWHAZ levels with siRNA or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in invasive cancer cells led to a reversal of EMT. We observed that high levels of YWHAZ protein are capable of activating ?-catenin-mediated transcription by facilitating the accumulation of ?-catenin in cytosol and nucleus. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed a decrease of ubiquitinated ?-catenin in presence of the interaction between YWHAZ and ?-catenin. This interaction resulted in disassociating ?-catenin from the binding of ?-TrCP leading to increase ?-catenin stability. Using enforced expression of dominant-negative and -positive ?-catenin mutants, we confirmed that S552 phosphorylation of ?-catenin increases the ?-catenin/YWHAZ complex formation, which is important in promoting cell invasiveness and the suppression of ubiquitnated ?-catenin. This is the first demonstration showing YWHAZ through its complex with ?-catenin in mediating lung cancer malignancy and ?-catenin protein stability.
Tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX; ENOX2) is a growth-related protein expressed in transformed cells. Consistent with this function, tNOX knockdown by RNA interference leads to a significant reduction in cell proliferation and migration in HeLa cells, whereas tNOX overexpression confers an aggressive phenotype. Here, for the first time, we report that tNOX is phosphorylated by protein kinase C? (PKC?) both in vitro and in vivo. Replacement of serine-504 with alanine significantly reduces phosphorylation by PKC?. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments reveal an interaction between tNOX and PKC?. Moreover, whereas overexpression of wild-type tNOX in NIH3T3 cells increases cell proliferation and migration, overexpression of the S504A tNOX mutant leads to diminished cell proliferation and migration, reflecting reduced stability of the unphosphorylatable tNOX mutant protein. Collectively, these results suggest that phosphorylation of serine-504 by PKC? modulates the biological function of tNOX.
Numerous studies have indicated that inflammatory cytokines play a major role in osteoclastogenesis, leading to the bone resorption that is frequently associated with osteoporosis. D-pinitol, a 3-methoxy analogue of D-chiroinositol, was identified as an active principle in soy foods and legumes. Here we found that D-pinitol markedly inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastic differentiation from bone marrow stromal cells and RAW264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, D-pinitol also reduced RANKL-induced p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Furthermore, RANKL-mediated increase of IKK, I?B?, and p65 phosphorylation and NF-?B-luciferase activity was inhibited by D-pinitol. However, D-pinitol did not affect the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. In addition, D-pinitol also prevented the bone loss induced by ovariectomy in vivo. Our data suggest that D-pinitol inhibits osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow stromal cells and macrophage cells via attenuated RANKL-induced p38, JNK, and NF-?B activation, which in turn protect bone loss from ovariectomy.
GABA tea is a tea product that contains a high level of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous study has demonstrated a synergistic effect of GABA tea and copper ions on DNA breakage. This study further explored whether zinc (Zn), a nonredox metal, modulated DNA cleavage induced by GABA tea extract. In a cell-free system, Zn(2+) significantly enhanced GABA tea extract and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)- or H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage at 24 h of incubation. Additionally, low dosages of GABA tea extract (1-10 ?g/mL) possessed pro-oxidant activity to increase H(2)O(2)/Zn(2+)-induced DNA cleavage in a dose-dependent profile. By use of various reactive oxygen scavengers, it was observed that glutathione, catalase, and potassium iodide effectively inhibited DNA degradation caused by the GABA tea extract/H(2)O(2)/Zn(2+) system. Moreover, the data showed that the GABA tea extract itself (0.5-5 mg/mL) could induce DNA cleavage in a long-term exposure (48 h). EGCG, but not the GABA tea extract, enhanced H(2)O(2)-induced DNA cleavage. In contrast, GABA decreased H(2)O(2)- and EGCG-induced DNA cleavage, suggesting that GABA might contribute the major effect on the antioxidant activity of GABA tea extract. Furthermore, a comet assay revealed that GABA tea extract (0.25 mg/mL) and GABA had antioxidant activity on H(2)O(2)-induced DNA breakage in human peripheral lymphocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that GABA tea has the potential of both pro-oxidant and antioxidant. It is proposed that a balance between EGCG-induced pro-oxidation and GABA-mediated antioxidation may occur in a complex mixture of GABA tea extract.
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