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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
?-Lactam Estrogen Receptor Antagonists and a Dual-Targeting Estrogen Receptor/Tubulin Ligand.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Twelve novel ?-lactams were synthesized and their antiproliferative effects and binding affinity for the predominant isoforms of the estrogen receptor (ER), ER? and ER?, were determined. ?-Lactams 23 and 26 had the strongest binding affinities for ER? (IC50 values: 40 and 8 nM, respectively) and ER? (IC50 values: 19 and 15 nM). ?-Lactam 26 was the most potent in antiproliferative assays using MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and further biochemical analysis showed that it caused accumulation of cells in G2/M phase (mitotic blockade) and depolymerization of tubulin in MCF-7 cells. Compound 26 also induced apoptosis and downregulation of the expression of pro-survival proteins Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Computational modeling predicted binding preferences for the dual ER/tubulin ligand 26. This series is an important addition to the known pool of ER antagonists and ?-lactam 26 is the first reported compound that has dual-targeting properties for both the ER and tubulin.
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Iodoacetic Acid activates nrf2-mediated antioxidant response in vitro and in vivo.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Iodoacetic acid (IAA) is an unregulated drinking-water disinfection byproduct with potent cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity in animals. Oxidative stress is thought to be essential for IAA toxicity, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. Here we evaluated the toxicity of IAA by examining nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response, luciferase antioxidant response element (ARE) activity, and intracellular glutathione (GSH) in HepG2 cells. IAA showed significant activation of ARE-luciferase reporter, mRNA, and protein expression of Nrf2 and its downstream genes (GCLC, NQO1, and HO-1). IAA also increased the intracellular GSH level in HepG2 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, we verified IAA induced Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response in rats. Subsequently, we confirmed the specific role of Nrf2 in IAA induced toxicity using NRF2-knockdown cells. Deficiency of NRF2 significantly enhanced sensitivity to IAA toxicity and led to an increase of IAA induced micronulei. We also examined the effects of antioxidant on Nrf2-mediated response in IAA treated cells. Pretreatment with curcumin markedly reduced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity (micronuclei formation) IAA in HepG2 cells. Our work here provides direct evidence that IAA activates Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response in vitro and in vivo and that oxidative stress plays a role in IAA toxicity.
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Elevated cardiac markers in chronic kidney disease as a consequence of hyperphosphatemia-induced cardiac myocyte injury.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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Elevated cardiac markers (CMs) and hyperphosphatemia are commonly encountered in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD), but the causal relationship between them has not been established.
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[Bacterial culture and drug sensitivity analysis of upper urinary tract calculi complicating with infection].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To investigate the bacteriology and drug sensitivity of upper urinary tract calculi patients, and to provide information for choosing suitable antibiotics.
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Lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphoma in KSHV K1 transgenic mice.
Histol. Histopathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Growing evidence supports the involvement of human herpervirus 8, Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), in the pathology of primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, and Kaposi's sarcoma, but the exact mechanism of KSHV contribution to the oncogenic process remains elusive. We studied transgenic mice expressing the ORF K1 of KSHV, whose position in the KSHV genome corresponds to known lymphoproliferative genes of other herpesviruses. K1 protein was previously shown to contain a constitutively active ITAM domain, involved in activation of Akt and pro-survival signaling, and to inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis by interfering with binding of FasL. All this pointed to a possible role of K1 in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated cancers. K1 transgenic mice (80-90%) developed lymphoid hyperplasia and splenomegaly at 8 and 10 months of age, 25% had confirmed diagnosis of lymphoma, and 50% developed abdominal and/or hepatic tumors by 18 months of age. Histological examination showed loss of splenic architecture and increased cellularity. Lymph nodes showed disrupted architecture with effaced follicles and other pathological changes, including signs of angiofollicular lymphoid hyperplasia. One of the livers showed signs of angiosarcoma. In summary, our histology results revealed pathological changes in K1 transgenic mice similar to lymphoma, Castleman's disease, and angiosarcoma, suggesting that K1 may contribute to the development of KSHV-associated cancers.
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The phosphatase mechanism of bifunctional kinase/phosphatase AceK.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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We have revealed that bifunctional AceK kinase/phosphatase utilizes a stepwise addition-elimination mechanism in its dephosphorylation reaction. This work explains how AceK enables opposite kinase and phosphatase activities with Asp477 and a single Mg(2+) ion.
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[Preparation process of rutacarpine-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Rutaecarpine (Rut) is a type of indole quinazoline alkaloid exracted from Ruticarpum. Studies showed that Rut has a wide range of pharmacological effects, such as anti-hypertension, anticancer, anti-inflammation, anti-thrombus formation. Currently, many scholars are committed to developing it into a new antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory drug with all new mechanisms. But studies found that Rut is a highly fat-soluble drug with low water and oil solubility. Its high insolubility is the main obstacle in its oral absorption and application, which greatly reduced its bioavailability. Therefore, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) was used as the inclusion material to prepare Rut-HP-beta-CD inclusion complex in this experiment, in order to increase its water solubility and bioavailability. In this experiment, the inclusion complex was prepared by the stirring-freeze-dry method. The preparation process was optimized by the orthogonal test, with the inclusion rate as the index, and molar ratio between host and guest molecules, inclusion temperature, time and stirring speed as the impacting factors. Moreover, the inclusion complex was verified by detecting the apparent solubility, thin layer chromatography, microscopic identification, melting point detection and dissolution study. The results showed that under the conditions of the molar ratio between Rut and HP-beta-CD of 1: 1, temperature at 60 degrees C, inclusion time of 4h and stirring speed at 600 r x min(-1), the inclusion rate of Rut-HP-beta-CD reached 91.04%. Therefore, the preparation process of Rut-HP-beta-CD inclusion under the optimum conditions is simple and feasible, with a highest inclusion rate and reproducibility, and could significantly improve Rut's solubility and bioavailability, and provide a reliable experimental basis for its clinical application.
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A new model for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in Chinese sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Our goal is to validate the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram and Stanford Online Calculator (SOC) for predicting non-sentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastasis in Chinese patients, and develop a new model for better prediction of NSLN metastasis.
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CD74 interferes with the expression of fas receptor on the surface of lymphoma cells.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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BackgroundResistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis limits the efficacy of currently available chemotherapy regimens. We identified CD74, which is known to be overexpressed in hematological malignancies, as one of the factors interfering with Fas-mediated apoptosis.MethodsCD74 expression was suppressed in human B-lymphoma cell lines, BJAB and Raji, by either transduction with lentivirus particles or transfection with episomal vector, both encoding CD74-specific shRNAs or non-target shRNA. Effect of CD74 expression on Fas signaling was evaluated by comparing survival of mice hydrodynamically transfected with vector encoding full-length CD74 or empty vector. Sensitivity of cells with suppressed CD74 expression to FasL, edelfosine, doxorubicin, and a humanized CD74-specific antibody, milatuzumab, was evaluated by flow cytometry and compared control cells. Fas signaling in response to FasL stimulation and the expression of Fas signaling components were evaluated by Western blot. Surface expression of Fas was detected by flow cytometry.ResultsWe determined that cells with suppressed CD74 are more sensitive to FasL-induced apoptosis and Fas signaling-dependent chemotherapies, edelfosine and doxorubicin, than control CD74-expressing cells. On the other hand, expression of full-length CD74 in livers protected the mice from a lethal challenge with agonistic anti-Fas antibody Jo2. A detailed analysis of Fas signaling in cells lacking CD74 and control cells revealed increased cleavage/activation of pro-caspase-8 and corresponding enhancement of caspase-3 activation in the absence of CD74, suggesting that CD74 affects the immediate early steps in Fas signaling at the plasma membrane. Cells with suppressed CD74 expression showed increased staining of Fas receptor on their surface. Pre-treatment with milatuzumab sensitized BJAB cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis.ConclusionWe anticipate that specific targeting of the CD74 on the cell surface will sensitize CD74-expressing cancer cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis, and thus will increase effectiveness of chemotherapy regimens for hematological malignancies.
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DNA hydrogel by multicomponent assembly for encapsulation and killing of cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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In this work, a new multifunctional assembled hydrogel was prepared by incorporating gadolinium ions (Gd(3+)) with salmon-sperm DNA and polythiophene derivative (PT-COOH) through chelation interactions. Efficient energy transfer from PT-COOH to Gd(3+) ions takes place followed by sensitization of oxygen molecule to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under light irradiation. Cancer cells can be encapsulated into the hydrogel in situ as the formation of hydrogel followed by killing by the ROS. Integration of imaging modality with therapeutic function within a single assembled hydrogel is therefore anticipated to be a new and challenging design element for new hydrogel materials.
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[Glybenclamide regulate ERK1/2 signal pathway during hypoxia hypercapnia pulmonary vasoconstriction in rats].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To investigate the role and significance of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the pathological process of hypoxia hypercapnia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction (HHPV) and the relationship with ERK1/2 signal pathway in rats.
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[Isolation, identification and drug sensitivity of Streptococcus iniae from hybrid sturgeons (Huso dauricus female x Acipenser schrencki male)].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Sturgeons were the important economic species in Beijing. In July 2012, continuous mortality of cultured hybrid sturgeons was occurred on a farm in Huairou.
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Rupestonic acids B-G, NO inhibitory sesquiterpenoids from Artemisia rupestris.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Six new guaiane sesquiterpenoids, rupestonic acids B-G (1-6), have been isolated from the whole plants of Artemisia rupestris together with six known compounds (7-12). The structures of the new isolates (1-6) were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis, and the absolute configurations were established by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) in combination with density functional theory calculations. In in vitro bioassays, compounds 2 and 6 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on LPS-stimulated NO production in BV-2 microglial cells with IC50 values of 2.6 and 2.2 ?M, respectively.
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A Study on the Effect of Neurogenesis and Regulation of GSK3?/PP2A Expression in Acupuncture Treatment of Neural Functional Damage Caused by Focal Ischemia in MCAO Rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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170 SD rats were randomly divided to five groups. Rats in model group, no-acupuncture group, and acupuncture group were subjected to MCAO surgery. Acupuncture group received 3 consecutive acupuncture treatments at a parameter that deep in 2?mm towards apex nasi and thrust/lifted at 3 times per second for 1 minute, while model group and no-acupuncture group were no-intervention control groups. Serious neural functional damage and sharp decrease of cerebral blood flow, obvious infarction volume, increased nestin mRNA expression, and immunopositive cells population (nestin(+), BrdU(+) and nestin/BrdU(+)) were found in MCAO rats which had not been observed in normal group and sham-operated group. However, the damage was attenuated by rat's "self-healing" capacity 3 days after MCAO. And the "self-healing" capacity can be strengthen by acupuncture treatment through increasing cerebral blood flow, neurogenesis, and regulation of gene transcription or GSK-3? and PP2A expression. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the underlying mechanism of acupuncture treatment on neural functional damage caused by focal ischemia injury is a multiple interaction which may involve improved cerebral blood supply, neurogenesis, and regulation of gene transcription or GSK-3? and PP2A expression in MCAO rats.
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Astragalus Polysaccharide Suppresses Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by Regulating the PI3k/Akt and p38MAPK Pathways.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Background. Doxorubicin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, is associated with acute and chronic cardiotoxicity, which is cumulatively dose-dependent. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), the extract of Astragalus membranaceus with strong antitumor and antiglomerulonephritis activity, can effectively alleviate inflammation. However, whether APS could ameliorate chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity is not understood. Here, we investigated the protective effects of APS on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and elucidated the underlying mechanisms of the protective effects of APS. Methods. We analyzed myocardial injury in cancer patients who underwent doxorubicin chemotherapy and generated a doxorubicin-induced neonatal rat cardiomyocyte injury model and a mouse heart failure model. Echocardiography, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, TUNEL, DNA laddering, and Western blotting were performed to observe cell survival, oxidative stress, and inflammatory signal pathways in cardiomyocytes. Results. Treatment of patients with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin led to heart dysfunction. Doxorubicin reduced cardiomyocyte viability and induced C57BL/6J mouse heart failure with concurrent elevated ROS generation and apoptosis, which, however, was attenuated by APS treatment. In addition, there was profound inhibition of p38MAPK and activation of Akt after APS treatment. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that APS could suppress oxidative stress and apoptosis, ameliorating doxorubicin-mediated cardiotoxicity by regulating the PI3k/Akt and p38MAPK pathways.
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Antitumor effects of CD40 ligand-expressing endothelial progenitor cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells in a metastatic breast cancer model.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Given their intrinsic ability to home to tumor sites, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are attractive as cellular vehicles for targeted cancer gene therapy. However, collecting sufficient EPCs is one of the challenging issues critical for effective clinical translation of this new approach. In this study, we sought to explore whether human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could be used as a reliable and accessible cell source to generate human EPCs suitable for cancer treatment. We used an embryoid body formation method to derive CD133(+)CD34(+) EPCs from human iPS cells. The generated EPCs expressed endothelial markers such as CD31, Flk1, and vascular endothelial-cadherin without expression of the CD45 hematopoietic marker. After intravenous injection, the iPS cell-derived EPCs migrated toward orthotopic and lung metastatic tumors in the mouse 4T1 breast cancer model but did not promote tumor growth and metastasis. To investigate their therapeutic potential, the EPCs were transduced with baculovirus encoding the potent T cell costimulatory molecule CD40 ligand. The systemic injection of the CD40 ligand-expressing EPCs stimulated the secretion of both tumor necrosis factor-? and interferon-? and increased the caspase 3/7 activity in the lungs with metastatic tumors, leading to prolonged survival of the tumor bearing mice. Therefore, our findings suggest that human iPS cell-derived EPCs have the potential to serve as tumor-targeted cellular vehicles for anticancer gene therapy.
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Conjugated polymer nanoparticles for cell membrane imaging.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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The outstanding optical properties and biocompatibility of fluorescent conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) make them favorable for bioimaging application. However, few CPNs could achieve stable cell membrane labeling due to cell endocytosis. In this work, conjugated polymer nanoparticles (PFPNP-PLE) encapsulated with PFP and PLGA-PEG-N3 in the matrix and functionalized with the small-molecule drug plerixafor (PLE) on the surface were prepared by a mini-emulsion method. PFPNP-PLE exhibits excellent photophysical properties, low cytotoxicity, and specific cytomembrane location, which makes it a potential cell membrane labeling reagent with blue fluorescence emission, an important component for multilabel/multicolor bioimaging.
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Malignant Minor Salivary Gland Carcinomas of the Larynx.
ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Aims: To explore the clinical characteristics and treatment of malignant minor salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx. Methods: Clinical patient information regarding presentation, pathology, treatment and outcome was obtained through a review of patient charts. Results: Malignant minor salivary carcinomas in the larynx were confirmed pathologically in 15 patients (11 males, 4 females) between 2003 and 2010 in our hospital; 6 patients had mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC; 40%), 6 had adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC; 40%) and 3 had adenocarcinoma (20%). The most common tumour location was the subglottis (60%), followed by the supraglottis (33%). In total, 13 patients underwent surgery, of which 10 (77%) had positive/insufficient resection margins. The mean follow-up time was 42.3 months, with a range of 8-129 months. The 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 46.7 and 20%, respectively. Conclusion: Malignant minor salivary gland carcinoma of the larynx is a rare disease that showed male predominance in our study. The carcinomas were most often localised in the subglottic region, and the most common histological types were ACC and MEC. Wide-margin surgery with postoperative radiotherapy is advocated. The overall prognosis is poor compared to squamous cell carcinomas of the same location and tumour stage. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Protective effects of icariin?mediated SIRT1/FOXO3 signaling pathway on intestinal ischemia/reperfusion?induced acute lung injury.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication following intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and is a major contributing factor to its high mortality rate. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+?dependent deacetylase, has been reported to have an important role in apoptosis inhibition, oxidative stress resistance and cell lifespan extension through its deacetylation of forkhead box protein O3 (FOXO3). It has been demonstrated that icariin (ICA), a flavonoid extracted from Epimedium, upregulates SIRT1 expression. The aim of the present study was to examine whether ICA?mediated SIRT1/FOXO3 signaling pathway activation had a protective effect on intestinal I/R?induced ALI. The effects of ICA on intestinal I/R?induced ALI and its regulation of the SIRT1/FOXO3 signaling pathway on intestinal I/R?induced ALI were investigated in rats. The results demonstrated that ICA pretreatment markedly reduced intestinal I/R?induced ALI as indicated by histological alterations, including decreased tumor necrosis factor?? (TNF??), interleukin 6 (IL?6), reduced oxidative stress, acetylated FOXO3 and B?cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2)?interacting mediator of cell death levels, and increased glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase, SIRT1, manganese superoxide dismutase and Bcl?2 levels in rat lung tissues. Furthermore, ICA pretreatment upregulated SIRT1 expression, which then downregulated FOXO3 acetylation. In conclusion, ICA exhibited significant protective effects in intestinal I/R?induced ALI. The protective effect of ICA may be attributed to the upregulation of SIRT1, which contributed to FOXO3 deacetylation and the modulation of downstream antioxidative and anti?apoptotic factors.
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Cationic oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) materials for combating drug resistance of cancer cells by light manipulation.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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An unconventional strategy that can be temporally and remotely activated with light to combat the drug resistance of cancer cells is developed. A cell-membrane-anchored photosensitizer (OPV) is used to enhance anticancer drug uptake and restore toxicity in resistant cancer cells. This method recovers the activity of the already established anticancer drugs, and provides a new strategy for the development of light manipulation to combat anticancer resistance.
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Protein phosphatase 4 promotes hepatic lipogenesis through dephosphorylating acetyl?CoA carboxylase 1 on serine 79.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Reversible phosphorylation has a critical role in the regulation of the activity of acetyl?CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), which is associated with de novo lipogenesis. It has been shown that AMP?activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates ACC1 on serine 79 and inhibits its activity; however, the mechanism of ACC1 dephosphorylation remains elusive. Protein phosphatase 4 (PP4), a ubiquitous serine/threonine phosphatase, regulates a variety of cellular functions; however, whether PP4 is involved in lipid metabolism has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, PP4 was identified as a novel regulator of ACC1, which is also involved in hepatic lipogenesis. The expression of PP4 was found to be significantly increased in the livers of db/db mice. Furthermore, pACC1?Ser79/ACC1 levels were observed to be decreased and high triglyceride accumulation was found in the livers of db/db mice. Moreover, PP4 overexpression was observed to lead to a decreased pACC1?Ser79/ACC1 ratio and subsequently an increased intracellular triglyceride content in mouse primary hepatocytes. PP4 was also found to directly interact with pACC1?Ser79 in human HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the present study showed that PP4 may be a novel regulator in hepatic lipogenesis through dephosphorylating ACC1 on serine 79, suggesting that PP4 may be a promising therapeutic target in lipid metabolism disorders.
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Chrysophanol attenuates lead exposure-induced injury to hippocampal neurons in neonatal mice.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Previous studies have shown that chrysophanol protects against learning and memory impairments in lead-exposed adult mice. In the present study, we investigated whether chrysophanol can alleviate learning and memory dysfunction and hippocampal neuronal injury in lead-exposed neonatal mice. At the end of lactation, chrysophanol (0.1, 1.0, 10.0 mg/kg) was administered to the neonatal mice by intraperitoneal injection for 15 days. Chrysophanol significantly alleviated injury to hippocampal neurons and improved learning and memory abilities in the lead-poisoned neonatal mice. Chrysophanol also significantly decreased lead content in blood, brain, heart, spleen, liver and kidney in the lead-exposed neonatal mice. The levels of malondialdehyde in the brain, liver and kidney were significantly reduced, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly increased after chrysophanol treatment. Collectively, these findings indicate that chrysophanol can significantly reduce damage to hippocampal neurons in lead-exposed neonatal mice.
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[The effect of niflumic acid in hypoxic hypercapnia pulmonary vasoconstriction].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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To investigate the effect of chloride channel blocker--niflumic acid (NFA) on the pathological process of hypoxia hypercapnia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction in rats.
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Convenient, sensitive and high-throughput method for screening botanic origin.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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In this work, a rapid (within 4-5?h), sensitive and visible new method for assessing botanic origin is developed by combining loop-mediated isothermal amplification with cationic conjugated polymers. The two Chinese medicinal materials (Jin-Yin-Hua and Shan-Yin-Hua) with similar morphology and chemical composition were clearly distinguished by gene SNP genotyping assays. The identification of plant species in Patented Chinese drugs containing Lonicera buds is successfully performed using this detection system. The method is also robust enough to be used in high-throughput screening. This new method is very helpful to identify herbal materials, and is beneficial for detecting safety and quality of botanic products.
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Changes in symptom severity in Taiwanese lung cancer patients after gefitinib treatment: a pilot study.
Int J Palliat Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate symptom severity in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients prior to gefitinib treatment and at 1-, 3- and 6-month intervals after starting treatment.
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Esophageal Helicobacter pylori colonization aggravates esophageal injury caused by reflux.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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To investigate esophageal Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization on esophageal injury caused by reflux and the related mechanisms.
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8-C N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinone substituted flavan-3-ols as the marker compounds of Chinese dark teas formed in the post-fermentation process provide significant antioxidative activity.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Phytochemical investigation of the aqueous extract of pu-erh tea afforded eight novel 8-C N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinone substituted flavan-3-ols (puerins I-VIII) by (1)H, (13)C, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) analysis. Comparative chemical analysis of green tea, black tea and Chinese dark teas confirmed that these compounds were the marker compounds of Chinese dark teas. Furthermore, fungal fermentation was indispensable for the biosynthesis of these novel compounds. Through single fungal fermentation, it was proved that catechins and theanine were the precursors of puerins I-VIII. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis elucidated the biosynthetic pathway for puerins I-VIII. Puerins I-IV have potential protective effects for the human micro-vascular endothelial cells (HMEC) injury induced by hydrogen dioxide compared to other tea polyphenols. 8-C N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinone substituted flavan-3-ols could be used in the quality control and authentication of Chinese dark teas.
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Application of nanotechnology in improving bioavailability and bioactivity of diet-derived phytochemicals.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Nanotechnology is an innovative approach that has potential applications in nutraceutical research. Phytochemicals have promising potential for maintaining and promoting health, as well as preventing and potentially treating some diseases. However, the generally low solubility, stability, bioavailability and target specificity, together with the side effects seen when used at high levels, have limited their application. Indeed, nanoparticles can increase solubility and stability of phytochemicals, enhance their absorption, protect them from premature degradation in the body and prolong their circulation time. Moreover, these nanoparticles exhibit high differential uptake efficiency in the target cells (or tissue) over normal cells (or tissue) through preventing them from prematurely interacting with the biological environment, enhanced permeation and retention effect in disease tissues and improving their cellular uptake, resulting in decreased toxicity, In this review, we outline the commonly used biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles including liposomes, emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, micelles and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles. We then summarize studies that have used these nanoparticles as carriers for epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, resveratrol and curcumin administration to enhance their aqueous solubility, stability, bioavailability, target specificity and bioactivities.
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Using artificial microRNA sponges to achieve microRNA loss-of-function in cancer cells.
Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Widely observed dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) in human cancer has led to substantial speculation regarding possible functions of these short, non-coding RNAs in cancer development and manipulation of miRNA expression to treat cancer. To achieve miRNA loss-of-function, miRNA sponge technology has been developed to use plasmid or viral vectors for intracellular expression of tandemly arrayed, bulged miRNA binding sites complementary to a miRNA target to saturate its ability to regulate natural mRNAs. A strong viral promoter can be used in miRNA sponge vectors to generate high-level expression of the competitive inhibitor transcripts for either transient or long-term inhibition of miRNA function. Taking the advantage of sharing a common seed sequence by members of a miRNA family, this technology is especially useful in knocking down the expression of a family of miRNAs, providing a powerful means for simultaneous inhibition of multiple miRNAs of interest with a single inhibitor. Knockdown of overexpressed oncogenic miRNAs with the technology can be a rational therapeutic strategy for cancer, whereas inhibition of tumor-suppressive miRNAs by the sponges will be useful in deciphering functions of miRNAs in oncogenesis. Herein, we discuss the design of miRNA sponge expression vectors and the use of the vectors to gain better understanding of miRNA's roles in cancer biology and as an alternative tool for anticancer gene therapy.
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An efficient preparation of mulberroside a from the branch bark of mulberry and its effect on the inhibition of tyrosinase activity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A bioactive ingredient in an ethanol extract from the branch bark of cultivated mulberry Husang-32 (Morus multicaulis Perr.) was isolated using a macroporous resin column. The primary component, which was purified by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), was identified as mulberroside A (MA) by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. In total, 4.12 g MA was efficiently extracted from one kilogram of mulberry bark. The enzymatic analysis showed that MA inhibited the generation of dopachrome by affecting the activities of monophenolase and diphenolase of tyrosinase in vitro. This analysis indicated that MA and oxyresveratrol (OR), which is the the aglycone of mulberroside A, exhibited strong inhibition of the monophenolase activity with IC50 values of 1.29 µmol/L and 0.12 µmol/L, respectively. However, the former showed weaker inhibitory activity than the latter for diphenolase. For the monophenolase activity, the inhibitory activity of MA and OR was reversible and showed mixed type 1 inhibition. Additionally, the inhibition constant KI (the inhibition constant of the effectors on tyrosinase) values were 0.385 µmol/L and 0.926 µmol/L, respectively, and the KIS (the inhibition constants of the enzyme-substrate complex) values were 0.177 µmol/L and 0.662 µmol/L, respectively. However, MA showed competitive inhibition of diphenolase activity, and KI was 4.36 µmol/L. In contrast, OR showed noncompetitive inhibition and KI?=?KIS?=?2.95 µmol/L. Taken together, these results provide important information concerning the inhibitory mechanism of MA on melanin synthesis, which is widely used in whitening cosmetics.
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Streptomyces coelicolor SCO4226 Is a Nickel Binding Protein.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The open reading frame SCO4226 of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) encodes an 82-residue hypothetical protein. Biochemical assays revealed that each SCO4226 dimer binds four nickel ions. To decipher the molecular function, we solved the crystal structures of SCO4226 in both apo- and nickel-bound (Ni-SCO4226) forms at 1.30 and 2.04 Å resolution, respectively. Each subunit of SCO4226 dimer adopts a canonical ferredoxin-like fold with five ?-strands flanked by two ?-helices. In the structure of Ni-SCO4226, four nickel ions are coordinated at the surface of the dimer. Further biochemical assays suggested that the binding of Ni2+ triggers the self-aggregation of SCO4226 in vitro. In addition, RT-qPCR assays demonstrated that the expression of SCO4226 gene in S. coelicolor is specifically up-regulated by the addition of Ni2+, but not other divalent ions such as Cu2+, Mn2+ or Co2+. All these results suggested that SCO4226 acts as a nickel binding protein, probably required for nickel sequestration and/or detoxification.
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A risk assessment model for type 2 diabetes in Chinese.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To develop a risk assessment model for persons at risk from type 2 diabetes in Chinese.
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Effect of luminance noise on the object frequencies mediating letter identification.
Front Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To determine if the same object frequency information mediates letter contrast threshold in the presence and absence of additive luminance noise (i.e., "noise-invariant processing") for letters of different size.
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Association of branched-chain amino acids with carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery disease risk factors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent studies have determined that branched-chain (BCAAs) and aromatic (AAAs) amino acids are strongly correlated with obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia and are strong predictors of diabetes. However, it is not clear if these amino acids are capable of identifying subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD), particularly with subclinical atherosclerosis who are at risk of developing CAD.
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Study on the expressions of PHD and HIF in placentas from normal pregnant women and patients with preeclampsia.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the relationship between oxygen sensitivity of trophoblast and hypoxia in preeclamptic placenta by the study on the expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl 4-hydroxylase (PHD) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in placentas from normal pregnant women and patients with pre-eclampsia.
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[Blue-light induced expression of S-adenosy-L-homocysteine hydrolase-like gene in Mucor amphibiorum RCS1].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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To determine blue-light induced expression of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase-like (sahhl) gene in fungus Mucor amphibiorum RCS1.
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[Clinical study of 67 cases of endometriosis coexisting with genital tract anomalies].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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To investigate the pathogenesis of endometriosis by studying endometriosis coexisting with variable genital tract anomalies and analysis the association between obstructive or non-obstructive anomalies with endometriosis.
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Associated Analysis of DNA Methylation for Cancer Detection Using CCP-Based FRET Technique.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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This paper describes an associated analysis method of DNA methylation for the detection of cancer using an optically amplifying cationic conjugated polymer (CCP, poly{(1,4-phenylene)-2,7-[9,9-bis(6-N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium)-hexyl fluorene] dibromide)}. Genomic DNA is digested by methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease, followed by PCR amplification to incorporate fluorescein-labeled dNTP. Only methylated DNA can be amplified by PCR, and the methylation level is detected through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between CCP and fluorescein that is incorporated into the PCR product. The methylation levels of RASSF1A, OPCML, and HOXA9 promoters of 35 ovarian cancer samples and 11 normal samples were assayed. In accordance with the degree of methylation levels, they are clustered to three sections and assigned a value. Through an associated analysis, we acquired a threshold for cancer detection with a sensitivity of 85.7%. The assay takes about 20 h to obtain the detection results and shows great potential as a useful tool for diagnostic and screening of cancer.
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In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Activities of Tenacissoside C from Marsdenia tenacissima.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Tenacissoside C, a natural bioactive compound of C21 steroidal saponins, was isolated and purified from air-dried stems of Marsdenia tenacissima. In the present study, the MTT assay showed that tenacissoside C exhibited obvious cytotoxicity in K562 cells with IC50 values of 31.4, 22.2, and 15.1?µM for 24, 48, and 72?h, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the antiproliferative activity induced by tenacissoside C might be executed via G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and proapoptosis in K562 cells. Western blotting analysis elucidated that: A) Tenacissoside C induced K562 cell cycle (G0/G1) arrest via downregulating cycline D1 protein expression; and B) Tenacissoside C induced K562 cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway by downregulating Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression, upregulating Bax and Bak protein expression, and activating caspase-9 and caspase-3. In vivo, significant tumor growth inhibition activity of tenacissoside C was observed in K562 cell-bearing nude mice, accompanied by a significant antiangiogenic effect in vivo against K562 cells (a marked decrease in MVD) and associated with enhanced apoptotic cell death (TUNEL staining assay in vivo), both in dose-dependent manners. The treatment with tenacissoside C did not significantly affect body mass and macroscopic examination of the organs in this mouse tumor model.
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Human Dendritic Cells Derived From Embryonic Stem Cells Stably Modified With CD1d Efficiently Stimulate Antitumor Invariant Natural Killer T Cell Response.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a unique lymphocyte subpopulation that mediates antitumor activities upon activation. A current strategy to harness iNKT cells for cancer treatment is endogenous iNKT cell activation using patient-derived dendritic cells (DCs). However, the limited number and functional defects of patient DCs are still the major challenges for this therapeutic approach. In this study, we investigated whether human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) with an ectopically expressed CD1d gene could be exploited to address this issue. Using a lentivector carrying an optimized expression cassette, we generated stably modified hESC lines that consistently overexpressed CD1d. These modified hESC lines were able to differentiate into DCs as efficiently as the parental line. Most importantly, more than 50% of such derived DCs were CD1d+. These CD1d-overexpressing DCs were more efficient in inducing iNKT cell response than those without modification, and their ability was comparable to that of DCs generated from monocytes of healthy donors. The iNKT cells expanded by the CD1d-overexpressing DCs were functional, as demonstrated by their ability to lyse iNKT cell-sensitive glioma cells. Therefore, hESCs stably modified with the CD1d gene may serve as a convenient, unlimited, and competent DC source for iNKT cell-based cancer immunotherapy.
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[Identification and drug sensitivity of a Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from diseased sturgeons].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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In 2012, the cumulative mortality of farmed sturgeons in Beijing was almost 60% with various symptoms, including the reddening of the anus with yellow exudation, ascities in the peritoneal cavity, petechial haemorrhages in liver and internal muscle wall, and the swollen spleen.
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Cluster analysis for acupoint specificity of acupuncture effect based on cerebral infarction rat model.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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To study the acupoint specificity through the comprehensive evaluation of the acupuncture effect on rat model with the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).
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Zinc finger nuclease-expressing baculoviral vectors mediate targeted genome integration of reprogramming factor genes to facilitate the generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Integrative gene transfer using retroviruses to express reprogramming factors displays high efficiency in generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), but the value of the method is limited because of the concern over mutagenesis associated with random insertion of transgenes. Site-specific integration into a preselected locus by engineered zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology provides a potential way to overcome the problem. Here, we report the successful reprogramming of human fibroblasts into a state of pluripotency by baculoviral transduction-mediated, site-specific integration of OKSM (Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-myc) transcription factor genes into the AAVS1 locus in human chromosome 19. Two nonintegrative baculoviral vectors were used for cotransduction, one expressing ZFNs and another as a donor vector encoding the four transcription factors. iPSC colonies were obtained at a high efficiency of 12% (the mean value of eight individual experiments). All characterized iPSC clones carried the transgenic cassette only at the ZFN-specified AAVS1 locus. We further demonstrated that when the donor cassette was flanked by heterospecific loxP sequences, the reprogramming genes in iPSCs could be replaced by another transgene using a baculoviral vector-based Cre recombinase-mediated cassette exchange system, thereby producing iPSCs free of exogenous reprogramming factors. Although the use of nonintegrating methods to generate iPSCs is rapidly becoming a standard approach, methods based on site-specific integration of reprogramming factor genes as reported here hold the potential for efficient generation of genetically amenable iPSCs suitable for future gene therapy applications.
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Acupuncture treatment for hypertension: a case study.
Acupunct Med
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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This report describes the regular use of acupuncture treatments for a patient with hypertension who could not tolerate the side effects of the antihypertensive agents. The patient received 60 acupuncture treatments in the course of 12 weeks, during which time his overall wellbeing improved, his blood pressure reduced and the side effects of antihypertensive drugs were removed. Although acupuncture plus the drug appeared to have a substantial synergistic effect that was weakened when the drug was discontinued, acupuncture may still play a role in the management of hypertension, especially for patients who cannot tolerate the side effects of antihypertensive agents.
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Bioluminescence as a light source for photosynthesis.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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The luminol bioluminescence system containing luminol, hydrogen peroxide and HRP was used as a potential substitute light source of sunlight for the photosynthesis of plants, in which the electron flow of the photosynthesis process was proven using chloroplasts isolated from spinach leaves.
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Multi-Colored Fibers by Self-Assembly of DNA, Histone Proteins, and Cationic Conjugated Polymers.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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The development of biomolecular fiber materials with imaging ability has become more and more useful for biological applications. In this work, cationic conjugated polymers (CCPs) were used to construct inherent fluorescent microfibers with natural biological macromolecules (DNA and histone proteins) through the interfacial polyelectrolyte complexation (IPC) procedure. Isothermal titration microcalorimetry results show that the driving forces for fiber formation are electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, as well as the release of counterions and bound water molecules. Color-encoded IPC fibers were also obtained based on the co-assembly of DNA, histone proteins, and blue-, green-, or red- (RGB-) emissive CCPs by tuning the fluorescence resonance energy-transfer among the CCPs at a single excitation wavelength. The fibers could encapsulate GFP-coded Escherichia coli BL21, and the expression of GFP proteins was successfully regulated by the external environment of the fibers. These multi-colored fibers show a great potential in biomedical applications, such as biosensor, delivery, and release of biological molecules and tissue engineering.
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Metabolic profiling in nutrition and metabolic disorders.
Adv Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Nutrients exert potent effects on metabolism through a variety of regulatory mechanisms, resulting in local and systemic changes in metabolite levels. Numerous studies have focused on mechanisms by which nutrients and disease states regulate metabolism at the gene or protein levels using genomic and proteomic approaches, respectively. However, few studies have investigated nutritional regulation of the whole metabolome. Thus, metabolomic approaches have recently emerged to complement the genomics and proteomics research and to help identify biologically meaningful metabolites and metabolic networks that control cellular responses to genetic and environmental factors, including diet, and to identify metabolic diseases that are influenced by genetic and dietary factors. These large-scale studies expedite our ability to develop targeted treatments. The goal of this symposium was to provide a forum to introduce the metabolomics field to nutrition researchers. An overview of the state-of-the-art metabolomic technologies used was provided. The impact of some specific nutrients, disease states, or genetic variations and their interaction with the metabolome was discussed by the speakers. Our objectives were as follows: 1) to educate the audience about the use of metabolomics as an innovative tool for linking changes in cell metabolites and genetic variations to nutrient metabolism, energy balance, and the overlying effects on health and disease; 2) to understand the concept of metabolomics and describe the analytical tools and resources available in this area; 3) to introduce the potential application of metabolomics in the field of nutrition research; and 4) to provide specific nutrition-relevant metabolomics study examples in investigating regulation of the metabolic network or metabolic changes resulting from disease states by dietary factors.
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T-Box20 Suppresses Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-induced Human Vascular Endothelial Cell Injury by Upregulation of PPAR-?.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Background: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation disease which is initiated by endothelial cell injury Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is directly associated with chronic vascular inflammation. Many transcription factors take part in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. As a transcription factor mainly expressed in cardiovascular system, T-box20 (Tbx20) plays an important role in embryonic cardiovascular system development and homeostasis. However, the role of Tbx20 in endothelial cell injury and atherosclerosis is still not clear. We showed that Tbx20 might affect ox-LDL-induced inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods and Results: First, Tbx20 expression was down regulated in the C57BL/6 mice with high-fat diet-induced artery injury, which was accompanied by elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cell adhesion molecule expression. Second, ox-LDL led to concurrent decreased Tbx20 expression and increased levels of ROS and adhesion molecules in the HUVECs. Third, over-expression of Tbx20 by adenovirus reduced ox-LDL-induced HUVEC injury via attenuation of ROS generation and cell adhesion molecule expression. Fourth, knock down of Tbx20 by siRNA significantly increased adhesion molecule expression and decreased cell viability. Moreover, Tbx20 could directly regulate PPAR-? expression, as shown by Tbx20 knock down and PPAR-? inhibition, which significantly reversed Tbx20s HUVEC protection effect. Conclusions: These results indicate that misregulation of Tbx20 could reduce HUVEC tolerance of ox-LDL-induced cell injury, suggesting that Tbx20 might be a crucial regulator and potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Multicellular Assembly and Light-Regulation of Cell-Cell Communication by Conjugated Polymer Materials.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Using cell-surface modification and biotin-streptavidin interactions, immune cells and target tumor cells are made to form multicellular assemblies. A polythiophene derivative can undergo cellular uptake, allowing the sensitization of oxygen under light irradiation. The subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulates cell-cell communication in time and space.
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Nanoencapsulation Enhances Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Stability and Its Antiatherogenic Bioactivities in Macrophages.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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We have successfully synthesized (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) encapsulated nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCE) and chitosan-coated NLCE (CSNLCE) using natural lipids, surfactant, chitosan, and EGCG. Nanoencapsulation dramatically improved EGCG stability. CSNLCE significantly increased EGCG content in THP-1-derived macrophages compared with nonencapsulated EGCG. As compared to 10 ?M nonencapsulated EGCG, both NLCE and CSNLCE at the same concentration significantly decreased macrophage cholesteryl ester content. NLCE and CSNLCE significantly decreased mRNA levels and protein secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in macrophages, respectively. These data suggest that nanoencapsulated EGCG may have a potential to inhibit atherosclerotic lesion development through decreasing macrophage cholesterol content and MCP-1 expression.
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Detection of pelvic lymph node micrometastasis by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in prostate cancer patients after hormonal therapy.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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To determine the feasibility of prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA and prostatic-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) mRNA measurement in detection of pelvic lymph node (PLN) micrometastasis for prostate cancer (PCa) after hormonal therapy (HT).
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New frontiers in the treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia.
Rev Diabet Stud
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications in people with diabetes. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels is effective in the primary and secondary prevention of diabetic vascular complications. However, LDL-C levels do not reflect all aspects of diabetic dyslipidemia, which is characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Statins, nicotinic acid, and fibrates play a role in treating diabetic dyslipidemia. Atherosclerosis is a major disorder of the blood vessel wall in patients with diabetes. A number of antihyperlipidemic agents may be beneficial and exhibit effects at the actual site of vascular disease and not only on plasma lipoprotein concentrations. Several novel therapeutic compounds are currently being developed. These include additional therapeutics for LDL-C, triglycerides, HDL-C, and modulators of inflammation that can be used as possible synergic agents for the treatment of atherosclerosis and irregularities in plasma lipoprotein concentrations.
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Characterization of a marine-derived dextranase and its application to the prevention of dental caries.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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The dextranase added in current commercial dextranase-containing mouthwashes is largely from fungi. However, fungal dextranase has shown much higher optimum temperature than bacterial dextranase and relatively low activity when used in human oral cavities. Bacterial dextranase has been considered to be more effective and suitable for dental caries prevention. In this study, a dextranase (Dex410) from marine Arthrobacter sp. was purified and characterized. Dex410 is a 64-kDa endoglycosidase. The specific activity of Dex410 was 11.9 U/mg at optimum pH 5.5 and 45 °C. The main end-product of Dex410 was isomaltotriose, isomaltoteraose, and isomaltopentaose by hydrolyzing dextran T2000. In vitro studies showed that Dex410 effectively inhibited the Streptococcus mutans biofilm growth in coverage, biomass, and water-soluble glucan (WSG) by more than 80, 90, and 95 %, respectively. The animal experiment revealed that for short-term use (1.5 months), both Dex410 and the commercial mouthwash Biotene (Laclede Professional Products, Gardena, CA, USA) had a significant inhibitory effect on caries (p = 0.0008 and 0.0001, respectively), while for long-term use (3 months), only Dex410 showed significant inhibitory effect on dental caries (p = 0.005). The dextranase Dex410 from a marine-derived Arthrobacter sp. strain possessed the enzyme properties suitable to human oral environment and applicable to oral hygiene products.
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[Clinical study of repairing donor site of thickness from cicatricial skin with auto-scalp grafting].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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To study the effects of using auto-scalp for repairing donor site of thickness from cicatricial skin with auto-scalp grafting.
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Functions and mechanisms of green tea catechins in regulating bone remodeling.
Curr Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Osteoporosis is caused by an imbalance in bone remodeling, a process involving bone-building osteoblasts and bone-resorptive osteoclasts. Excessive reactive oxygen species and inflammatory responses have been shown to stimulate differentiation and function of osteoclasts while inducing osteoblast apoptosis and suppressing osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation via extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), ERK-dependent nuclear factor-?B and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways. The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory green tea catechins (GTC) have been shown to promote osteoblastogenesis, suppress osteoclastogenesis and stimulate the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts rather than adipocytes by modulating the signaling pathways. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of GTC, their bone-protective activities evidenced in in vitro and in vivo studies, and the limited clinical studies supporting these preclinical findings. In light of the physical, economical, and social burdens due to osteoporosis, easily accessible and affordable preventive measures such as GTC deserves further clinical studies prior to its clinical application.
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Sesquiterpene dimer (DSF-52) from Artemisia argyi inhibits microglia-mediated neuroinflammation via suppression of NF-?B, JNK/p38 MAPKs and Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathways.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Microglia-involved neuroinflammation is thought to promote brain damage in various neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, novel therapeutics suppressing microglia over-activation could prove useful for neuroprotection in inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. DSF-52 is a novel sesquiterpene dimer compound isolated from medical plant Artemisia argyi by our group. In this study, we investigated whether DSF-52 inhibited the neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. Our findings showed that DSF-52 inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), as well as mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia. Moreover, DSF-52 markedly up-regulated mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Mechanism study indicated that DSF-52 suppressed Akt/I?B/NF-?B inflammation pathway against LPS treatment. Also, DSF-52 down-regulated the phosphorylation levels of JNK and p38 MAPKs, but not ERK. Furthermore, DSF-52 blocked Jak2/Stat3 dependent inflammation pathway through inhibiting Jak2 and Stat3 phosphorylation, as well as Stat3 nuclear translocation. We concluded that the inhibitory ability of DSF-52 on microglia-mediated neuroinflammation may offer a novel neuroprotective modality and could be potentially useful in inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases.
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Inhibitory constituents from the aerial parts of Polygala tenuifolia on LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglia cells.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Five new phenolic glycosides, tenuisides A-E (1-5), and a new megastigmane glycoside, tenuiside F (6), along with seventeen known compounds (7-23) were isolated from the aerial parts of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. Their structures were established by detailed analysis of NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations of compounds 5 and 6 were determined by CD spectra and in-NMR-tube Moshers method. The inhibitory effects of these compounds were evaluated on NO production in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia cells. Compound 17 showed the strongest activity, with an IC50 value of 7.4?M, while compounds 1, 8, 14, and 18 showed the moderate activities, with IC50 values of 16.2-38.5?M. And their primary structure-activity relationships (SARs) of NO inhibitory effects were also briefly discussed.
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Associations between Tissue Visfatin/Nicotinamide, Phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), Retinol Binding Protein-4, and Vaspin Concentrations and Insulin Resistance in Morbidly Obese Subjects.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Visfatin/Nampt, vaspin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) play an important role in insulin resistance. The objectives of this study were to measure visfatin/Nampt, vaspin, and RBP-4 concentrations in blood, liver, muscle, subcutaneous, omental, and mesenteric adipose tissues in morbidly obese subjects and investigate their relationship to insulin resistance. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 38 morbidly obese subjects during Roux-en-Y surgery. Insulin resistance biomarkers were measured using standard kits. Visfatin/Nampt, vaspin, and RBP-4 gene expression levels in tissues were measured using real-time PCR. Their protein concentrations in blood and tissues were measured using ELISA kits. Diabetic subjects had significantly higher homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance and age and lower blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations than nondiabetic and prediabetic subjects. Diabetic and prediabetic subjects had significantly higher blood concentrations of visfatin/Nampt and vaspin than nondiabetic subjects. Liver RBP-4 concentrations were positively associated with blood glucose concentrations. Blood insulin resistance biomarker levels were positively associated with visfatin/Nampt concentrations in omental adipose tissue and liver, and vaspin concentrations in mesenteric adipose tissue. In conclusion, the correlations of visfatin/Nampt, vaspin, and RBP-4 with insulin resistance are tissue dependent.
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Multiplex detection of DNA mutations by the fluorescence fingerprint spectrum technique.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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A fingerprint spectrum technique that utilizes cationic conjugated-polymer-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is used for multiplex detection of DNA mutations. This method detects as low as 5?% mutation of the total DNA. Ten PIK3CA mutations originating from 30 clinical breast cancer samples could be detected.
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Quercetin-nanostructured lipid carriers: Characteristics and anti-breast cancer activities in vitro.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Quercetin (Q), a common dietary flavonoid, has gained research attention in cancer chemo-prevention, but its low level of aqueous solubility, stability, cellular bioavailability has limited its application. We have synthesized biocompatible and biodegradable Q-nanostructured lipid carriers (Q-NLC) using a novel phase inversion-based process method. The average size of Q-NLC was 32nm in diameter. Q-NLC had good chemical and physical stability, and showed a sustained release pattern. The encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of Q-NLC were 95% and 11%, respectively. The aqueous solubility of Q was dramatically improved by at least 1000 folds. The results from Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated that Q presented in NLC as an encapsulated molecule form. As compared to native Q, Q-NLC dramatically increased cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner (1-50?M) and induced apoptosis at 20?M in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptosis were parallel to increased Q uptake by those cancer cells. Void NLC did not change the viability and apoptosis of those cancer cells as compared to phosphate buffered saline. In conclusion, Q-NLC dramatically enhanced the anti-cancer activities of Q, which were associated with enhanced Q solubility and stability, and increased Q content in those cancer cells. Q-NLC have a potential for chemo-preventive use in breast cancer.
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Aortic cholesterol accumulation correlates with systemic inflammation but not hepatic and gonadal adipose tissue inflammation in low-density lipoprotein receptor null mice.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Inflammation is a major contributor to the development of atherosclerotic plaque, yet the involvement of liver and visceral adipose tissue inflammatory status in atherosclerotic lesion development has yet to be fully elucidated. We hypothesized that an atherogenic diet would increase inflammatory response and lipid accumulation in the liver and gonadal adipose tissue (GAT) and would correlate with systemic inflammation and aortic lesion formation in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor null (LDLr-/-) mice. For 32 weeks, LDLr-/- mice (n = 10/group) were fed either an atherogenic (high saturated fat and cholesterol) or control (low fat and cholesterol) diet. Hepatic and GAT lipid content and expression of inflammatory factors were measured using standard procedures. Compared with the control diet, the atherogenic diet significantly increased hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC), primarily esterified cholesterol, and GAT triglyceride content. These changes were accompanied by increased expression of acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 5, CD36, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 and scavenger receptor B class 1, and they decreased the expression of cytochrome P450, family 7 and subfamily a, polypeptide 1 in GAT. Aortic TC content was positively associated with hepatic TC, triglyceride, and GAT triglyceride contents as well as plasma interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentrations. Although when compared with the control diet, the atherogenic diet increased hepatic tumor necrosis factor ? production, they were not associated with aortic TC content. These data suggest that the LDLr-/- mice responded to the atherogenic diet by increasing lipid accumulation in the liver and GAT, which may have increased inflammatory response. Aortic TC content was positively associated with systemic inflammation but not hepatic and GAT inflammatory status.
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Effects of high-dose phytoestrogens on circulating cellular microparticles and coagulation function in postmenopausal women.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Estrogen in hormone replacement therapy causes homeostatic changes. However, little is known regarding the safety of high-dose phytoestrogen on coagulation and hematological parameters in healthy postmenopausal women. This study evaluated the effects of high-dose soy isoflavone (300 mg/day) on blood pressure, hematological parameters, and coagulation functions including circulating microparticles in healthy postmenopausal women.
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Upregulation of M? muscarinic receptor inhibits cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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M? muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M?-mAChR) is stably expressed in the myocardium, but its pathophysiological role remains largely undefined. This study aimed to investigate the role of M?-mAChR in cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
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Ultrastructural pathological changes in the cochlear cells of connexin 26 conditional knockout mice.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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Mutations in the gene of connexin 26 (Cx26) are the most common cause of human non?syndromic hereditary deafness. The pathogenesis of deafness caused by Cx26 remains uncertain. To explore the basic mechanism underlying Cx26 null mutations, ultrastructural changes and a number of marker proteins in the cochlear sensory epithelium of Cx26 conditional knockout mice were observed in the current study. Cochlear specimens were obtained from Cx26 conditional knockout mice (cCx26ko), while wild?type mice served as controls. Antibodies against the pillar cell marker P75, the supporting cell marker prox1 and hair cell markers myosin 6 and phalloidin were labeled in different cells of the cochlear sensory epithelium of cochlear cryosections. The ultrastructural morphology of cochlear sensory epithelium was observed using transmission electron microscopy. Following the observation of cochlear sensory epithelium cell markers for hair cells and supporting cells, no significant changes were observed at the early stage, while the tunnel of the organ of Corti and Nuels space was not developed prior to hearing onset in cCx26 knockout mice. Cell death was observed from postnatal day 10 (P10). The only region of surviving cells observed in the cochlea was the Hensen cell region, where microglia?like cells appeared following P180. Overall, the present study showed an abnormal ultrastructural morphology in the cochlear sensory epithelium in cCx26ko mice. Microglia?like cells may be involved in the process of cell degeneration in cCx26ko mice.
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Encapsulated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by alginate gel beads as an in vitro metastasis model.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and often forms metastases, which are the most important prognostic factors. For further elucidation of the mechanism underlying the progression and metastasis of HCC, a culture system mimicking the in vivo tumor microenvironment is needed. In this study, we investigated the metastatic ability of HCC cells cultured within alginate gel (ALG) beads. In the culture system, HCC cells formed spheroids by proliferation and maintained in nuclear abnormalities. The gene and protein expression of metastasis-related molecules was increased in ALG beads, compared with the traditional adhesion culture. Furthermore, several gene expression levels in ALG bead culture system were even closer to liver cancer tissues. More importantly, in vitro invasion assay showed that the invasion cells derived from ALG beads was 7.8-fold higher than adhesion cells. Our results indicated that the in vitro three-dimensional (3D) model based on ALG beads increased metastatic ability compared with adhesion culture, even partly mimicked the in vivo tumor tissues. Moreover, due to the controllable preparation conditions, steady characteristics and production at large-scale, the 3D ALG bead model would become an important tool used in the high-throughput screening of anti-metastasis drugs and the metastatic mechanism research.
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The effect of electrostatic microencapsulation process on biological properties of tumour cells.
J Microencapsul
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Microencapsulation is one of the promising strategies to develop a three-dimensional in vivo tumour-mimic model in cancer research. Although previous studies have shown that tumour cells grow well during the microencapsulated culture, it is still not clear whether the electrostatic encapsulation process has an important effect on cellular characteristics. In this study, we investigated cellular response against non-physiological stress factors existing in the electrostatic microencapsulation process, such as the high-voltage electrostatic field, suspension and nutrition-free status. Our results showed that these non-physiological stress factors did not significantly induce cellular apoptosis, and did not affect cellular adhesion and viability. Furthermore, no change was found about invasion and drug resistance of the tumour cells. The normal endoplasmic reticulum function might play a role in maintaining biological properties during the electrostatic microencapsulation process.
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Targeted transgene insertion into the AAVS1 locus driven by baculoviral vector-mediated zinc finger nuclease expression in human-induced pluripotent stem cells.
J Gene Med
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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The AAVS1 locus is viewed as a safe harbor for transgene insertion into human genome. In the present study, we report a new method for AAVS1 targeting in human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs).
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[Effect of gambogic acid on proliferation of SKM-1 cells and its mechanism].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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The aim of this study was to explore the effect of gambogic acid (GA) on MDS SKM-1 cell proliferation, apoptosis and their possible mechanism. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT method. The apoptosis percentage and cell cycle regulation of SKM-1 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Morphological features were observed by light microscopy. The mRNA expression of bcl-2 and bax were detected by RT-PCR. The results showed that GA could inhibit the proliferation of SKM-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner (IC50 was 0.37 µg/ml at 48 h), increase the apoptotic percentage of SKM-1 cells, and arrest cell cycle at the G0/G1. The expression of bax mRNA was up-regulated while that of bcl-2 mRNA was down-regulated in SKM-1 cells treated with GA for 48 h. It is concluded that GA can induce apoptosis, which may be related to its effect of arresting cells at phase of G0/G1 and down-regulating bcl-2/bax ratio.
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Endoglin (CD105) expression on microvessel endothelial cells in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: tissue microarray analysis and association with prognostic significance.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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The purpose of this study was to examine endoglin (CD105) expression on microvessel endothelial cells (ECs) in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and its relationship with recurrence.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.