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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Examining the Risks of Cardiac Arrhythmia and Mortality among New-Generation Macrolides, Fluoroquinolones, and Beta-Lactam/Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor: A Nationwide Study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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?Previous studies have demonstrated increased cardiovascular mortality related to azithromycin and levofloxacin. Risks associated with alternative drugs in the same class, including clarithromycin and moxifloxacin, were unknown. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database to perform a nationwide, population-based study that compares the risks of ventricular arrhythmia and cardiovascular death among these antibiotics.
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Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Cell Entry is Dependent on CD163 and Uses a Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis-like Pathway.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) causes a severe and almost uniformly fatal viral hemorrhagic fever in Asian macaques, but is thought to be nonpathogenic for humans. To date, the SHFV lifecycle is almost completely uncharacterized on the molecular level. Here we describe the first steps of the SHFV lifecycle. Our experiments indicate that SHFV enters target cells by low pH-dependent endocytosis. Dynamin inhibitors, chlorpromazine, methyl-?-cyclodextrin, chloroquine, and concanamycin A dramatically reduced SHFV entry efficiency, whereas the macropinocytosis inhibitors EIPA, blebbistatin, and wortmannin, and the caveolin-mediated endocytosis inhibitors nystatin and filipin III had no effect. Furthermore, overexpression and knock-out study and electron-microscopy results indicate that SHFV entry occurs by a dynamin-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis-like pathway. Experiments utilizing latrunculin B, cytochalasin B, and cytochalasin D indicate that SHFV does not hijack the actin polymerization pathway. Treatment of target cells with proteases (proteinase K, papain, ?-chymotrypsin, trypsin) abrogated entry, indicating that the SHFV cell-surface receptor is a protein. Phospholipases A2 and D had no effect on SHFV entry. Finally, treatment of cells with antibodies targeting CD163, a cell surface molecule identified as an entry factor for the SHFV-related porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, diminished SHFV replication, identifying CD163 as an important SHFV entry component.
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Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-positive Healthcare-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Are Associated with Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Colonized Mainly by Infective PVL-encoding Bacteriophages.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Emergence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health concern worldwide. PVL is associated with community-associated MRSA and is linked to skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). However, PVL genes have been detected among healthcare-associated (HA) MRSA isolates. The diseases associated with PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates and distributions of PVL-encoding bacteriophages among HA-MRSA have not been determined. A total of 259 HA-MRSA strains isolated between 2009 and 2012 in China, from inpatients with SSTIs, pneumonia, and bacteremia were selected for molecular typing, including staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, and staphylococcal protein A gene typing. The PVL genes and PVL bacteriophages in MRSA isolates were characterized by polymerase chain reaction. Among the tested MRSA isolates, 28.6% (74/259) were PVL-positive. The high prevalence of PVL-carrying HA-MRSA was observed to be associated with SSTIs, but not with pneumonia and bacteremia. PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates were colonized mainly by infective PVL phages, namely, ?7247PVL, ?SLT, and ?Sa2958. The distribution of PVL-carrying bacteriophages differed geographically. Our study highlights the potential risk of the emergence of multidrug-resistant HA-MRSA strains with increased virulence.
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Combinatorial library based profiling of antibody response against hepatitis C virus in human.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Antibody response plays a crucial role against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and our understanding of this intricate progress in vivo is far from complete. We previously reported a novel and robust technique based on a large combinatorial viral antigen library displayed on the surface of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, allowing comprehensive profiling of polyclonal antibody responses in vivo in both qualitative and quantitative terms. Here, we report the generation and application of a combinatorial library of HCV JFH1 envelope glycoprotein to profile antibody response in four HCV chronically infected individuals. Systematic analysis of the location and frequency of antigenic fragments along the JFH1 envelope glycoprotein, we showed that the major binding antibody response was targeted to E2 (80.9-99.8%) while that against E1 was relatively small (0.3-19.0%). A total of five major antigenic domains (D1-D5) were identified; one was within the E1 and additional four within the E2, despite substantial variability among the different individuals. However, serum absorption with the yeast clones containing the antigenic domain D1 resulted in more reduction in neutralizing antibody activity against pseudotyped HCV than those in E2, suggesting that the E1 contained additional neutralizing epitopes. Our results have provided additional insghts into HCV-specific antibody response in human and should assist our better understanding of protective antibody immunity and to guide development of effective vaccines and therapeutics against HCV infection.
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Disease activity affects all domains of quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and is modified by disease duration.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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This study was conducted to determine how disease activity affects quality of life (QOL) and its interaction with functional impairments, and disease duration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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Conservation combats exploitation: choices within an evolutionary framework.
Behav Brain Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Intentional change when viewed as making a risky or intertemporal choice with evolutionary relevance helps us understand its successes and its failures. To promote future-oriented ecological rationality requires establishing a linkage between nongenetic, cultural, and symbolic selections and genetic adaptations. Coupled with biophilic instinct, intentional conservation is more likely to prevail against evolved desires of environmental exploitation.
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The role of selenoprotein W in inflammatory injury in chicken immune tissues and cultured splenic lymphocyte.
Biometals
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Selenoprotein W (SelW) is mainly understood in terms of its antioxidant effects in the cellular defense system. Inflammation is an important indicator of animal tissue injury, and the inflammatory cells may trigger a sophisticated and well-orchestrated inflammatory cascade, resulting in exaggerated oxidative stress. To investigate the role of SelW in inflammatory injury in chicken immune tissues and cultured splenic lymphocyte, in this report, the effects of selenium (Se) on mRNA expressions of SelW and inflammatory factors (iNOS, COX-2, NF-?B, PTGEs, and TNF-?) in the chicken immune organs (spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius) and cultured splenic lymphocyte treated with sodium selenite and H2O2, or knocked down SelW with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were examined. The results showed that Se-deficient diets effectively decreased the mRNA expression of SelW (P < 0.05), and induced a significantly up-regulation of COX-2, iNOS, NF-?B, PTGEs and TNF-? mRNA levels (P < 0.05). The histopathological analysis showed that immune tissues were obviously injured in the low-Se groups. In vitro, H2O2 induced a significantly up-regulation of the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes (iNOS, COX-2, NF-?B, PTGEs, and TNF-?) in cultured splenic lymphocyte (P < 0.05). When lymphocytes were pretreated with Se before treated with H2O2, the inflammation-related genes were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Silencing of SelW significantly up-regulated the inflammation-related genes (iNOS, COX-2, NF-?B, PTGEs, and TNF-?) in cultured splenic lymphocyte (P < 0.05). The results suggested that the expression levels of inflammatory factors (iNOS, COX-2, NF-?B, PTGEs, and TNF-?) and SelW can be influenced by Se in birds. SelW commonly played an important role in the protection of immune organs of birds from inflammatory injury by the regulations of inflammation-related genes.
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Effects of avermectin on microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver and kidneys of pigeons.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Residues of avermectin (AVM) drugs have toxic effects on non-target organisms. Analyses of cytochrome P450 enzymes are among the most frequently employed indicators in pharmacology and toxicology studies. In this study, the responses of cytochrome P450 enzymes and pathological changes in the liver and kidney tissues of King pigeons (Columba livia) following subchronic exposure to avermectin for 30, 60 and 90d were investigated. Dose- and time-dependent decreases in the activities of P450 enzymes (i.e., aminopyrine-N-demethylase, erythromycin N-demethylase, aniline 4-hydroxylase and NADPH-cytochrome C reductase) and down-regulation of the P450 and b5 contents were observed. The microscopic structures were clearly altered, the severity of these alterations increased with the concentration of AVM and the exposure time. These results imply that AVM can inhibit the P450 enzyme systems in the liver and kidney tissues of pigeons. This research provides insight into the safe use of AVM and a comprehensive evaluation of the toxicological effects of AVM in birds.
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Influenza A Virus Polymerase Is a Site for Adaptive Changes during Experimental Evolution in Bat Cells.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The recent identification of highly divergent influenza A viruses in bats revealed a new, geographically dispersed viral reservoir. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of host-restricted viral tropism and the potential for transmission of viruses between humans and bats, we exposed a panel of cell lines from bats of diverse species to a prototypical human-origin influenza A virus. All of the tested bat cell lines were susceptible to influenza A virus infection. Experimental evolution of human and avian-like viruses in bat cells resulted in efficient replication and created highly cytopathic variants. Deep sequencing of adapted human influenza A virus revealed a mutation in the PA polymerase subunit not previously described, M285K. Recombinant virus with the PA M285K mutation completely phenocopied the adapted virus. Adaptation of an avian virus-like virus resulted in the canonical PB2 E627K mutation that is required for efficient replication in other mammals. None of the adaptive mutations occurred in the gene for viral hemagglutinin, a gene that frequently acquires changes to recognize host-specific variations in sialic acid receptors. We showed that human influenza A virus uses canonical sialic acid receptors to infect bat cells, even though bat influenza A viruses do not appear to use these receptors for virus entry. Our results demonstrate that bats are unique hosts that select for both a novel mutation and a well-known adaptive mutation in the viral polymerase to support replication.
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No increased venous thromboembolism risk in Asian breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Tamoxifen is an effective endocrine treatment for early breast cancer (EBC) but increases the risk of venous thromboembolism. Whether Asian EBC patients (pts) bear the same risk when treated with adjuvant tamoxifen is uncertain. EBC pts diagnosed between 2004 and 2009 were selected from a population database in Taiwan. The pts were followed up from the index date to December 31, 2011 to collect events of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Cumulative incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were used to compare the risk between pts treated with and without tamoxifen. In addition, comorbidities were included in an adjusted model of the risk of DVT and PE. A total of 28,029 EBC pts, including 17,843 (63.8 %) in the tamoxifen group and 10,155 (36.2 %) in the nontamoxifen group, were analyzed. The 7-year cumulative incidence rates for DVT and PE were 2.58 and 0.32 % in the tamoxifen group and 2.51 and 0.32 % in the nontamoxifen group (P = 0.92 for DVT, P = 0. 65 for PE), respectively. The HR for the nonadjusted and adjusted models showed no differences in DVT and PE risks between the tamoxifen and nontamoxifen groups. The uterine cancer risk was significantly increased in the pts receiving tamoxifen (adjusted HR = 2.79, P < 0.001), suggesting tamoxifen compliance. The risks of developing DVT and PE are not increased in Asian EBC pts receiving adjuvant tamoxifen. Ethnicity differences should be considered when discussing optimal endocrine treatments with EBC pts.
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Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause G1 phase arrest through the activation of the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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In daily life, humans are exposed to the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) generated by electric appliances, and public concern is increasing regarding the biological effects of such exposure. Numerous studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the biological effects of ELF-EMF exposure. Here we show that ELF-EMFs activate the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in HaCaT cells, inhibiting cell proliferation. To present well-founded results, we comprehensively evaluated the biological effects of ELF-EMFs at the transcriptional, protein, and cellular levels. Human HaCaT cells from an immortalized epidermal keratinocyte cell line were exposed to a 1.5 mT, 60 Hz ELF-EMF for 144 h. The ELF-EMF could cause G1 arrest and decrease colony formation. Protein expression experiments revealed that ELF-EMFs induced the activation of the ATM/Chk2 signaling cascades. In addition, the p21 protein, a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1 and G2/M, exhibited a higher level of expression in exposed HaCaT cells compared with the expression of sham-exposed cells. The ELF-EMF-induced G1 arrest was diminished when the CHK2 gene expression (which encodes checkpoint kinase 2; Chk2) was suppressed by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). These findings indicate that ELF-EMFs activate the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in HaCaT cells, resulting in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Based on the precise control of the ELF-EMF exposure and rigorous sham-exposure experiments, all transcriptional, protein, and cellular level experiments consistently supported the conclusion. This is the first study to confirm that a specific pathway is triggered by ELF-EMF exposure.
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Resection of an oculomotor nerve cavernous angioma.
Surg Neurol Int
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Cavernous angiomas (CAs) of cranial nerves are rare, and their occurrence on the third cranial nerve is particularly rare. Surgical management of such CAs involving the third nerve is controversial. We describe a case of a symptomatic CA of the oculomotor nerve and review the literature in order to ascertain the relevance of surgical intervention.
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased mortality in Chinese patients receiving curative surgery for colon cancer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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We investigated the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the prognosis of patients with early colon cancer who had undergone curative surgery.
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Development and validation of a specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantification of urinary catecholamines and application in biological variation studies.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Catecholamines are a class of biogenic amines that play an important role as neurotransmitters and hormones. We developed and validated a rapid, specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantitative determination of catecholamines in human urine. Linearity, specificity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect, carryover, analyte stability, method comparison and reference range were evaluated. The catecholamine measurements were not affected by 35 structurally-related drugs and metabolites. The outstanding specificity was achieved by use of a specific diphenylborate-based solid phase extraction and subsequent selective LC-MS/MS analysis. Excellent sensitivity, accuracy and precision (average intra-assay variations <2.9 % and inter-assay variations <4.6 %) were obtained. The method was successfully applied in the study of day-to-day biological within- and between-subject variations of 25 healthy people under free-living conditions over three consecutive days. We observed that catecholamine excretions for second morning sampling had least day-to-day within-subject variation and excellent reproducibility. This work is one of the rare studies on these topics and represents the first utilization of advanced LC-MS/MS technology. Additionally, we found significant correlations between spot and conventional 24 h collections of human urine (n?=?22, r?>?0.853, p?
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The change in heat shock protein expression in avermectin induced neurotoxicity of the pigeon (Columba livia) both in vivo and in vitro.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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The expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) commonly increases to provide neuroprotection when brain tissues are under stress conditions. Residues of avermectins (AVMs) have neurotoxic effects on a number of non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM exposure on the expression levels of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 for pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that in general, the mRNA and protein levels of Hsps were increased in treated groups relative to control groups after AVM exposure for 30d, 60d and 90d in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo. However, AVM exposure had no significant effects on the transcription expression of Hsps for 90d in the optic lobe and decreased the translation expression of Hsps significantly for 90d in the optic lobe. In vitro, the LC50 of avermectin for King pigeon neurons is between 15?gL(-1) and 20?gL(-1). Following AVM (2.5-20?gL(-1)) exposure, the mRNA expression of the 3 Hsps was up-regulated to different degrees. Compared with the control groups, a significant decrease, a remarkable increase and a non-significant change was found in the protein expression of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 separately following AVM (2.5-20?gL(-1)) exposure. Based on these results, we conclude that AVM exposure can induce a protective stress response in pigeons by means of promoting the mRNA and protein expression of Hsps under in vivo and in vitro conditions, thus easing the neurotoxic effects of AVM to some extent.
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Cadmium-induced injury and the ameliorative effects of selenium on chicken splenic lymphocytes: mechanisms of oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant present in soil, water, air, and food. Selenium (Se) can antagonize some metal element toxicity including Cd. To investigate the cytotoxicity of Cd and the protective effects of Se on bird immunocytes in vitro, chicken splenic lymphocytes with CdCl2 (10(-6) mol/L), Na2SeO3 (10(-7) mol/L), and the mixture (10(-7) mol/L Na2SeO3 and 10(-6) mol/L CdCI2) were incubated for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h, respectively. A high level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) productions were observed in Cd treatment group; the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidise (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (??m) were significantly lower in Cd treatment group than those in controls (P?
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Sex- and age-specific prevalence and incidence rates of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in Taiwan.
JAMA Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is high in individuals with diabetes mellitus. Published estimates for sight-threatening DR (STDR) prevalence range widely. There is a need for precise contemporary estimates of the prevalence and incidence of STDR for providing optimal strategies of clinical management in Taiwan.
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Distinct clinicopathological features and prognosis of emerging young-female breast cancer in an East Asian country: a nationwide cancer registry-based study.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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A rapid surge of young-female breast cancer (YFBC) has been observed in Taiwan and other East Asian countries. We recently reported that these cases of YFBC, in contrast to their Western counterparts, are predominantly luminal A subtype. YFBC in Asia may have distinct clinicopathological features and outcomes.
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Endothelin-1 expression and alterations of cerebral microcirculation after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Neuroradiology
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often leads to poor outcomes in SAH patients. Overexpression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) could contribute to the development of CVS. The purpose of this study was to investigate cerebral microcirculation by whole-brain perfusion CT scan and ET-1 expression following SAH.
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Predicting high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration isolate infection among patients with community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with an elevated vancomycin MIC ?2 mg/L have been increasingly identified in many countries. We aimed to develop a clinical score to predict vancomycin MIC ?2 mg/L in patients with community-onset MRSA bacteraemia.
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Effectiveness and safety of extracranial carotid stent placement: A nationwide self-controlled case-series study.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Carotid angioplasty and stent (CAS) placement has emerged as an attractive revascularization strategy for patients with internal carotid artery stenosis. However, the effectiveness and safety of CAS were not fully evaluated, mainly because of methodological difficulties in finding an appropriate comparison group.
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Prediction of selenoprotein T structure and its response to selenium deficiency in chicken immune organs.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Selenoprotein T (SelT) is associated with the regulation of calcium homeostasis and neuroendocrine secretion. SelT can also change cell adhesion and is involved in redox regulation and cell fixation. However, the structure and function of chicken SelT and its response to selenium (Se) remains unclear. In the present study, 150 1-day-old chickens were randomly divided into a low Se group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.020 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.2 mg/kg Se). The immune organs (spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius) were collected at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days of age. We performed a sequence analysis and predicted the structure and function of SelT. We also investigated the effects of Se deficiency on the expression of SelT, selenophosphate synthetase-1 (SPS1), and selenocysteine synthase (SecS) using RT-PCR and the oxidative stress in the chicken immune organs. The data showed that the coding sequence (CDS) and deduced amino acid sequence of SelT were highly similar to those of 17 other animals. Se deficiency induced lower (P?
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Different angiotensin receptor blockers and incidence of diabetes: a nationwide population-based cohort study.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to exert various peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) binding activities and insulin-sensitizing effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different ARBs with new-onset diabetes mellitus.
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Overexpression of the PLAP-1 gene inhibits the differentiation of BMSCs into osteoblast-like cells.
J. Mol. Histol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Periodontal ligament-associated protein-1 (PLAP-1) is a newly discovered member of the extracellular matrix family of proteins known as proteoglycans and is a negative regulator that plays a crucial role in the homeostasis of periodontal tissues. It can protect the periodontal ligament from excessive osteogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of PLAP-1 during osteogenic differentiation and osteogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we constructed a PLAP-1 recombinant retroviral plasmid vector named pBABE-hygro-PLAP-1. We transfected this plasmid into rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) to obtain a stable cell line with overexpression of PLAP-1 to verify whether PLAP-1 also acts as an inhibitory factor in rBMSCs during bone mineralization. A rBMSC line stably overexpressing PLAP-1 was established successfully as determined by the mRNA levels of PLAP-1, which were measured by real time-qPCR (RT-qPCR), and protein expression, which was measured by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis. At the same time, a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay did not reveal any statistically significant changes in the transfected cells (P > 0.05). Then, mineral-inducing cultures were performed, and mineralized nodules were observed at weeks 2, 3 and 4 under a microscope. Alizarin Red (Sigma) staining was performed at 4 week to illustrate calcium accumulation. The mineralized nodules in the PLAP-1-transfected rBMSC group were fewer than those in the control groups. The time span of the formation of the mineralized nodules was prolonged. Meanwhile, osteogenic genes were also detected in the mineral-inducing cells by RT-qPCR. An RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated that the levels of the osteoblast markers of rBMSCs that were transfected with pBABE-hygro-PLAP-1, including Runx2, Osterix, alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin, were lower than those in the non-transfected rBMSCs and rBMSCs that were transfected with empty vector (P < 0.01). These results suggest that PLAP-1 has an inhibitory function in rBMSCs when they differentiate into osteoblast-like cells.
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A model measuring therapeutic inertia and the associated factors among diabetes patients: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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This article presents an analysis conducted on the patterns related to therapeutic inertia with the aim of uncovering how variables at the patient level and the healthcare provider level influence the intensification of therapy when it is clinically indicated. A cohort study was conducted on 899,135 HbA1c results from 168,876 adult diabetes patients with poorly controlled HbA1c levels. HbA1c results were used to identify variations in the prescription of hypoglycemic drugs. Logistic regression and hierarchical linear models (HLMs) were used to determine how differences among healthcare providers and patient characteristics influence therapeutic inertia. We estimated that 38.5% of the patients in this study were subject to therapeutic inertia. The odds ratio of cardiologists choosing to intensify therapy was 0.708 times that of endocrinologists. Furthermore, patients in medical centers were shown to be 1.077 times more likely to be prescribed intensified treatment than patients in primary clinics. The HLMs presented results similar to those of the logistic model. Overall, we determined that 88.92% of the variation in the application of intensified treatment was at the within-physician level. Reducing therapeutic inertia will likely require educational initiatives aimed at ensuring adherence to clinical practice guidelines in the care of diabetes patients.
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Examining the association of olmesartan and other angiotensin receptor blockers with overall and cause-specific mortality.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Concerns about an increased cardiovascular risk with the angiotensin receptor blocker, olmesartan, prompted the current study to examine associations between olmesartan and other angiotensin receptor blockers with overall and cause-specific mortalities. We collected patients who started to use losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, candesartan, telmisartan, and olmesartan between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2009, from Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database. Prescribed drug types, dosage, and other clinical information were collected. Overall mortality and cause-specific mortality were ascertained through linkages with Taiwan's National Death Registry. Two follow-up analyses, labeled intention-to-treat and as-treated, were conducted. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using losartan as the reference group. A total of 690 463 subjects were included, with a mean follow-up ranging from a low of 2.8 years for olmesartan to a high of 4.1 years for irbesartan. Subjects who began with valsartan had a modest but significantly increased risk of overall mortality (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06) compared with losartan. Irbesartan (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), candesartan (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99), telmisartan (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.96), and olmesartan (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88-0.97) were associated with a slightly lower overall mortality risk than losartan. The analysis indicates that the differences in mortality risk among individual angiotensin receptor blockers were only marginal and thus less likely to be clinically important. Although uncontrolled confounding might still exist, olmesartan does not seem to increase cardiovascular risk compared with losartan.
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Use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with COPD and the risk of TB and influenza: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Background: The use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) is associated with an increased risk of pneumonia in patients with COPD. However, the risks of other respiratory infections, such as TB and influenza, remain unclear.Methods: Through a comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to July 2013, we identified randomized controlled trials of ICS therapy lasting at least 6 months. We conducted meta-analyses by the Peto, Mantel-Haenszel, and Bayesian approaches to generate summary estimates comparing ICS with non-ICS treatment on the risk of TB and influenza.Results: Twenty-fi ve trials (22,898 subjects) for TB and 26 trials (23,616 subjects) for influenza were included. Compared with non-ICS treatment, ICS treatment was associated with a significantly higher risk of TB (Peto OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.04-5.03) but not influenza (Peto OR, 1.24;95% CI, 0.94-1.63). Results were similar with each meta-analytic approach. Furthermore, the number needed to harm to cause one additional TB event was lower for patients with COPD treated with ICSs in endemic areas than for those in nonendemic areas (909 vs 1,667, respectively).Conclusions: This study raises safety concerns about the risk of TB and influenza associated with ICS use in patients with COPD, which deserve further investigation.
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Long-term antidepressant use and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based, nested case-control study in Taiwan.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Antidepressant drugs might induce weight gain and increase diabetes risk. We examined the diabetes risk with long-term antidepressant use in a general population.
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Long-acting insulin analogues and diabetic retinopathy: a retrospective cohort study.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Long-acting insulin analogues were developed to facilitate consistent glycemic control without excessive hypoglycemia. However, structural modifications of the insulin molecule can alter biological responses and binding characteristics with specific receptors. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) associated with treatment using long-acting insulin analogues compared with intermediate-acting insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
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Unlocking the mystery of the hard-to-sequence phage genome: PaP1 methylome and bacterial immunity.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Whole-genome sequencing is an important method to understand the genetic information, gene function, biological characteristics and survival mechanisms of organisms. Sequencing large genomes is very simple at present. However, we encountered a hard-to-sequence genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1. Shotgun sequencing method failed to complete the sequence of this genome.
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Infection, antibiotic therapy and risk of colorectal cancer: a nationwide nested case-control study in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus are at a higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The objective of our study was to examine the inter-relationship among infection sites, systemic antibiotic use and risk of CRC among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. From a diabetic cohort from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database, we identified 3,593 incident colon cancer cases, 1,979 rectal cancer cases and 22,288 controls and conducted a nested case-control study to examine the association between antibiotic use and CRC incidence. Logistic regression models were applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) between infection sites, antibiotic use and CRC incidence. Patients with intra-abdominal infection were significantly associated with increased risk for colon cancer (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.73-2.35) and rectal cancer (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.26-2.00). Any antianaerobic antibiotic use was associated with a higher risk of colon cancer (OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 2.12-2.52) and rectal cancer (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.50-1.90) but without an obvious dose-response relationship for cumulative use. Antianaerobic antibiotics also increased the risks for those with nonintra-abdominal infection. No association was found between antiaerobic agent use and the CRC risk. The results suggest intra-abdominal infections and antianaerobic antibiotic use may be a marker for precancerous lesions or early CRC, although the possibility of antianaerobic antibiotics playing an additional role cannot be excluded. Further research examining the relationship between intra-abdominal infection, antianaerobic antibiotics use and possible change of microbiota leading to colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.
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Effect of radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation on morbidity and mortality: a nationwide cohort study and propensity score analysis.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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This study examined the effect of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) on reducing morbidity and mortality among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).
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Continuation of statin therapy and a decreased risk of atrial fibrillation/flutter in patients with and without chronic kidney disease.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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To contain cost, Taiwan's previous National Health Insurance Reimbursement Policy requested that physicians discontinue their patients' statin therapy once the serum cholesterol had reached appropriate levels. This allowed us to evaluate the association between statin continuation and the occurrence of atrial fibrillation/flutter and whether it was modified by chronic kidney disease (CKD) status.
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Increased risk of diabetes mellitus in relation to the severity of psoriasis, concomitant medication, and comorbidity: a nationwide population-based cohort study.
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The association between psoriasis and diabetes mellitus (DM) has been explored previously. However, no studies have been reported regarding the severity of psoriasis, comorbidities, and concomitant medications on the risks of DM in patients with psoriasis.
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Distinct Epidermal Keratinocytes Respond to Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Differently.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Following an increase in the use of electric appliances that can generate 50 or 60 Hz electromagnetic fields, concerns have intensified regarding the biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on human health. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested the carcinogenic potential of environmental exposure to ELF-EMFs, specifically at 50 or 60 Hz. However, the biological mechanism facilitating the effects of ELF-EMFs remains unclear. Cellular studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the biological effects of ELF-EMFs. The inconsistent results might have been due to diverse cell types. In our previous study, we indicated that 1.5 mT, 60 Hz ELF-EMFs will cause G1 arrest through the activation of the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether ELF-EMFs cause similar effects in a distinct epidermal keratinocyte, primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), by using the same ELF-EMF exposure system and experimental design. We observed that ELF-EMFs exerted no effects on cell growth, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and the activation of ATM signaling pathway in NHEK cells. We demonstrated that the 2 epidermal keratinocytes responded to ELF-EMFs differently. To further validate this finding, we simultaneously exposed the NHEK and HaCaT cells to ELF-EMFs in the same incubator for 168 h and observed the cell growths. The simultaneous exposure of the two cell types results showed that the NHEK and HaCaT cells exhibited distinct responses to ELF-EMFs. Thus, we confirmed that the biological effects of ELF-EMFs in epidermal keratinocytes are cell type specific. Our findings may partially explain the inconsistent results of previous studies when comparing results across various experimental models.
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CD26/DPP4 Cell-Surface Expression in Bat Cells Correlates with Bat Cell Susceptibility to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Infection and Evolution of Persistent Infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently isolated betacoronavirus identified as the etiologic agent of a frequently fatal disease in Western Asia, Middle East respiratory syndrome. Attempts to identify the natural reservoirs of MERS-CoV have focused in part on dromedaries. Bats are also suspected to be reservoirs based on frequent detection of other betacoronaviruses in these mammals. For this study, ten distinct cell lines derived from bats of divergent species were exposed to MERS-CoV. Plaque assays, immunofluorescence assays, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that six bat cell lines can be productively infected. We found that the susceptibility or resistance of these bat cell lines directly correlates with the presence or absence of cell surface-expressed CD26/DPP4, the functional human receptor for MERS-CoV. Human anti-CD26/DPP4 antibodies inhibited infection of susceptible bat cells in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of human CD26/DPP4 receptor conferred MERS-CoV susceptibility to resistant bat cell lines. Finally, sequential passage of MERS-CoV in permissive bat cells established persistent infection with concomitant downregulation of CD26/DPP4 surface expression. Together, these results imply that bats indeed could be among the MERS-CoV host spectrum, and that cellular restriction of MERS-CoV is determined by CD26/DPP4 expression rather than by downstream restriction factors.
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Myocardial Injury after Surgery Is a Risk Factor for Weaning Failure from Mechanical Ventilation in Critical Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) is a newly proposed concept that is common among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery and associated with substantial mortality. We analyzed whether MINS was a risk factor for weaning failure in critical patients who underwent major abdominal surgery.
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Identification of under-detected periodicity in time-series microarray data by using empirical mode decomposition.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Detecting periodicity signals from time-series microarray data is commonly used to facilitate the understanding of the critical roles and underlying mechanisms of regulatory transcriptomes. However, time-series microarray data are noisy. How the temporal data structure affects the performance of periodicity detection has remained elusive. We present a novel method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to examine this effect. We applied EMD to a yeast microarray dataset and extracted a series of intrinsic mode function (IMF) oscillations from the time-series data. Our analysis indicated that many periodically expressed genes might have been under-detected in the original analysis because of interference between decomposed IMF oscillations. By validating a protein complex coexpression analysis, we revealed that 56 genes were newly determined as periodic. We demonstrated that EMD can be used incorporating with existing periodicity detection methods to improve their performance. This approach can be applied to other time-series microarray studies.
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Association of adjuvant antiviral therapy with risk of cancer progression and deaths in patients with hepatitis-B-virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma following curative treatment: a nationwide cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Limited information about tumor status and the time at which antiviral therapy was initiated may have influenced effect estimation in previous research. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of antiviral therapies on HBV-related HCC progression and deaths in patients receiving curative treatment based on clear clinical-pathological cancer status and the association of start time of adjuvant antiviral therapy initiation and outcomes.
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Disrutpted resting-state functional architecture of the brain after 45-day simulated microgravity.
Front Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Long-term spaceflight induces both physiological and psychological changes in astronauts. To understand the neural mechanisms underlying these physiological and psychological changes, it is critical to investigate the effects of microgravity on the functional architecture of the brain. In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to study whether the functional architecture of the brain is altered after 45 days of -6° head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a reliable model for the simulation of microgravity. Sixteen healthy male volunteers underwent rs-fMRI scans before and after 45 days of -6° HDT bed rest. Specifically, we used a commonly employed graph-based measure of network organization, i.e., degree centrality (DC), to perform a full-brain exploration of the regions that were influenced by simulated microgravity. We subsequently examined the functional connectivities of these regions using a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis. We found decreased DC in two regions, the left anterior insula (aINS) and the anterior part of the middle cingulate cortex (MCC; also called the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in many studies), in the male volunteers after 45 days of -6° HDT bed rest. Furthermore, seed-based RSFC analyses revealed that a functional network anchored in the aINS and MCC was particularly influenced by simulated microgravity. These results provide evidence that simulated microgravity alters the resting-state functional architecture of the brains of males and suggest that the processing of salience information, which is primarily subserved by the aINS-MCC functional network, is particularly influenced by spaceflight. The current findings provide a new perspective for understanding the relationships between microgravity, cognitive function, autonomic neural function, and central neural activity.
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Antihypertensive agents and risk of Parkinson's disease: a nationwide cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hypertension has been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), but data on antihypertensive drugs and PD are inconclusive. We aim to evaluate antihypertensive drugs for an association with PD in hypertensive patients.
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Diabetes and risk of tuberculosis relapse: nationwide nested case-control study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) relapse using the nationwide TB registry in Taiwan. We conducted a case-control study nested within a nationwide cohort of all incident cases of pulmonary TB that were notified during 2006-2007 and had completed anti-TB treatment. The relapse of TB was confirmed by bacteriological or pathological findings. For each relapse case, one control was selected from the study cohort matching by time since treatment completion. DM status was ascertained by medical chart review and cross-matching with the National Health Insurance claims database. A total of 305 cases of relapse were identified after a median follow-up of 3 years (relapse rate: 488 per 100,000 person-year; 95% confidence interval (CI): 434-546). Presence of DM during previous anti-TB treatment was 34.0% and 22.7% in cases and controls, respectively. After adjusting for other potential confounders, DM was associated with increased risk of TB relapse (adjusted odds ratio: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.22-3.15). Only one-third of the DM-TB patients in our study received glycaemic monitoring using HbA1c during anti-TB treatment. Presence of DM was independently associated with risk of TB relapse. TB programs should seriously consider rigorous glucose control in DM-TB patients.
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[Antitumor and antimetastatic effect of antimicrobial peptide conjugated with tumor homing peptide TMTP1 on the transplanted prostate cancer and gastric cancer in nude mice].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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Due to their lower risk for induction of resistance, antimicrobial peptides with selective anticancer effect could be developed into a new generation of anticancer drugs. We conjugated an antimicrobial peptide with tumor-targeting peptides (TMTP1) to explore whether it has inhibiting effect on the progression and metastasis of transplanted prostate cancer and gastric cancer in nude mice.
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Predictive performance of universal termination of resuscitation rules in an Asian community: are they accurate enough?
Emerg Med J
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Prehospital termination of resuscitation (TOR) rules have not been widely validated outside of Western countries. This study evaluated the performance of TOR rules in an Asian metropolitan with a mixed-tier emergency medical service (EMS).
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Phenol-soluble modulins: novel virulence-associated peptides of staphylococci.
Future Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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 Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs), a novel class of small peptides with an amphipathic ?-helical structure and strong surfactant-like properties, are produced by most staphylococci, especially pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PSMs can: induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines; recruit, activate and lyse neutrophils to help staphylococci evade immune damage; lyse erythrocytes and are associated with the hemolysis of staphylococcal disease; facilitate the structuring and detachment of staphylococcal biofilms and disseminate biofilm-associated infection; and kill competing microbes and act as weapons in interbacterial warfare. Therefore, PSMs are considered to be critical virulence-associated factors and to play important roles in the pathogenesis of staphylococci. This review summarizes the classification, structure, expression regulation and biological functions of PSMs. The possible means to prevent PSM-associated diseases are also outlined in order to emphasize the need to investigate PSMs as potential targets for drug and vaccine design against staphylococcal infections.
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Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus tricyclic antidepressants on cerebrovascular events: a nationwide population-based cohort study.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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Depression is a common disorder worldwide and is strongly associated with stroke. Use of antidepressants could potentially decrease the risk of stroke in patients with depression. However, the role of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the most frequently prescribed antidepressant in this era, in the risk of stroke showed inconsistent results. We aimed to assess the association between the use of different types of antidepressants, SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and the risk of cerebrovascular events in patients with depression or anxiety. A nationwide population-based cohort study was retrospectively conducted in patients with depression or anxiety who started to take SSRIs and TCAs identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database (2001-2009). We examined the association between the 2 types of antidepressants and incidence of stroke using a proportional hazard model adjusted for stroke risk factors. Among the 24,662 SSRI and 14,736 TCA initiators, the crude incidence rate for stroke was 10.03 and 13.77 per 100 person-years, respectively. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use was not associated with risk of stroke as compared with TCAs in the time-fixed analysis. After adjusting for baseline propensity scores in the time-varying analysis, SSRI use significantly reduced risk of stroke as compared with TCAs with the adjusted hazard ratio of 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.96). The effect persisted even after considering the antidepressant dosage (hazard ratio, 0.65 [0.42 to 0.99]). In summary, use of SSRIs was associated with a reduced risk for stroke, as compared with TCAs, in this specific disease population.
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Probing the Neural Basis of Superstition.
Brain Topogr
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
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Despite much evidence questioning its validity, superstitious belief continues to be rooted in the human mind. We used functional MRI to directly compare participants neural responses to monetary attractiveness with their responses to the value of an auspicious date. We found that the right middle/superior frontal gyrus showed greater deactivation whenever an auspicious-based choice was made and that the contrast between the auspicious-based and economics-based choices was negatively correlated with the participants rated wedding date-related superstitious belief, suggesting that a specific brain region carries decision signals which contribute to making decisions based on superstition and may be able to account for individual differences in superstitious behavior. The present investigation helps to reveal how the brain handles superstition.
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Progesterone receptor PROGINS and +331G/A polymorphisms confer susceptibility to ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis based on 17 studies.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Progesterone and its receptor, progesterone receptor (PGR), have been widely studied for their roles in the onset and development of ovarian cancer. Although numerous epidemiological studies have focused on the association of PGR PROGINS and +331G/A polymorphisms with ovarian cancer susceptibility, presently, available results remain controversial, in part due to low sample sizes. Thus, a meta-analysis is required to evaluate this association. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI, and CBM databases was performed to retrieve eligible studies published before August 15, 2013. Summary odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of this association. All analyses were done using STATA 12.0 software (Stata Corp., College Station, TX, USA). Seventeen case-control studies with a total of 6,365 cases and 9,998 controls were identified. While no statistically significant association between the PROGINS allele and ovarian cancer risk was found in an overall analysis, a stratified analysis revealed that for Caucasians, never-oral contraceptive (OC) users, and serous tumor patients, there were statistically significant ORs for ovarian cancer risk associated with the mutated PROGINS allele. No significant association, however, between the +331G/A polymorphism and ovarian cancer susceptibility was observed in the overall analyses and subgroup analyses based on ethnicity and histological type. This meta-analysis provides evidence that the PROGINS allele occurs more frequently in ovarian cancer patients and especially in non-OC users and serous cancer patients, indicating that PROGINS may be a risk modifier. No significant association between the +331G/A polymorphism and ovarian cancer was found, even in stratified analyses by ethnicity and histological type. More detailed and well-designed studies are still needed to confirm the role of the PROGINS allele in ovarian cancer development.
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Method-specific performance of vancomycin MIC susceptibility tests in predicting mortality of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Emerging evidence shows that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections caused by isolates with higher vancomycin MICs within the susceptibility range are associated with adverse outcomes. No study, however, has examined different susceptibility tests in predicting treatment outcomes of MRSA infections.
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National antiviral treatment program and the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and associated mortality in Taiwan: a preliminary report.
Med Care
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Taiwans Bureau of National Health Insurance launched the National Antiviral Treatment Program (NATP) in 2003 to reimburse patients for antiviral drugs and interferons for chronic hepatitis B and C. The objective was to examine the impact of the NATP on the incidence and mortality due to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Risk of severe dysglycemia among diabetic patients receiving levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, or moxifloxacin in Taiwan.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Observational studies and fatal case reports raise concern about the safety of severe dysglycemia associated with fluoroquinolone use. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of severe dysglycemia among diabetic patients who received different fluoroquinolones.
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Healing of periodontal defects and calcitonin gene related peptide expression following inferior alveolar nerve transection in rats.
J. Mol. Histol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2013
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The roles of nerve and neuropeptides in the process of bone formation and remolding have been studied previously. However, the effects of nervous system and neuropeptide on periodontal alveolar bone formation remained unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of innervation on regeneration of alveolar bone and expression levels of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) in periodontal tissues of rats, so as to have a better understanding of the effect of nerve and its related neuropeptide on periodontal tissue regeneration. Rats received transection of the left inferior alveolar nerve and a surgery to produce bilateral periodontal defect, then the alveolar tissue was obtained from animals of each group at week 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after operation, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson staining were performed to evaluate the ability to restore and repair periodontal tissues at 4, 6 and 8 after surgery. Then new bone formation area and mineralized area were quantified using imagepro-plus6.0 software after pictures were taken under the microscope and SPSS17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to investigate the expression of CGRP at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Rats received transection of the left inferior alveolar nerve surgery and were then sacrificed at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 after the operation. The change of CGRP expression in periodontal tissue was detected using immunohistochemical methods. The results showed that the volume of new bone formation was not significantly difference between the experimental and control groups, but the mineralized new bone area between the two groups was statistically significant. The level of CGRP expression was lower than normal at week 1, and then it began to rise in the next stage. The plateau, at higher than normal level, was reached at 6 weeks post-surgery. Results of transection of the left inferior alveolar nerve demonstrated the expression of CGRP was decreased in early stage; it reached the lowest level at day 7. Then the expression level began to increase until it returned to normal level at day 28. The results of this study suggest that nerve and its related neuropeptide CGRP are the important factors that can affect the quality of regenerated alveolar bone by reducing bone density during the mineralization process.
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Pneumonia risk and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Recent studies have shown that use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may decrease pneumonia risk in various populations. We investigated the effect of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) on pneumonia hospitalization in the general population of Taiwan.
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Discontinuation of statin therapy associates with Parkinson disease: a population-based study.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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To evaluate the effect of discontinuing statin therapy on incidence of Parkinson disease (PD) in statin users.
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Long-term treatment of hydrogen-rich saline abates testicular oxidative stress induced by nicotine in mice.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2013
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The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that long-term treatment with hydrogen-rich saline abated testicular oxidative stress induced by nicotine in mice.
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Office-based potassium titanyl phosphate laser-assisted endoscopic vocal polypectomy.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Vocal polyps are common exophytic laryngeal lesions that usually necessitate microscopic laryngeal surgery under general anesthesia. Office-based indirect laryngoscopic procedures provide an alternative management option and can be performed comfortably under flexible endoscopic guidance. Combining angiolytic potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser treatment and flexible endoscopic polypectomy should alleviate the risks of surgery under general anesthesia and expedite lesion regression.
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Bystander-initiated CPR in an Asian metropolitan: Does the socioeconomic status matter?
Resuscitation
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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To determine the association of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) with bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and patient outcomes of out of hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) in an Asian metropolitan area.
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Statin use and cataract surgery: a nationwide retrospective cohort study in elderly ethnic Chinese patients.
Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Since a report of lenticular opacities in dogs treated with high dosages of statins, the debate on the relationship between statin therapy and cataracts has not reached a conclusion.
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Toward a mental arithmetic process in risky choices.
Brain Cogn
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2013
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Mainstream theories about decision-making under risk suggest that risky decisions are made by choosing the option that offers the highest mathematical expectation. The present event-related potentials (ERPs) study investigated the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying risky choice by contrasting a preferential choice task with an expected value choice task. The ERP data revealed that (1) the computational difficulty, which would be expected to influence a compensatory process, affected the slow wave only when participants were forced to choose the option with the highest expectation; and that (2) the difference in the minimum outcome dimension between two options, which would be expected to be influential in a heuristic process, affected the P300 and slow wave when participants were asked to choose the preferred option. Our findings provide neural evidence that preferential choice is not based on an expectation computation and thus raised the question of whether expectation theories can provide an adequate description of individual risky decisions.
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The effect of Se-deficient diet on gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in chicken brain.
Biometals
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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Selenium (Se) plays an important role in the brain development, function, and degeneration, nutritional encephalomalacia is closely related with dietary Se in avian. However, there is little evidence on the relationship between inflammation and encephalomalacia in avian and the mechanism which Se regulates the inflammatory response in brain tissues remains to be unclear. The present paper describes the effects of Se-deficient granulated diet on one transcription factor-nuclear factor kappaB and four pro-inflammatory cytokines-tumor necrosis factor, cyclooxygenase2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and Prostaglandin E synthase mRNA expression in the chicken brain tissues associated encephalomalacia. One hundred male chickens (1 day old; Weiwei Co. Ltd., Harbin, China) were divided into two groups (50 chickens per group). The expression levels in the brain tissues (cerebral gray matter, cerebral white matter, marrowbrain, cerebellum, thalamus and brain stem) were determined by real-time PCR on days 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55, respectively. The results showed the productions of pro-inflammatory mediators were increased following Se-deficiency. These data indicate the correlations between nutritional encephalomalacia and inflammatory response and the activity of inflammatory response in chicken brain may be induced by Se-deficiency.
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Avermectin induced inflammation damage in king pigeon brain.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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To determine the effect of Avermectin (AVM) on inflammation damage in king pigeon brain, eighty two-month-old American king pigeons were randomly divided into four groups, and were fed with either commercial diet or AVM-supplemented diet containing 20 mg kg(-1)diet, 40 mg kg(-1)diet, and 60 mg kg(-1)diet AVM for 30, 60 and 90 d, respectively. Then, the expression level of inflammatory factors (iNOS, PTGEs, NF-?B), histological damage, and ultra-structural damage were examined. It showed that AVM caused higher expressions (P<0.05) of iNOS, PTGEs, NF-?B with disorganized histological and ultra-structural structures in cerebrum, cerebellum, and optic lobe. Meanwhile, inflammatory and histopathological damage were induced by AVM in king pigeon brains. In addition, the main targeted organelle in nervous system was mitochondria, which indicated that mitochondria may be relevant to the process of inflammation induced by AVM. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to study the toxic effect of AVM on inflammatory damage in king pigeon. Thus, the information presented in this study is believed to be helpful in supplementing data for further AVM toxicity study.
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Treatment of patients with dual hepatitis C and B by peginterferon ? and ribavirin reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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OBJECTIVE: Whether peginterferon ? and ribavirin combination therapy reduces risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or improves survival in patients dual-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is unknown. Since it is ethically impossible to conduct a randomised trial to learn the long-term efficacy, we rely upon the large database to explore the effectiveness of combination therapy among dual-infected patients. DESIGN: Data for this population-based retrospective cohort study were obtained from the treatment programme, Cancer Registry, National Health Insurance and death certification. We examined the risk of HCC, mortality and adverse events in 1096 treated and 18 988 untreated HCV-HBV dually-infected patients. Outcomes were analysed using the bias corrected inverse probability weighting (IPW) by propensity scores. Outcomes of HCV-HBV dually-infected and HCV mono-infected patients receiving the same treatment were compared using new user design with IPW estimators to adjust for confounding. RESULTS: After adjustment, combination therapy significantly reduced the risk of HCC (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.97), liver-related mortality (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.6) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.52). Nevertheless, the underlying HBV infection was still a risk factor for HCC and mortality after treatment. Treatment was associated with an increase in the incidence of thyroid dysfunction (HR 1.9, p<0.001) and mood disorders (HR 1.81, p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first evidence showing that combination therapy decreased the risk of HCC and improved survival in HCV-HBV dually-infected patients despite a slight increase in the incidence of thyroid and mood disorders.
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Impacts of drug reimbursement reductions on utilization and expenditures of oral antidiabetic medications in Taiwan: An interrupted time series study.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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To control increasing pharmaceutical expenditures, Taiwans National Health Insurance has implemented a series of drug reimbursement price reductions since 2000. This study examined changes in use and expenditures of oral antidiabetic medications following the price regulation in November 2006.
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Avermectin induced liver injury in pigeon: mechanisms of apoptosis and oxidative stress.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2013
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Extensive use of avermectin (AVM) can result in environment pollution, and it is important to evaluate the potential impact this antibiotic has on ecological systems. Few published literatures have discussed the liver injury mechanisms induced by AVM on birds. In this study, pigeons were exposed to feed containing AVM (0, 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg diet) for 30, 60, 90 days respectively. The results showed that AVM increased the number of apoptosis and the expression level of caspase-3, 8, fas mRNA in the liver of pigeons. Ultrastructural alterations, including mitochondrial damage and chromatin aggregation, become severe with increase exposure dose. Exposure to AVM induced significant changes in antioxidant enzyme {superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)} activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, augmented protein carbonyl (PCO) content and DNA-protein crosslink (DPC) coefficient, in a concentration-dependent manner in the liver of pigeons. Our results show that AVM has toxic effect in pigeon liver, and the mechanism of injury caused by AVM is closely related to apoptosis and oxidative stress.
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Comparison of benign lesion regression following vocal fold steroid injection and vocal hygiene education.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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This study intends to objectively quantify and compare the regression rates of vocal lesions in patients receiving either vocal fold steroid injection (VFSI) or vocal hygiene education (VHE). Potential influence of occupational vocal demands on the treatment outcome was also investigated.
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Whole brain CT perfusion combined with CT angiography in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasm.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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To assess cerebral vasospasm (CVS) and monitor cerebral microcirculatory changes in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) via CT angiography (CTA) combined with whole-brain CT perfusion (CTP) techniques.
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Trends in incidence and survival outcome of epithelial ovarian cancer: 30-year national population-based registry in Taiwan.
J Gynecol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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To investigate the changes of incidence and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer in thirty years in Taiwan.
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Examining the association between statins and lung cancer incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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The relationship between statin use and lung cancer remains unclear. Patients with diabetes mellitus, who are at higher risks for both cancer and atherosclerosis, are usually indicated for statin use. The objective was to explore the relationship between statins, lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and lung adenocarcinoma incidence in diabetic patients.
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Microalbuminuria screening for detecting chronic kidney disease in the general population: a systematic review.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Microalbuminuria screening is widely used in high-risk populations but seldom used in the general population for detecting chronic kidney disease (CKD). Systematic reviews focused on screening for CKD are rare, and the issues about microalbuminuria screening in the general population have never been reviewed. We systematically reviewed studies regarding microalbuminuria screening and evaluated the benefits and harms of this screening method in the general population.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.