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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Value of Multiple b-value Diffusion-weighted Imaging for Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Pulmonary Masses.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Objective To explore the value of multiple b-value diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI)for differentiation of benign and malignant pulmonary masses. Methods Thirty-eight patients were examined by routine sequences and DWI pulse sequence. DWI was acquired through a single-shot echo-planar imaging combined with a respiratory-triggered mode and parallel acquisition. Nine b values ranging from 0 to 1500 s/mm(2)(0,50,100,150,200,400,600,1000,1500 s/mm(2))were used. The intravoxel incoherent motion model was applied to estimate pure diffusion coefficient D,perfusion-related diffusion coefficient D(*),and perfusion fraction f. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare all measured parameters between benign and malignant groups. The diagnostic performance of the related parameters was evaluated with receiver operating characteristics(ROC)analysis. Results Of these 38 patients,30 were pathologically confirmed and 8 were diagnozed based on clinical data. There were 23 lung malignant masses and 15 benign lesions. A significant reduction of D was found in malignant group than in benign group(Z=3.308,P=0.001),while no significant differences in D(*)(Z=1.646,P=0.100)and f(Z=1.254,P=0.210)were observed between the two groups. The area under the ROC curve for D value(0.839)was largest. When the cutoff value was selected as 0.90×10(-3) mm(2)/s,the sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,positive predictive value,and negative predictive value of diagnosing malignant masses were 95.7%,80.0%,90.9%,91.7%,and 88.9%,respectively. Conclusion The D value in multiple b-value DWI has certain significance in differentiating the benign and malignant pulmonary masses and has the best diagnostic efficiency.
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The Impact of Pain on the Quality of Life of Taiwanese Oncology Patients.
Pain Manag Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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This study explored the relationship between participants' pain experience and quality of life (QOL). One hundred nine patients aged 18 years and older who had taken prescribed opioid analgesics for cancer-related pain at a teaching hospital in Taipei, Taiwan, completed the Brief Pain Inventory and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Group Questionnaire. The results indicated that participants in this study had experienced a mean functional QOL of 55.47 (SD 21.48), a mean symptom QOL of 41.97 (SD 16.89), and a mean global QOL of 42.13 (SD 20.69). Participants reported that in the previous 7 days, they had experienced a mean least pain of 1.75 (SD 0.18) and a mean worst pain of 6.81 (SD 0.24). The mean score for average pain intensity was 4.14 (SD 0.21), whereas the mean for current pain level was 2.53 (SD 0.21). The mean pain interference in the patients' daily activities was 3.50 (SD 0.22) on a scale ranging from 0 to 10. Furthermore, a significant correlation existed between global (r = -0.375, p < .01), functional (r = -0.300, p < .01), and symptom (r = 0.405, p < .01) QOL and worst pain. Moreover, the results indicated a significant correlation between global (r = -0.461, p < .01), functional (r = -0.430, p < .01), and symptom (r = 0.505, p < .01) QOL and pain interference. The current results support the observation that cancer pain substantially affects a patient's quality of life. The findings provide empirical support for the need for better programmatic efforts to improve pain management in Taiwanese oncology outpatients.
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Reduced expression of p21-activated protein kinase 1 correlates with poor histological differentiation in pancreatic cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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P21-activated protein kinase 1 (PAK1), a main downstream effector of small Rho GTPases, is overexpressed in many malignancies. PAK1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in some tumor types, including breast cancer, gastric cancer, and colorectal cancer. However, the expression and clinical relevance of PAK1 expression in human pancreatic cancer remains unknown.
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The inner opercular membrane of the euryhaline teleost: a useful surrogate model for comparisons of different characteristics of ionocytes between seawater- and freshwater-acclimated medaka.
Histochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The inner opercular membranes of the brackish medaka, Oryzias dancena, have numerous ionocytes, similar to the gill epithelia. By histological observation, this study demonstrated that it is possible to investigate the cellular morphology and function of ionocytes in the opercular membrane. The mitochondria-rich ionocytes in the opercular membranes were traced using rhodamine 123 and a cytochrome c oxidase IV antibody in vital and fixed situations, respectively. To validate different morphologies of seawater (SW)-type and freshwater (FW)-type ionocytes of the opercular membrane of euryhaline brackish medaka, a method of dual observation including immunofluorescence staining and subsequent scanning electron microscopy was used. The apical morphologies of SW- and FW-type ionocytes were hole and flat opening, respectively. In addition, the microvilli were found on the apical surface of the FW-type ionocytes. The SW-type ionocytes exhibited basolateral Na(+), K(+), 2Cl(-) cotransporter and the apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. In contrast, in the apical region of FW-type ionocytes, Na(+), Cl(-) cotransporter and villin 1-like protein were expressed. In addition, histochemical staining of AgCl precipitation counterstained with a Na(+), K(+)-ATPase ?-subunit antibody on the opercular membrane illustrated the role of Cl(-) secretion in the SW-type ionocytes of the brackish medaka. A combination of different observations in this study indicated that the opercular membrane could be a useful surrogate model for histological and functional studies on the epithelial ionocytes of fish gills.
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Light intensity affects chlorophyll synthesis during greening process by metabolite signal from mitochondrial alternative oxidase in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Although mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play essential roles in high light stress tolerance, the effects of AOX on chlorophyll synthesis are unclear. Previous studies indicated that during greening, chlorophyll accumulation was largely delayed in plants whose mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was inhibited by knocking out nuclear encoded AOX gene. Here, we showed that this delay of chlorophyll accumulation was more significant under high light condition. Inhibition of cyanide-resistant respiration was also accompanied by the increase of plastid NADPH/NADP(+) ratio, especially under high light treatment which subsequently blocked the import of multiple plastidial proteins, such as some components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, the Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes and malate/oxaloacetate shuttle components. Overexpression of AOX1a rescued the aox1a mutant phenotype, including the chlorophyll accumulation during greening and plastidial protein import. It thus suggests that light intensity affects chlorophyll synthesis during greening process by a metabolic signal, the AOX-derived plastidial NADPH/NADP(+) ratio change. Further, our results thus revealed a molecular mechanism of chloroplast-mitochondria interactions.
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Experiences of Indonesian Mother Managing Preschool Children's Acute Abdominal Pain in Taiwan.
J Pediatr Nurs
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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The aim of this study was to understand the Indonesian mothers' experiences of managing preschool children's acute abdominal pain. The descriptive qualitative research design comprises semi-structured interviews with 11 Indonesian mothers. The qualitative content analysis revealed three themes, including (1) insight of abdominal pain, (2) "inheritance of the strategies for assessment of management for abdominal pain from the family of origin", (3) "obstacles and insights related to cultural differences". The results presented that pain management was affected by family, environment, cultural background and religious beliefs. Healthcare providers should provide culturally competent pain management care for the patients of difference nationalities.
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Comparative studies on bioactive constituents in hawk tea infusions with different maturity degree and their antioxidant activities.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Hawk tea (Litsea coreana var. lanuginose) is a very popular herbal tea in the southwest of China. According to the maturity degree of raw materials, Hawk tea can usually be divided into three types: Hawk bud tea (HB), Hawk primary leaf tea (HP), and Hawk mature leaf tea (HM). In this study, some of the bioactive constituents and antioxidant properties of the three kinds of Hawk tea infusions were comparatively investigated. The results showed that the contents of total flavonoids, vitamin C, and carbohydrates in Hawk bud tea infusion (HBI) were higher than those in Hawk primary leaf tea infusion (HPI) and Hawk mature leaf tea infusion (HMI). HPI had higher contents of total polyphenols and exhibited better DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing activity power. HBI could provide more effective protection against erythrocyte hemolysis. As age is going from bud to mature leaf, the ability to inhibit the formation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) conjugated diene and the loss of tryptophan fluorescence decreased. The bioactive constituents and antioxidant activities of Hawk tea infusions were significantly affected by the maturity degree of the raw material.
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Anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of the green fruit extract of Solanum integrifolium Poir.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The green fruit of Solanum integrifolium Poir. has been used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic remedy in Taiwanese aboriginal medicine. The goal of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of the green fruit extract of S. integrifolium. A bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure was developed to identify the active partition fraction. The methanol fraction (ME), with the highest phenolic content, exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect against LPS-mediated nitric oxide (NO) release and cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 macrophages. ME also significantly downregulated the expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory genes, such as iNOS, COX-2, IL-1?, IL-6, CCL2/MCP-1, and CCL3/MIP1?. Moreover, ME significantly upregulated HO-1 expression and stimulated the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Pretreatment of cells with the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin and MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated ME's inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production. Taken together, this is the first study to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of green fruit extract of S. integrifolium and its activity may be mediated by the upregulation of HO-1 expression and activation of ERK1/2 pathway.
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Histological evaluation in ulcerative colitis.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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This review summarizes diagnostic problems, challenges and advances in ulcerative colitis (UC). It emphasizes that, although histopathological examination plays a major role in the diagnosis and management of UC, it should always be interpreted in the context of clinical, endoscopic, and radiological findings. Accurate diagnosis requires knowledge of the classic morphological features of UC, as well as a number of atypical pathological presentations that may cause mis-classification of the disease process, either in resection or biopsy specimens. These atypical pathological presentations include rectal sparing and patchiness of disease at initial presentation of UC in pediatric patients or in the setting of medically treated UC, cecal or ascending colon inflammation in left-sided UC, and backwash ileitis in patients with severe ulcerative pancolitis. Loosely formed microgranulomas, with pale foamy histiocytes adjacent to a damaged crypt or eroded surface, should not be interpreted as evidence of Crohn's disease. Indeterminate colitis should only be used in colectomy specimens as a provisional pathological diagnosis. Patients with UC are at risk for the development of dysplasia and carcinoma; optimal outcomes in UC surveillance programs require familiarity with the diagnostic criteria and challenges relating to UC-associated dysplasia and malignancy. Colon biopsy from UC patients should always be evaluated for dysplasia based on cytological and architectural abnormalities. Accurate interpretation and classification of dysplasia in colon biopsy from UC patients as sporadic adenoma or UC-related dysplasia [flat, adenoma-like, or dysplasia-associated lesion or mass (DALM)] requires clinical and endoscopic correlation. Isolated polypoid dysplastic lesions are considered to be sporadic adenoma if occurring outside areas of histologically proven colitis, or adenoma-like dysplasia if occurring in the diseased segment. Recent data suggest that such lesions may be treated adequately by polypectomy in the absence of flat dysplasia in the patient. UC patients with DALM or flat high-grade dysplasia should be treated by colectomy because of the high probability of adenocarcinoma. The natural history of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) is more controversial: while multifocal LGD, particularly if detected at the time of initial endoscopic examination, is treated with colectomy, unifocal flat LGD detected during surveillance may be managed by close follow-up with increased surveillance. The surveillance interval and treatment options for UC patients with dysplasia are reviewed in detail.
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[Growth responses of six leguminous plants adaptable in Northern Shaanxi to petroleum contaminated soil].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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To select appropriate native species in Northern Shaanxi for phytoremediation, the growth index of six kinds of leguminous plants planted in petroleum contaminated soils were investigated through pot culture. Petroleum concentrations were set at 0, 5 000, 10 000, 20 000, 40 000 mg x kg(-1) respectively with three replicates. Using different levels of seed germination rate, germination time, individual height, wilting rate, dry weight and chlorophyll content in leaves of tested plants as the ecological indicator. The results showed that tested plants have significantly different responses to petroleum pollution. Compared with those planted in clean soils, seed germination rate and individual height were promoted when petroleum concentration was lower than 5000 mg x kg(-1), but inhibition occurred when petroleum concentrations were higher than 10000 mg x kg(-1). Strong endurance of Medicago sativa was observed to petroleum polluted soil, especially at lower petroleum concentration. Leaf wilting of Robinia pseudoacacia was unobserved even when petroleum concentration was 40 000 mg x kg(-1), thus displaying the potential of remediating petroleum contaminated soils. The petroleum concentration was significantly and negatively correlated with seed germination rate, individual height and dry weight, but positively correlated with chlorophyll content in leaves.
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Differences in the perceptions of self-care, health education barriers and educational needs between diabetes patients and nurses.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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This study examined the differing perceptions of diabetic patients and their nurses regarding the completion of self-care activities, barriers to participation in diabetes health education, and diabetic patients' educational needs to promote better health care for patients with diabetes in Taiwan. This study employed a cross-sectional survey. The data were collected during 2009. Questionnaires were developed to collect data on a convenience sample of 312 patients with type 2 diabetes and 202 nurses recruited from diabetes clinics in Taiwan. Perceptions of self-care behavior were statistically significantly different between patients and nurses (t = -5.05, P < 0.000). The patients perceived themselves to be more successful at completing self-care tasks whereas nurses perceived patients to be less successful at completing self-care tasks. Nurses perceived patients to experience greater difficulties in diabetes health education (t = 18.36, P < 0.000). Nurses perceived there to be a greater need for health education as compared with patients (t = 9.03, P < 0.000).
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[Inversion of LAI by considering the hotspot effect for different geometrical wheat].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Aimed to deal with the limitation of canopy geometry to crop LAI inversion accuracy a new LAI inversion method for different geometrical winter wheat was proposed based on hotspot indices with field-measured experimental data. The present paper analyzed bidirectional reflectance characteristics of erective and loose varieties at red (680 nm) and NIR wavelengths (800 nm and 860 nm) and developed modified normalized difference between hotspot and dark-spot (MNDHD) and hotspot and dark-spot ratio index (HDRI) using hotspot and dark-spot index (HDS) and normalized difference between hotspot and dark-spot (NDHD) for reference. Combined indices were proposed in the form of the product between HDS, NDHD, MNDHD, HDRI and three ordinary vegetation indices NDVI, SR and EVI to inverse LAI for erective and loose wheat. The analysis results showed that LAI inversion accuracy of erective wheat Jing411 were 0.9431 and 0.9092 retrieved from the combined indices between NDVI and MNDHD and HDRI at 860 nm which were better than that of HDS and NDHD, the LAI inversion accuracy of loose wheat Zhongyou9507 were 0.9648 and 0.8956 retrieved from the combined indices between SR and HDRI and MNDHD at 800 nm which were also higher than that of HDS and NDHD. It was finally concluded that the combined indices between hotspot-signature indices and ordinary vegetation indices were feasible enough to inverse LAI for different crop geometrical wheat and multiangle remote sensing data was much more advantageous than perpendicular observation data to extract crop structural parameters.
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Human sperm devoid of germinal angiotensin-converting enzyme is responsible for total fertilization failure and lower fertilization rates by conventional in vitro fertilization.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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In conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF), complete failure of fertilization occurs in 5% to 15% of treatments. Although the causes may be unclear, sperm defects appear to be the major contributor. However, a convincing test is not yet available that can predict the risk of fertilization failure. In this study, we found that germinal angiotensin-converting enzyme (gACE) (also called testicular ACE) was undetectable in sperm from patients who had total fertilization failure (TFF) and lower fertilization rates (LFRs) by IVF based on Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence analyses. Additionally, almost all of the patients without gACE on sperm (23 of 25) manifested a TT genotype of the rs4316 single-nucleotide polymorphism of ACE. Overall, our results indicate that the absence of gACE expression is responsible for TFF and LFRs by IVF. The rs4316 polymorphism of ACE might be associated with infertility in those patients. We conclude that sperm lacking gACE may be recognized before commencing IVF and that the patients may be directed instead to consider intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
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Complete Endoscopic Mucosal Resection Is Effective and Durable Treatment for Barrett's-Associated Neoplasia.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Barrett's esophagus (BE) with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or intramucosal carcinoma (IMC) is treated by complete eradication of areas of BE by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). By using this approach, histologic analysis also can be performed. We investigated the effectiveness, safety, and durability of this approach, as well as its use in diagnosis after a single referral.
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Hand hygiene compliance among the nursing staff in freestanding nursing homes in Taiwan: a preliminary study.
Int J Nurs Pract
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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This study aimed to explore the hand hygiene compliance among the nursing staff in Taiwanese freestanding nursing homes. A descriptive observational research design was used. A total of 782 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed by one trained research assistant in two freestanding nursing homes. The hand-hygiene observation tool was used to assess hand hygiene practice. The overall hand hygiene compliance among nursing staff in nursing homes was only 11.3%. Results further showed that the compliance was greater after contact with body fluids (odds ratio?=?6.9, confidence interval (CI)?=?3.75-9.88, P?=?0.000) and lower before the performance of aseptic procedures (odds ratio?=?0.15, CI?=?0.04-0.63, P?=?0.003) when compared with other activities. Hand hygiene compliance was relatively low among the nursing staff in freestanding nursing homes in Taiwan. To comprehensively analyze this issue, further research involving a larger number of nursing homes and strategies to improve compliance with hand hygiene among the nursing staff at these institutions is needed.
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Relationship between different surgical methods, hemorrhage position, hemorrhage volume, surgical timing, and treatment outcome of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.
World J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The present study aimed to explore the relationship between surgical methods, hemorrhage position, hemorrhage volume, surgical timing and treatment outcome of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH).
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Decreased expression of SAM68 in human testes with spermatogenic defects.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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To assess the expression patterns of SAM68 in the testes of azoospermic patients with normal and abnormal spermatogenesis.
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RTP801 regulates maneb- and mancozeb-induced cytotoxicity via NF-?B.
J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Environmental factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Maneb (MB) and mancozeb (MZ) have been extensively used as pesticides. Exposure to MB lowers the threshold for dopaminergic damage triggered by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. MB and MZ potentiate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridium (MPP(+))-induced cytotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells partially via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation. RTP801 dramatically increased by oxidative stresses and DNA damage is the possible mechanism of neurotoxins-induced cell death in many studies. This study demonstrated that MB and MZ induced DNA damage as seen in comet assay. The expressions of RTP801 protein and mRNA were elevated after MB and MZ exposures. By knocking down RTP801 using shRNA, we demonstrated that NF-?B activation by MB and MZ was regulated by RTP801 and cell death triggered by MB and MZ was associated with RTP801 elevation. This revealed that the toxic mechanisms of dithiocarbamates are via the cross talk between RTP801 and NF-?B.
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8-hydrocalamenene, derived from Reynoutria elliptica, suppresses constitutive STAT3 activation, inhibiting proliferation and enhancing chemosensitization of human multiple myeloma cells.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The identification of the active compounds of herbal medicines and the molecular targets of those compounds is an attractive therapeutic objective. Reynoutria elliptica has been used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases as a Korean folk remedy. Based on the evidence that anti-inflammatory agents frequently exert antiproliferative activity, we tested two sesquiterpene derivatives, 8-hydrocalamenene (HC) and 8,14-dihydrocalamenene (DHC), for their ability to induce apoptosis and suppress signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation in multiple myeloma (MM) U266 cells. We found that HC inhibited cell viability in U266, but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. HC exerted significant cytotoxicity and induced substantial subG1-phase arrest and apoptosis as compared with DHC. HC inhibited the expression of gene products involved in antiapoptosis (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL), proliferation (cyclin D1), and invasion (MMP-9), all of which are known to be regulated by STAT3. Furthermore, HC up-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and induced apoptosis through the activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 in U266 cells. Interestingly, HC blocked constitutive STAT3 activation through the inhibition of activation of upstream kinases Janus-like kinase 1 (JAK1), JAK2, and c-Src and up-regulated PIAS3. Deletion of STAT3 reversed cytotoxic effects and the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and c-myc by HC in MM cells. Finally, this sesquiterpene significantly synergized the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of bortezomib in U266 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that HC is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation which may have a potential in the prevention and treatment of MM.
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with autoimmune pancreatitis-like histologic and immunohistochemical features.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) often manifests as a mass lesion causing obstructive jaundice, clinically mimicking pancreatic carcinoma. A diagnosis of AIP may obviate the need for surgical resection, as most patients respond to steroid treatment. However, it is not clear whether these 2 conditions can coexist. In this study, 105 specimens resected for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) that also have changes of chronic pancreatitis were examined for features considered to be characteristic of AIP. Of 105 cases of PDAC with changes of chronic pancreatitis, 10 (9.5%) exhibited histologic features of AIP, including exuberant fibrosis, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, obliterative phlebitis, or granulocytic epithelial lesions. Of these 10 cases, 7 had more than 20 immunoglobulin G4+ plasma cells per high-power field. Of these 7 cases, 5 were analyzed for Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene mutation and SMAD4 expression. Three cases showed K-ras mutation and/or loss of SMAD4 expression in benign AIP-like areas. These findings suggest 2 possibilities: first, AIP-like lesions may occur in a small but significant portion of PDAC cases; second, some PDACs may arise in a background of AIP. Therefore, caution is necessary when making a diagnosis of AIP by needle biopsy of a mass lesion, and patients with a tentative AIP diagnosis should be closely followed up clinically.
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Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are essential for systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Systemic resistance is induced by pathogens and confers protection against a broad range of pathogens. Recent studies have indicated that salicylic acid (SA) derivative methyl salicylate (MeSA) serves as a long-distance phloem-mobile systemic resistance signal in tobacco, Arabidopsis, and potato. However, other experiments indicate that jasmonic acid (JA) is a critical mobile signal. Here, we present evidence suggesting both MeSA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are essential for systemic resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), possibly acting as the initiating signals for systemic resistance. Foliar application of JA followed by SA triggered the strongest systemic resistance against TMV. Furthermore, we use a virus-induced gene-silencing-based genetics approach to investigate the function of JA and SA biosynthesis or signaling genes in systemic response against TMV infection. Silencing of SA or JA biosynthetic and signaling genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants increased susceptibility to TMV. Genetic experiments also proved the irreplaceable roles of MeSA and MeJA in systemic resistance response. Systemic resistance was compromised when SA methyl transferase or JA carboxyl methyltransferase, which are required for MeSA and MeJA formation, respectively, were silenced. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that JA and MeJA accumulated in phloem exudates of leaves at early stages and SA and MeSA accumulated at later stages, after TMV infection. Our data also indicated that JA and MeJA could regulate MeSA and SA production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that (Me)JA and (Me)SA are required for systemic resistance response against TMV.
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Lifetime risk of distinct upper aerodigestive tract cancers and consumption of alcohol, betel and cigarette.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The cancer of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is a common cancers in the world. However, its lifetime risk by consumption of alcohol, betel and cigarettes remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to estimate lifetime risk of distinct UADT cancers and assess their associations with alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption. Three cohorts of 25,611 men were enrolled in 1982-1992 in Taiwan. The history of alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption was enquired through questionnaire interview. Newly developed UADT cancers were ascertained through computerized linkage with national cancer registry profile. Lifetime (30-80 years old) risk and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HRadj) of distinct UADT cancers by alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption were estimated. A total of 269 pathologically confirmed cases of UADT cancers were newly-diagnosed during 472,096 person-years of follow-up. The lifetime risk of UADT cancer was 9.42 and 1.65% for betel chewers and nonchewers, 3.22 and 1.21% for cigarette smokers and nonsmokers and 4.77 and 1.85% for alcohol drinkers and nondrinkers. The HRadj (95% confidence interval) of developing UADT cancer was 3.36 (2.51-4.49), 2.02 (1.43-2.84), 1.90 (1.46-2.49), respectively, for the consumption of betel, cigarette and alcohol. Alcohol, betel and cigarette had different effect on cancers at various anatomical sites of UADT. The cancer risk from the mouth, pharynx, esophagus to larynx increased for alcohol and cigarette consumption, but decreased for betel consumption. Alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption are independent risk predictors for distinct UADT cancers.
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Absolute quantitation of Met using mass spectrometry for clinical application: assay precision, stability, and correlation with MET gene amplification in FFPE tumor tissue.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Overexpression of Met tyrosine kinase receptor is associated with poor prognosis. Overexpression, and particularly MET amplification, are predictive of response to Met-specific therapy in preclinical models. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is currently used to select for 'high Met' expressing tumors for Met inhibitor trials. IHC suffers from antibody non-specificity, lack of quantitative resolution, and, when quantifying multiple proteins, inefficient use of scarce tissue.
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Reduced expression of uroplakin 1A is associated with the poor prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of Uroplakin1A (UPK1A) in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Functional studies were also analyzed in vitro.
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Decreased expression of the GATA3 gene is associated with poor prognosis in primary gastric adenocarcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) was recently proposed to function as a tumor suppressor gene in some types of human cancer. This study aims to investigate GATA3 expression and its prognostic significance in primary gastric adenocarcinoma.
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[Inversion of leaf area index during different growth stages in winter wheat].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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Being orientated to the low prescion of crop leaf area index (LAI) inversion using the same spectral vegetation index during different crop growth stages, the present paper analyzed the precision of LAI inversion by employing NDVI(normalized difference vegetation index). Ten vegetation indices were chosen including six broad-band vegetation indices and four narrow-band vegetation indices responding to vegetation cover to inverse LAI in different growth stages. Several conclusions were drawn according to the analysis. The determinant coefficient (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) between LAI inversion value and true value were 0.5585 and 0.3209 respectively during the whole growth duraton. The mSR (modified simple ratio index) index was appropriate to inverse of LAI during earlier growth stages (before jointing stage) in winter wheat. The R2 and RMSE between LAI inversion value and true value were 0.7287 and 0.2971 respectively. The SR (simple ratio index) index was suitable enough to inverse of LAI during medium growth stages (from joingting stagess to heading stages). The R2 and RMSE between LAI inversion value and true value were 0.6546 and 0.3061 respectively. The NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) index was proven to be fine to inverse LAI during later growth stages(from heading stage to ripening stage). The R2 and RMSE between LAI inversion value and true value were 0.6794 and 0.3164 respectively. Therefore it was indicated that the results of LAI inversion was much better inverse of winter wheat LAI choosing different vegetation indices during differen growth stages for winter wheat according to the change of vegetation cover and canopy reflectance than merely with NDVI to inverse LAI in the whole growth stages. It was concluded that the precision of LAI inversion was significantly improved with segmented models based on different vegetation indices.
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Smoothelin expression in the gastrointestinal tract: implication in colonic inertia.
Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Colonic inertia is a frustrating motility disorder to patients, clinicians, and pathologists. The pathogenesis is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to: (1) characterize the expression of smoothelin, a novel smooth muscle-specific contractile protein expressed only by terminally differentiated smooth muscle cells, in the normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract; and (2) determine whether smoothelin is aberrantly expressed in patients with colonic inertia. A total of 57 resections of the normal GI tract (distal esophagus to left colon) were obtained from patients without GI motor dysfunction. Sixty-one colon resections were obtained from patients with a clinical diagnosis of colonic inertia. Smoothelin immunostaining was conducted on full-thickness tissue sections. In the nondysmotile controls, strong and diffuse cytoplasmic staining for smoothelin was observed in both the inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of the muscularis propria (MP) throughout the entire GI tract. The muscularis mucosae (MM) and muscular vessel walls were either completely negative or only patchily and weakly stained. The 1 exception to this pattern was observed in the distal esophagus, in which the MM was also diffusely and strongly stained. In cases with colonic inertia, a moderate to marked reduction of smoothelin immunoreactivity was observed in 15 of 61 (24.6%) colon resections, selectively seen in the outer layer of the MP. The data demonstrate that smoothelin is differentially expressed in the MP and MM of the normal GI tract and suggest that defective smoothelin expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of colonic inertia in a subset of patients.
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Transgenic mice expressing mutant Pinin exhibit muscular dystrophy, nebulin deficiency and elevated expression of slow-type muscle fiber genes.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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Pinin (Pnn) is a nuclear speckle-associated SR-like protein. The N-terminal region of the Pnn protein sequence is highly conserved from mammals to insects, but the C-terminal RS domain-containing region is absent in lower species. The N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) is, therefore, of interest not only from a functional point of view, but also from an evolutionarily standpoint. To explore the biological role of the Pnn CCD in a physiological context, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Pnn mutant in skeletal muscle. We found that overexpression of the CCD reduces endogenous Pnn expression in cultured cell lines as well as in transgenic skeletal muscle fibers. Pnn mutant mice exhibited reduced body mass and impaired muscle function during development. Mutant skeletal muscles show dystrophic histological features with muscle fibers heavily loaded with centrally located myonuclei. Expression profiling and pathway analysis identified over-representation of genes in gene categories associated with muscle contraction, specifically those related to slow type fiber. In addition nebulin (NEB) expression level is repressed in Pnn mutant skeletal muscle. We conclude that Pnn downregulation in skeletal muscle causes a muscular dystrophic phenotype associated with NEB deficiency and the CCD domain is incapable of replacing full length Pnn in terms of functional capacity.
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Systematic Approach to Determination of Maximum Achievable Capture Capacity via Leaching and Carbonation Processes for Alkaline Steelmaking Wastes in a Rotating Packed Bed.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Accelerated carbonation of basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) coupled with cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was performed in a rotating packed bed (RPB) as a promising process for both CO2 fixation and wastewater treatment. The maximum achievable capture capacity (MACC) via leaching and carbonation processes for BOFS in an RPB was systematically determined throughout this study. The leaching behavior of various metal ions from the BOFS into the CRW was investigated by a kinetic model. In addition, quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) using the Rietveld method was carried out to determine the process chemistry of carbonation of BOFS with CRW in an RPB. According to the QXRD results, the major mineral phases reacting with CO2 in BOFS were Ca(OH)2, Ca2(HSiO4)(OH), CaSiO3, and Ca2Fe1.04Al0.986O5. Meanwhile, the carbonation product was identified as calcite according to the observations of SEM, XEDS, and mappings. Furthermore, the MACC of the lab-scale RPB process was determined by balancing the carbonation conversion and energy consumption. In that case, the overall energy consumption, including grinding, pumping, stirring, and rotating processes, was estimated to be 707 kWh/t-CO2. It was thus concluded that CO2 capture by accelerated carbonation of BOFS could be effectively and efficiently performed by coutilizing with CRW in an RPB.
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A fast Monte Carlo EM algorithm for estimation in latent class model analysis with an application to assess diagnostic accuracy for cervical neoplasia in women with AGC.
J Appl Stat
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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In this article we use a latent class model (LCM) with prevalence modeled as a function of covariates to assess diagnostic test accuracy in situations where the true disease status is not observed, but observations on three or more conditionally independent diagnostic tests are available. A fast Monte Carlo EM (MCEM) algorithm with binary (disease) diagnostic data is implemented to estimate parameters of interest; namely, sensitivity, specificity, and prevalence of the disease as a function of covariates. To obtain standard errors for confidence interval construction of estimated parameters, the missing information principle is applied to adjust information matrix estimates. We compare the adjusted information matrix based standard error estimates with the bootstrap standard error estimates both obtained using the fast MCEM algorithm through an extensive Monte Carlo study. Simulation demonstrates that the adjusted information matrix approach estimates the standard error similarly with the bootstrap methods under certain scenarios. The bootstrap percentile intervals have satisfactory coverage probabilities. We then apply the LCM analysis to a real data set of 122 subjects from a Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) study of significant cervical lesion (S-CL) diagnosis in women with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGC) to compare the diagnostic accuracy of a histology-based evaluation, a CA-IX biomarker-based test and a human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test.
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[Test-retest reliability of Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire in nurses].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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To evaluate the test-retest reliability of Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire in nurses and to provide supplementary data for evaluating the reliability of the questionnaire in different occupational populations.
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Efficacy of narrowband ultraviolet phototherapy on renal pruritus.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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To test the efficacy of narrowband ultraviolet B phototherapy in reducing renal pruritus.
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Virological, Serological, and Antiviral Studies in an Imported Human Case of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Taiwan.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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We describe the clinical course and virological characteristics of the first H7N9 influenza case in a Taiwanese patient; this patient had detectable viruses in the airway for 2 weeks, during which time an oseltamivir resistance-associated R292K mutation rapidly emerged. Anti-H7N9 antibody was detected 21 days after onset of symptoms, when H7N9 viral load declined significantly.
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[Effect of tube voltage on digital chest radiograph for phantomand occupational exposed workers].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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To explore the image quality of different tube voltage on digital chest radiograph for contrast detail phantom (CDRAD2.0) and occupational exposed workers.
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[Clinical classification of gluteal muscle contracture under arthroscopy].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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To explore clinical effects of gluteal muscle contracture and minimum invasive surgery under the arthroscopy.
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Capillarisin inhibits constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation through induction of SHP-1 and SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatases.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)-3 is a latent cytosolic transcription factor that has been closely associated with survival, proliferation, chemoresistance, and metastasis of tumor cells. Whether the anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-metastatic effects of capillarisin (CPS), derived from Artemisia capillaris (Compositae), are linked to its capability to inhibit STAT3 activation was investigated. We found that CPS specifically inhibited both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation at tyrosine residue 705 but not at serine residue 727 in human multiple myeloma cells. Besides the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation, CPS also abrogated STAT3 constitutive activity and nuclear translocation. The suppression of STAT3 was mediated through the inhibition of activation of upstream JAK1, JAK2, and c-Src kinases. Treatment with the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor pervanadate treatment reversed the CPS-induced down-regulation of JAK1/2 and STAT3, thereby suggesting the involvement of a PTP. Indeed, knockdown of the SHP-1 and SHP-2 genes by small interfering RNA suppressed the ability of CPS to inhibit JAK1 and STAT3 activation, suggesting the critical role of both SHP-1 and SHP-2 in its possible mechanism of action. CPS downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated antiapoptotic and proliferative gene products; and this correlated with suppression of cell viability, the accumulation of cells in sub-G1 phase of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, CPS potentiated bortezomib-induced apoptotic effects in MM cells, and this correlated with down-regulation of various gene products that mediate cell proliferation (Cyclin D1 and COX-2), cell survival (Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, IAP1, IAP2, and Survivin), invasion (MMP-9), and angiogenesis (VEGF). Thus, overall, our results suggest that CPS is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation and thus may have a potential in negative regulation of growth, metastasis, and chemoresistance of tumor cells.
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Histopathological Changes in the Gastrointestinal Tract Due to Medications: An Update for the Surgical Pathologist (Part II of II).
Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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In keeping with the stated goal of providing the surgical pathologist with tools to recognize abnormalities of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to drugs (AGIDS), in part II of this review we embark in a more organ-based description of AGIDS. Adequate space is given to the numerous adverse gastrointestinal effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Pill esophagitis, esophagitis dissecans, proton pump inhibitors effects, diaphragm disease, and the recently described effects of drugs such as olmesartan, mycophenolate, and of compounds such as yttrium-90 are highlighted among several others. The inclusion of drug effects in the differential diagnosis of "conventional" diseases (such as gastric antral vascular ectasia, graft-versus-host disease, ischemic colitis, acute colitis, collagenous enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease) is underscored to avoid sometimes significant diagnostic pitfalls. We reiterate the message of the necessary collaboration between pathologist and clinician in the recognition of these entities to provide the best patient care.
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Histopathological Changes in the Gastrointestinal Tract Due to Drugs: An Update for the Surgical Pathologist (Part I of II).
Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Abnormalities of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to drugs (AGIDs) are numerous and have significant impact. The aim of this narrative review is to help the practicing surgical pathologist recognize selected AGIDs. The adverse drug effects presented were chosen with an emphasis on recent and significant pathological and clinical contributions. The selection was based on a thorough review of the PUBMED-based literature and on the authors opinions and experience. In the first part of the review, diagnostic abnormalities due to crystals (eg, iron, biphosphonates, nonsystemic drugs), mitosis arresting drugs (colchicine, taxanes), and biological agents, especially ipilimumab, are discussed. Some AGIDs histopathologic features can be easily recognized. It is however the clinical correlation that in many cases of AGIDs will provide the necessary support for a drug effect diagnosis. The identification of AGIDs requires heightened awareness of the medical team in which close collaboration of pathologists and clinicians cannot be overemphasized.
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Gender differences associated with pain characteristics and treatment in taiwanese oncology outpatients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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The purpose of this descriptive and comparative study was to examine gender differences relevant to pain intensity, opioid prescription patterns and opioid consumption in Taiwanese oncology outpatients. The 92 participants had been prescribed opioid analgesics for cancer-related pain at least once in the past week and were asked to complete the Brief Pain Inventory - Chinese questionnaire and to recall the dosage of each opioid analgesic that they had ingested within the previous 24 hours. For opioid prescriptions and consumption, all analgesics were converted to morphine equivalents. The results revealed a significant difference between males and female minimum pain thresholds (t = 2.38, p = 0.02) and current pain thresholds (t = 2.12, p = 0.04), with males reporting a higher intensity of pain than females. In addition, this study found that males tended to use prescribed opioid analgesics more frequently than females on the bases of both around the clock (ATC) (t = 1.90, p = 0.06) and ATC plus as needed (ATC + PRN) (t = 2.33, p = 0.02). However, there was no difference between males and females in opioid prescriptions on an ATC basis (t = 0.52, p = 0.60) or at an ATC + PRN basis (t = 0.40, p = 0.69). The results suggest that there may be a gender bias in the treatment of cancer pain, supporting the proposal of routine examination of the effect of gender on cancer pain management. These findings suggest that clinicians should be particularly aware of potential gender differences during pain monitoring and the consumption of prescribed opioid analgesics.
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Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas exhibit gastric differentiation.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Primary small bowel adenocarcinoma is rare. Although generally similar to colonic adenocarcinoma, some small bowel adenocarcinomas exhibit unique morphologic features, particularly those arising in association with Crohn disease. In this study, 15 sporadic small bowel adenocarcinomas and 11 Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas were examined for histology and immunohistochemical profile including cytokeratins (CK) 7 and 20, intestinal markers CDX2 and MUC2, and gastric epithelial markers MUC5AC and MUC6. We found that Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas frequently resemble gastric tubular adenocarcinoma histologically. In addition, when compared to sporadic small bowel adenocarcinoma, the former expressed MUC5AC and MUC6 with much higher frequency (82% vs. 7% and 73% vs. 0%, respectively). Ten of 11 Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas (91%) were positive for at least one gastric-type marker (MUC5AC or MUC6). Expression of CK7 was also more frequent in Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma (73% versus 27%) while expression of CK20 was less frequent (64% vs. 100%). There was no difference between sporadic and Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma in expression of CDX2 (100% vs. 91%) and MUC2 (93% vs. 73%). These observations suggest that there is a difference in the morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of sporadic versus Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma, particularly in their expression of gastric-type mucin. The findings also suggest that gastric differentiation in Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma is related to gastric metaplasia, a common phenomenon in Crohn disease.
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[Association between six single nucleotide polymorphisms of EGLN1 gene and adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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To investigate the association between SNPs located in 5UTR and intron of prolyl hydroxylase 2 (EGLN1 or PHD2) and adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia, the SNPs (rs2066140, rs2808584, rs2491405, rs2486741, rs2486734 and rs21533646) of EGLN1 gene were genotyped using Sequenom MassArray genotyping system in 152 unrelated healthy Tibetan individuals (3 650 m altitude) and 192 Han (5 00 m altitude), and the haplotypes of these SNPs were constructed and analyzed. Our results showed all the homozygous genotypes of six SNPs loci were significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05). The frequencies of haplotypes G-G (rs2066140 and rs2808584) and G-C (rs2486741 and rs2486734) of high-altitude group were significantly different from low-altitude group (P<0.05). In addition, the frequencies of haplotypes C-A (rs2066140 and rs2808584) and C-T (rs2486741 and rs2486734) of high-altitude group were significantly lower than those in low-altitude group (P<0.05). Our results indicate that the polymorphism of homozygous genotype in six SNPs and their haplotypes were associated with adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia.
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[Analysis of quality variation and genetic diversity of Desmodium styracifolium from different provenances].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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To explore the quality variation and genetic diversity of Desmodium styracifolium from different provenances, and lay a foundation for rational exploitation on germplasm resources and fine variety breeding of D. styracifolium.
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[Arthroscopic treatment of painful heel syndrome with radio-frequency].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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To evaluate therapy effect of radiofrequency in the treatment of painful heel syndrome under arthroscopy.
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[Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with tendon graft enveloped by preserved remnants].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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To explore the curative effect of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with tendon graft enveloped by preserved remnants.
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[Arthroscopic reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament with preservation of the remnant bundle].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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To evaluate clinical effects of arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with preservation of the remnant bundle.
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Differences in the perceptions of self-care, health education barriers and educational needs between diabetes patients and nurses.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Abstract This study examined the differing perceptions of diabetic patients and their nurses regarding the completion of self-care activities, barriers to participation in diabetes health education, and diabetic patients educational needs to promote better health care for patients with diabetes in Taiwan. This study employed a cross-sectional survey. The data were collected during 2009. Questionnaires were developed to collect data on a convenience sample of 312 patients with type 2 diabetes and 202 nurses recruited from diabetes clinics in Taiwan. Perceptions of self-care behavior were statistically significantly different between patients and nurses (t=-5.05, P<0.000). The patients perceived themselves to be more successful at completing self-care tasks whereas nurses perceived patients to be less successful at completing self-care tasks. Nurses perceived patients to experience greater difficulties in diabetes health education (t=18.36, P<0.000). Nurses perceived there to be a greater need for health education as compared with patients (t=9.03, P<0.000).
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Ligament structures in the tarsal sinus and canal.
Foot Ankle Int
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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The concrete anatomy and functional characteristics of the subtalar ligaments have been a matter of debate that some believe has hampered the progress of clinical ligament reconstruction.
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Multifocal Breast Cancer in Young Women with Prolonged Contact between Their Breasts and Their Cellular Phones.
Case Rep Med
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Breast cancer occurring in women under the age of 40 is uncommon in the absence of family history or genetic predisposition, and prompts the exploration of other possible exposures or environmental risks. We report a case series of four young women-ages from 21 to 39-with multifocal invasive breast cancer that raises the concern of a possible association with nonionizing radiation of electromagnetic field exposures from cellular phones. All patients regularly carried their smartphones directly against their breasts in their brassieres for up to 10 hours a day, for several years, and developed tumors in areas of their breasts immediately underlying the phones. All patients had no family history of breast cancer, tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2, and had no other known breast cancer risks. Their breast imaging is reviewed, showing clustering of multiple tumor foci in the breast directly under the area of phone contact. Pathology of all four cases shows striking similarity; all tumors are hormone-positive, low-intermediate grade, having an extensive intraductal component, and all tumors have near identical morphology. These cases raise awareness to the lack of safety data of prolonged direct contact with cellular phones.
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Diverse responses are involved in the defence of Arabidopsis thaliana against Turnip crinkle virus.
Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Plant hormones play pivotal roles as signals of plant-pathogen interactions. Here, we report that exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethephon (ETH), and abscisic acid (ABA) can reduce Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) accumulation in systemic leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana during early infection. SA and ABA are more efficient and confer a longer-lasting resistance against TCV than JA and ETH, and the plant hormones interact in effecting the plant defence. Synergistic actions of SA and JA, and SA and ET, and an antagonistic action of SA and ABA have been observed in the Arabidopsis-TCV interaction. ABA can down-regulate the expression of the pathogenesis-related genes PR1 and PDF1.2, and compared to the wild type, it drastically reduces TCV accumulation in NahG transgenic plants and the eds5-p1 mutant, both of which do not accumulate SA. This indicates that SA signaling negatively regulates the ABA-mediated defence. ABA-induced resistance against TCV is independent of SA. We also found that mitogen-activated protein kinase 5 (MPK5) may be involved in ABA-mediated defence. These results indicate that Arabidopsis can activate distinct signals to inhibit virus accumulation. Cooperative or antagonistic crosstalk between them is pivotal for establishing disease resistance. These results show potential to enhance the plant defence against viruses by manipulating diverse hormones.
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[Effect of digital radiography processing parameters on digital chest radiograph for occupational exposed workers].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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To investigate the effect of different processing parameters of digital radiography (DR) on the image quality of digital chest radiograph in dust-exposed workers.
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The roles of two transcription factors, ABI4 and CBFA, in ABA and plastid signalling and stress responses.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Genetic and physiological studies have revealed evidences for multiple signaling pathways by which the plastid exerts retrograde control over photosynthesis-associated-nuclear-genes. In this study we have examined the mechanisms of control of transcription by plastid signals, focusing on transcription factors. We have also further addressed the physical nature of plastid signals and the physiological role, in stress acclimation of this regulatory pathway. ABI4, a master Apetala 2 (AP2)-type transcription factor (TF), is targeted by multiple signalling pathways in plant cells, such as abscisic acid (ABA) signals, sugar signals and plastid signals derived from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chlorophyll intermediates. ABI4 binds the promoter of target genes to prevent their transcription by competing with other competitive TFs. However, we found that once ABI4 bound the element (CCACGT), it may not be bound by other TFs, therefore making the signalling long-lasting. Downstream of ABI4, CBFA (CCAAT binding factor A) is a subunit of the HAP2/HAP3/HAP5 (Heme activator protein) trimeric transcription complex. CBFA however is a redundant HAP3 subunit. When emergency occurs (such as herbicide treatments or environmental stresses followed by ABA and ROS accumulation), the master transcription factor ABI4 down-regulates some TFs, like CBFA, and then some other TF subunits enter the transcription complex and transcriptional efficiency of stress-responsive genes (including the transcription co-factor CBP) is improved instantaneously. abi4, cbfA and cbp mutants showed weaker drought-tolerance after a herbicide norflurazon treatment, which indicated the physiological role of these key transcription factors.
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Panax notoginseng Attenuates Experimental Colitis in the Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium Mouse Model.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease are at a high risk of developing colorectal cancer. To assess the anticancer potential of botanicals, in this study, we evaluated the effects of Panax notoginseng on azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. One week after A/J mice received azoxymethane, the animals received DSS for 8?days or were supplemented with P.?notoginseng extract, at 30 or 90?mg/kg. DSS-induced colitis was scored with the disease activity index. The severity of the inflammatory lesions was evaluated by a colon tissue histological assessment. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also explored. We observed that the effects of P.?notoginseng on the reduction of colon inflammation, expressed in disease activity index score, were in a dose-related manner (p?
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The efficacy of a self-management programme for people with diabetes, after a special training programme for healthcare workers in Taiwan: a quasi-experimental design.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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To analyse the efficacy of improving disease management after implementing a self-management programme for people with type 2 diabetes administered by healthcare workers who have received special training.
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Diagnostic utility of TP53 and cytokeratin 7 immunohistochemistry in idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplasia.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Long-standing inflammatory bowel disease is associated with increased risk of developing colorectal adenocarcinoma. Significant intra- and inter-observers variability exists in histologic interpretation of dysplasia in surveillance biopsies. In this study, we evaluated the utility of a panel of immunohistochemical markers in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplasia. We reviewed 39 colectomy specimens with inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplasia. In these 39 cases, we identified 172 foci of interest (5 normal, 58 negative for dysplasia, 15 indefinite for dysplasia, 59 low-grade dysplasia, 18 high-grade dysplasia, and 17 invasive adenocarcinoma). They were subjected to immunohistochemistry for TP53 and CK7. Logistic regression was used to evaluate their association with the presence of dysplasia. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal cutoffs and assess the diagnostic performance of TP53 and CK7. Both TP53 nuclear staining and CK7 immunoreactivity gradually increased in the progression of inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplasia (P<0.0001). CK7 immunoreactivity increased along with the increase of inflammation severity (P=0.0002) as well as reactive changes (P=0.04) in the colonic mucosa. But TP53 nuclear staining was independent of either feature. When both TP53>8% and CK7>30% as identified from logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to diagnose dysplasia, the specificity achieved as high as 95%. When either TP53>8% or CK7>30% was used to diagnose dysplasia, the sensitivity achieved was 82%. Our results suggested that a combination of CK7 and TP53 immunohistochemistry may be helpful in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease-associated dysplasia in difficult cases.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 26 July 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.133.
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Patient and clinical variables account for changes in health- related quality of life and symptom burden as treatment outcomes in colorectal cancer: a longitudinal study.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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The aim of the current study was to evaluate changes in treatment outcomes in terms of health- related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptom burden at zero, one, three, and six months after an initial diagnosis of colorectal cancer. The demographic and clinical characteristics that account for outcome changes in patients were investigated using a repeated measures framework.
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Extraction, purification and characterization of polysaccharides from Hawk tea.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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In the present study, the extraction, purification and characterization of polysaccharides from Hawk mature leaf tea (HMP) were investigated. The optimal extraction parameters were obtained by using a Box-Behnken design as follows: extraction temperature 88.9°C, extraction time 128.2min and ratio of water to solid 11.4mL/g. The crude HMP was sequentially purified by chromatography of DEAE-52, and two purified fractions, HMP-1 and HMP-2, were obtained. HMP-1 and HMP-2 were mainly composed of arabinose, galactose, glucose and mannose with the molecular weight of 133 and 100kDa, respectively. For antioxidant activities in vitro, HMP-1 had strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing activity power (FRAP). These results provide a scientific basis for the further use of polysaccharides from this traditional herb tea.
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Involvement of NF Kappa B in potentiated effect of Mn-containing dithiocarbamates on MPP(+) induced cell death.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Humans are exposed to various chemical mixtures daily. The toxic response to a mixture of chemicals could be potentiated or suppressed. This study demonstrates that non-toxic doses of pesticides can induce cellular changes that increase cell sensitivity to other toxins or stress. Pesticide exposure is an environmental risk factor for Parkinsons disease. Manganese (Mn) is essential but high dose exposure may results in neurological dysfunction. Mn-containing dithiocarbamates, maneb (MB) and mancozeb (MZ), are primarily used as pesticides. Studies have shown that MB can augment dopaminergic damage triggered by sub-toxic doses of Parkinsonian mimetic MPTP. However, the mechanism underlying this effect is not clear. Activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) has been implicated in MPTP toxicity. Mn stimulates the activation of NF-?B and subsequently induces neuronal injury via an NF-?B dependent mechanism. We speculate that MB and MZ enhance MPTP active metabolite (methyl-4-phenylpyridine ion, MPP(+)) toxicity by activating NF-?B. The activation of NF-?B was observed using Western blot analysis and NF-?B response element driven Luciferase reporter assay. Western blot data demonstrated the nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65 and the degradation of IkB? after MB and MZ 4-h treatments. Results of NF-?B response element luciferase reporter assay confirmed that MB and MZ activated NF-?B. The NF-?B inhibitor (SN50) was also shown to alleviate cytotoxicity induced by co-treatment of MB or MZ and MPP(+). This study demonstrates that activation of NF-?B is responsible for the potentiated toxic effect of MB and MZ on MPP(+) induced cytotoxicity.
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Relationship between belief about analgesics, analgesic adherence and pain experience in taiwanese cancer outpatients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Social and behavioral scientists have proposed that a persons belief system crucially influences his or her behaviour, and therefore may affect outcomes of pain management. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between analgesic beliefs, analgesic adherence and pain experience amongst Taiwanese cancer outpatients. The cross-sectional study included 92 oncology outpatients in two teaching hospitals in the Taipei area of Taiwan. The research instruments included the Pain Opioid Analgesic Beliefs Scale-Cancer (POABS- CA), opioid adherence, and the Brief Pain Inventory-Chinese (BPI-Chinese). Beliefs about pain and opioids demonstrated a significant relationship with patients opioid adherence (r = -0.30, p < 0.01). The more negative beliefs regarding opioids and pain the patient had, the worse their adherence to around the clock (ATC) analgesic regimen. However, there was no significant correlation between opioid belief and pain experience. As well, there were no significant relationships between adherence to opioid regimen and any of the measures of pain experience. The study highlights the potential importance of a patients pain and opioid beliefs in adherence to pain medication.
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[Multicenter randomized controlled study of temozolomide versus semustine in the treatment of recurrent malignant glioma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of temozolomide (TMZ) versus semustine (Me-CCNU) in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or anaplastic astrocytoma (AA).
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Arsenic trioxide induces unfolded protein response in vascular endothelial cells.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. We investigate the involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling in the arsenic-mediated cytotoxicity of the SVEC4-10 mouse endothelial cells. The SVEC4-10 cells underwent apoptosis in response to As2O3 dose- and time-dependently, accompanied by increased accumulation of calcium, and activation of caspase-3. These phenomena were completely inhibited by ?-lipoic acid (LA), which did not scavenge ROS over-production, but were only partially or not ameliorated by tiron, a potent superoxide scavenger. Moreover, arsenic activated UPR, leading to phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit ? (eIF2?), induction of ATF4, and processing of ATF6. Treatment with arsenic also triggered the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein), and CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein). The activation of eIF2?, ATF4 and ATF6 and expression of GRP78 and CHOP are repressed by both LA and tiron, indicating arsenic-induced UPR is mediated through ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways. Arsenic also induced ER stress-inducible genes, BAX, PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), TRB3 (tribbles-related protein 3), and SNAT2 (sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter 2). Consistent with intracellular calcium and cell viability data, ROS may not be important in arsenic-induced death, because tiron did not affect the expression of these pro-apoptotic genes. In addition, pretreatment with salubrinal, a selective inhibitor of eIF2? dephosphorylation, enhanced arsenic-induced GRP78 and CHOP expression and partially prevented arsenic cytotoxicity in SVEC4-10 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that arsenic-induced endothelial cytotoxicity is associated with ER stress, which is mediated by ROS-dependent and ROS-independent signaling.
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Ex Situ CO2 capture by carbonation of steelmaking slag coupled with metalworking wastewater in a rotating packed bed.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Both basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag and cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) exhibiting highly alkaline characteristics require stabilization and neutralization prior to utilization and/or final disposal. Using CO2 from flue gases as the stabilizing and neutralizing agents could also diminish CO2 emissions. In this investigation, ex situ hot stove gas containing 30 vol% CO2 in the steelmaking process was captured by accelerated carbonation of BOF slag coupled with CRW in a rotating packed bed (RPB). The developed RPB process exhibits superior results, with significant CO2 removal efficiency (?) of 96-99% in flue gas achieved within a short reaction time of 1 min at 25 °C and 1 atm. Calcite (CaCO3) was identified as the main product according to XRD and SEM-XEDS observations. In addition, the elimination of lime and Ca(OH)2 in the BOF slag during carbonation is beneficial to its further use as construction material. Consequently, the developed RPB process could capture the CO2 from the flue gas, neutralize the CRW, and demonstrate the utilization potential for BOF slag. It was also concluded that carbonation of BOF slag coupled with CRW in an RPB is a viable method for CO2 capture due to its higher mass transfer rate and CO2 removal efficiency in a short reaction time.
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Gui-ling-gao, a traditional Chinese functional food, prevents oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Functional foods have become an increasingly popular alternative to prevent diseases and maintain body health status. Gui-ling-gao (GLG, also known as turtle jelly) is a well-known traditional functional food popular in Southern China and Hong Kong. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of GLG, a traditional Chinese functional food, on preventing oxidative stress-induced injury in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. In this study, the antioxidative capacities of GLG were measured by using both a cell-free assay [2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl assay] and biological methods [2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane)-induced haemolysis assay and H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage on H9c2 cardiomyocytes]. Additionally, the total phenolic content was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic effect of GLG was evaluated by nuclear staining and a DNA fragmentation assay. GLG was found to have good antioxidant activities and high total phenolic content. In H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage on H9c2 cells, GLG was demonstrated to ameliorate the apoptotic effects, such as nuclear condensations, increased intracellular caspase-3 activity and inter-nucleosomal DNA cleavage, induced by H(2)O(2). The present study demonstrated for the first time that GLG possesses anti-apoptotic potential in vitro and this effect may be mediated, in part, by its antioxidative function. Additionally, the antioxidative capacities of GLG were proved both chemically and biologically. This study provides scientific evidence to prove the anecdotal health-beneficial claim that the consumption of GLG could help the body to handle endogenous toxicants such as free radicals.
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Gastric mucosal necrosis with vascular degeneration induced by doxycycline.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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We encountered 2 patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy for epigastric abdominal pain, which showed gastric mucosal erosions covered with adherent exudate. Microscopic examination of biopsies from the lesions obtained from the 2 cases revealed characteristic pathologic abnormalities that shared striking similarities. These included superficial mucosal necrosis and capillary vascular degenerative change in a background of reactive or chemical gastropathy. Further review of records identified ongoing oral doxycycline use in both patients. After cessation of the drug both patients symptoms resolved. A follow-up esophagogastroduodenoscopy in 1 patient showed normal gastric mucosa. This pattern of injury had not been previously described and seems to be characteristic for doxycycline-induced gastric mucosal toxicity. Recognition of the clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic features described here may facilitate prompt diagnosis and management of this condition.
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Benefit of combined therapy with nicorandil and colchicine in preventing monocrotaline-induced rat pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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This study tested the hypothesis that combined therapy with nicorandil and colchicine is superior to either alone in attenuating monocrotaline (MCT)-induced rat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=50) were equally randomized into group 1 (sham control), group 2 [MCT (60 mg/kg i.p.)], group 3 [MCT-Nicorandil (5.0 mg/kg/day)], group 4 [MCT-Colchicine (1.0 mg/kg/day)], and group 5 (MCT-Nicorandil-Colchicine). Drugs were given on day 5. All animals were sacrificed on day 90 after MCT administration. Right ventricular systolic blood pressure (RVSBP) and RV weight were increased in group 2 compared to group 1, reduced in groups 3 and 4 compared to group 2, and further reduced in group 5, whereas arterial-oxygen saturation showed an opposite pattern (all p<0.001). Pulmonary damage severity (thickened alveolar septum and pulmonary arteriolar wall, decreased alveolar-sac numbers), number of CD3+ cells, and protein expressions of inflammatory (MMP-9, NF-?B, VCAM-1, angiotensin II-receptor), apoptotic (Bax, caspase 3, cleaved PARP), and fibrotic (TGF-?, Smad3) biomarkers showed an identical pattern compared to that of RVSBP, whereas pulmonary expressions of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) and anti-fibrotic (BMP-2, Smad1/5) biomarkers displayed a reverse pattern (all p<0.01). The protein expressions of RV damage markers (BNP, caspase 3) were increased, whereas expression of biomarker for RV functional preservation (Cx43) was reduced in group 2 compared with group 1, elevated in groups 3 and 4 compared to group 2, and further increased in group 5 (all p<0.01). Combined therapy with nicorandil and colchicine is superior to either alone in attenuating MCT-induced PAH in rats.
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Preliminary structural characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Hawk tea (Litsea coreana var. lanuginosa).
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Three polysaccharides were extracted from different leaf age Hawk teas (Litsea coreana var. lanuginosa) by hot water method. Preliminary structural characterization was conducted by physicochemical property, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Antioxidant activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing activity power (FRAP), hydroxyl radical and erythrocyte hemolysis were also evaluated. The physicochemical property analysis indicated significant differences in the three polysaccharides. The FTIR spectra revealed the general characteristic absorption peaks of the three polysaccharides. The SEM images demonstrated significant differences in the surface features of the different polysaccharides. The antioxidant activity assays revealed the obvious antioxidant activities of three polysaccharides, and the polysaccharides of Hawk primary leaf tea exhibited higher antioxidant activities than the other two polysaccharides. With current findings, the polysaccharides from Hawk primary leaf tea may have potential applications in food industries.
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Paneth cells in colonic adenomas: association with male sex and adenoma burden.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Paneth cells have been reported in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas; however, the frequency of colonic Paneth cell-containing adenomas is unknown as are their clinicopathologic features. A total of 152 consecutive colorectal adenomas from 103 patients (57 males and 46 females) were reviewed. The frequency of Paneth cells in this cohort of adenomas was determined and correlated with patient demographics. Twenty-six adenomas (17.1%) from 22 (21.4%) patients harbored Paneth cells, which were not limited to the base of the crypts but aberrantly located throughout the crypts. Patient age, adenoma size, villous features, and grade of dysplasia were not different between these 2 groups. Not surprisingly, Paneth cell-containing adenomas were more likely to occur in the proximal colon (84.6% vs. 55.6%; P=0.006). There was a strong association between male sex and Paneth cell-containing adenomas, as 23 of 26 (88.5%) of these adenomas occurred in male individuals compared with 71 of 126 (56.3%) non-Paneth cell-containing adenomas (P=0.002). Upon review of an additional 460 adenomas from 200 patients with varying numbers of adenomas (68 with 1 adenoma, 68 with 2 adenomas, and 64 with 3 or more adenomas), the risk of harboring synchronous adenomas was associated with villous morphology, proximal location, and the presence of a Paneth cell-containing adenoma. Thus, the presence of a Paneth cell-containing adenoma may be a marker for increased risk of developing colorectal neoplasia.
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Curcuminoids distinctly exhibit antioxidant activities and regulate expression of scavenger receptors and heme oxygenase-1.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Curcumin (CUR), demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) have been demonstrated as having antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and hypocholesterolemic activities. We report the diverse antiatherogenic effects and mechanisms of curcuminoids.
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Pathogenesis of Modoc virus (Flaviviridae; Flavivirus) in persistently infected hamsters.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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The long-term persistence of Modoc virus (MODV) infection was investigated in a hamster model. Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were infected by subcutaneous inoculation with MODV, in which fatal encephalitis developed in 12.5% (2 of 16). Surviving hamsters shed infectious MODV in their urine during the first five months after infection, and infectious MODV was recovered by co-cultivation of kidney tissue up to eight months after infection. There were no histopathologic changes observed in the kidneys despite detection of viral antigen for 250 days after infection. Mild inflammation and neuronal degeneration in the central nervous system were the primary lesions observed during early infection. These findings confirm previous reports of persistent flavivirus infection in animals and suggest a mechanism for the maintenance of MODV in nature.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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