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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Prognostic value of CD44 variant exon 6 expression in non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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CD44v6 (CD44 variant exon 6) is the chief CD44 variant isoform regulating tumor invasion, progression, and metastasis. The prognostic value of CD44v6 expression in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been evaluated in many studies, but the results have remained controversial. Thus, we performed a meta- analysis of currently available studies to investigate the prognostic value of CD44v6 expression in NSCLC patients and the relationship between the expression of CD44v6 and clinicopathological features.
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Fluorescent gold nanoclusters based photoelectrochemical sensors for detection of H2O2 and glucose.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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In this work, low-toxicity fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) based photoelectrochemical sensors were developed for H2O2 and glucose detection. Herein, the processes used to fabricate the sensors and the photoelectrochemical performances of the sensors under different conditions were presented. Based on the energy band levels of the AuNCs and electron tunneling processes, a detailed photoelectrochemical sensing model was given. The designed sensors were then used for H2O2 and glucose detection without any extra modification of the AuNCs or complex enzyme immobilization. The results demonstrate that the AuNCs allow for H2O2 sensing based on their capacity for both fluorescence and catalysis. Indeed, it was observed that H2O2 was catalyzed by the AuNCs and reduced by photoinduced electrons derived from excited AuNCs. Furthermore, an enhancement in photocurrent amplitude followed the increase in the concentrations of H2O2 and glucose. The effects of the types of ligands surrounding the AuNCs and the applied potential on the output photocurrent were well studied to optimize the measurement conditions. The sensitivity and LOD of MUA-AuNCs at -500mV were 4.33nA/mM and 35?M, respectively. All experimental results indicated that AuNCs could not only serve as a promising photoelectrical material for building the photoelectrochemical biosensors but as catalysts for H2O2 sensing.
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[Construction and preliminary analysis of a full-length cDNA library for Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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A full-length cDNA library of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis was constructed in order to research the genes relating to growing development and the genes regulation of its secondary metabolite biosynthesis.
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Synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation of alkoxylated chalcones.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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A series of chalcones a1-20 bearing a 4-OMe groups on the A-ring were initially synthesized and their anticancer activities towards HepG2 cells evaluated. Subsequently, a series of chalcones b1-42 bearing methoxy groups at the 2' and 6'-positions of the B-ring were synthesized and their anticancer activities towards five human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HeLa, MCF-7, A549 and SW1990) and two non-tumoral human cell lines evaluated. The results showed that six compounds (b6, b8, b11, b16, b18, b22, b23 and b29) displayed promising activities, with compounds b22 and b29 in particular showing higher levels of activity than etoposide against all five cancer cell lines. Compound b29 showed a promising SI value compared with both HMLE and L02 (2.1-6.5 fold in HMLE and > 33 > 103.1 fold in L02, respectively).
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Density functional study of molecular nitrogen adsorption on gold-copper and gold-silver binary clusters.
J Mol Model
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Density functional theory calculations were performed to investigate the adsorption behaviors of nitrogen molecule on small bimetallic AunCum and AunAgm clusters, with n?+?m???5. In all cases the N2 forms a linear or quasi-linear M-N-N structure (M?=?Au, Cu or Ag). The adsorption energies of N2 on pure metal clusters follow the order CunN2?>?AunN2?>?AgnN2, which is due to the weaker orbital interaction between silver and N2. N2 prefers to bind to a copper atom in AunCumN2 complexes and prefers to bind to a silver atom in AunAgmN2 complexes. The combination of Cu atoms into Aun clusters makes the cluster more reactive toward N2 while the combination of Ag atoms into Aun clusters makes the cluster less reactive toward N2. The electrostatic interaction is strengthened while the back-donation from metal to N2 is reduced in bimetallic cluster nitrides, as compared to the mono cluster nitrides. The N-N stretching frequencies are all red-shifted upon adsorption and the M-N stretching frequencies are highly correlated to the atoms to which the N is attached.
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Breastfeeding and ovarian cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 40 epidemiological studies.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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The present systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess any association between breastfeeding and the risk of ovarian cancer. A systematic search of published studies was performed in PUBMED and EMBASE and by reviewing reference lists from retrieved articles through March 2013. Data extraction was conducted independently by two authors. Pooled relative risk ratios were calculated using random-effect models. Totals of 5 cohort studies and 35 case-control studies including 17,139 women with ovarian cancer showed a 30% reduced risk of ovarian cancer when comparing the women who had breastfed with those who had never breastfed (pooled RR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.64-0.76; p = 0.00), with significant heterogeneity in the studies (p = 0.00; I2 = 76.29%). A significant decreasd in risk of epithelial ovarian cancer was also observed (pooled RR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.61-0.76). When the participants were restricted to only parous women, there was a slightly attenuated but still significant risk reduction of ovarian cancer (pooled RR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69-0.83). For total breastfeeding duration, the pooled RRs in the < 6 months, 6-12 months and > 12 months of breastfeeding subgroups were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77-0.93), 0.73 (95% CI: 0.65-0.82) and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.56-0.73), respectively. Meta-regression of total breastfeeding duration indicated an increasing linear trend of risk reduction of ovarian cancer with the increasing total breastfeeding duration (p = 0.00). Breastfeeding was inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer, especially long-term breastfeeding duration that demonstrated a stronger protective effect.
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The role of RhoC in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of ovarian carcinoma cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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RhoC is a small G protein/GTPase and involved in tumor mobility, invasion and metastasis. Previously, up-regulated RhoC expression is found to play an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis and subsequent progression by modulating proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion.
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Beclin 1 expression is closely linked to colorectal carcinogenesis and distant metastasis of colorectal carcinoma.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Beclin 1 participates in development, autophagy, differentiation, anti- apoptosis, neurodegeneration, tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The roles of Beclin 1 in colorectal carcinogenesis and its subsequent progression are still unclear. Here, the mRNA and protein expression of Beclin 1 were determined in colorectal carcinoma and matched mucosa by Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH) were performed on tissue microarryer with colorectal carcinoma, adenoma and mucosa. The expression of Beclin 1 mRNA and protein was found to be higher in colorectal carcinoma than matched mucosa by real-time PCR and Western blot (p < 0.05). According to the ISH data, Beclin 1 expression was lower in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM) than adenoma and carcinoma (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemically, primary carcinoma showed stronger Beclin 1 expression than NNM and metastatic carcinoma in the liver (p < 0.05). Beclin 1 protein expression was negatively related to liver and distant metastasis (p < 0.05), but not correlated with age, sex, depth of invasion, lymphatic or venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging, differentiation or serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentration (p > 0.05). Survival analysis indicated that Beclin 1 expression was not linked to favorable prognosis of the patients with colorectal carcinoma (p > 0.05). Cox's model indicated that depth of invasion and distant metastasis were independent prognostic factors for colorectal carcinomas (p < 0.05). It was suggested that Beclin 1 expression is closely linked to colorectal carcinogenesis and distant metastasis of colorectal carcinoma.
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Downregulated inhibitor of growth 3 (ING3) expression during colorectal carcinogenesis.
Indian J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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ING3 (inhibitor of growth protein 3) overexpression decreased S-phase cell population and colony-forming efficiency, and induced apoptosis at a p53-mediated manner. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of ING3 expression in colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent progression.
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Neural basis of the stress response in a pufferfish, Takifugu obscurus.
Integr Zool
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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When faced with danger, pufferfish react by both a fast-start escape response and inflation behavior. The neural basis of these stress responses in the pufferfish has not been described. This study reveals that during inflation behavior, the buccal cavity expands and compresses as a pump to control the direction of water flow and draws water in and out. The inflation involves a series of major anatomical modifications of the head. The greatly enlarged first branchiostegal ray and its associated hyohyoideus abductor muscle are the key mechanisms responsible for this behavior. The nerve branch innervating the hyohyoideus abductor muscle is highly developed, and its central origin at the motor nucleus of the VIIth cranial nerve was revealed by tract-tracing using the carbocyanine dye DiI. The central connections from its origin were found to be several motor nuclei in the medulla and the spinal cord, the nuclei of cranial nerve III and IV in the mesencephalon, and the pretectalis superficialis and periventricular preoptic nuclei in the diencephalon. Both the sympathetic cells and the parvocellular part of the periventricular preoptic nucleus might play a neuro-endocrine role in the rapid movement of the buccal cavity during puffing behavior in this species of pufferfish. The central circuit revealed by this study is hypothesized to mediate the C-start escape behavior and puffing behavior. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Downregulation of ribosomal protein S6 inhibits the growth of non-small cell lung cancer by inducing cell cycle arrest, rather than apoptosis.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a component of the small 40S ribosomal subunit, has been found to be associated with multiple physiological and pathophysiological functions. However, its effects and mechanisms in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) still remain unknown. Here, we showed that expressions of total rpS6 and phosphorylation rpS6 (p-rpS6) were both significantly overexpressed in NSCLC. Further survival analysis revealed the shortened overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in p-rpS6 overexpressed patients and confirmed it as an independent adverse predictor. Stable downregulation of rpS6 in lung adenocarcinoma A549 and squamous cell carcinoma H520 cell lines was then achieved by two specific small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviruses separately. Subsequent experiments showed that downregulation of rpS6 dramatically inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Moreover, loss of rpS6 promoted cells arrested in G0-G1 phase and reduced in G2-M phase, along with the expression alterations of relative proteins. However, no notable change in apoptosis was observed. Collectively, these results suggested that rpS6 is overactivated in NSCLC and its downregulation suppresses the growth of NSCLC mainly by inducing G0-G1 cell cycle arrest rather than apoptosis.
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Genome-wide association study identifies a novel susceptibility gene for serum TSH levels in Chinese populations.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a sensitive indicator of thyroid function. High and low TSH levels reflect hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, respectively. Even within the normal range, small differences in TSH levels, on the order of 0.5-1.0 mU/l, are associated with significant differences in blood pressure, BMI, dyslipidemia, risk of atrial fibrillation and atherosclerosis. Most of the variance in TSH levels is thought to be genetically influenced. We conducted a genome-wide association study of TSH levels in 1346 Chinese Han individuals. In the replication study, we genotyped four candidate SNPs with the top association signals in an independent isolated Chinese She cohort (n = 3235). We identified a novel serum TSH susceptibility locus within XKR4 at 8q12.1 (rs2622590, Pcombined = 2.21 × 10(-10)), and we confirmed two previously reported TSH susceptibility loci near FOXE1 at 9q22.33 and near CAPZB at 1p36.13, respectively. The rs2622590_T allele at XKR4 and the rs925489_C allele near FOXE1 were correlated with low TSH levels and were found to be nominally associated to patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (OR = 1.41, P= 0.014 for rs2622590_T, and OR = 1.61, P= 0.030 for rs925489_C). The rs2622590 and rs925489 genotypes were also correlated with the expression levels of FOXE1 and XKR4, respectively, in PTC tissues (P = 2.41 × 10(-4) and P= 0.02). Our findings suggest that the SNPs in XKR4 and near FOXE1 are involved in the regulation of TSH levels.
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Engraftment syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation predicts poor outcomes.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Engraftment syndrome (ES), characterized by fever, rash, pulmonary edema, weight gain, liver and renal dysfunction, and/or encephalopathy, occurs at the time of neutrophil recovery after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, we evaluated the incidence, clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes of ES in children and adults undergoing first-time allogeneic HCT. Among 927 patients, 119 (13%) developed ES at a median of 10 days (interquartile range 9 to 12) after HCT. ES patients experienced significantly higher cumulative incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD at day 100 (75% versus 34%, P < .001) and higher nonrelapse mortality at 2 years (38% versus 19%, P < .001) compared with non-ES patients, resulting in lower overall survival at 2 years (38% versus 54%, P < .001). There was no significant difference in relapse at 2 years (26% versus 31%, P = .772). Suppression of tumorigenicity 2, interleukin 2 receptor alpha, and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 plasma biomarker levels were significantly elevated in ES patients. Our results illustrate the clinical significance and prognostic impact of ES on allogeneic HCT outcomes. Despite early recognition of the syndrome and prompt institution of corticosteroid therapy, outcomes in ES patients were uniformly poor. This study suggests the need for a prospective approach of collecting clinical features combined with correlative laboratory analyses to better characterize ES.
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TFAP2E hypermethylation was associated with survival advantage in patients with colorectal cancer.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Hypermethylation of TFAP2E (AP-2E) is associated with the chemotherapy-resistant in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), but its implications on prognosis directly remain unknown. This study was aimed to investigate the role of AP-2E methylation status and other clinicopathologic parameters as predictors of prognosis.
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Impact of 60 days of 6° head down bed rest on cardiopulmonary function, and the effects of Taikong Yangxin Prescription as a countermeasure.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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To study the changes in cardiopulmonary function induced by mid/long-term simulated microgravity with 6° head down bed rest (HDBR), and the effects of Taikong Yangxin Prescription (, TYP) as a countermeasure.
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Etanercept plus topical corticosteroids as initial therapy for grade one acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Clinical diagnosis of grade 1 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) marks the beginning of a potentially progressive and fatal course of GVHD after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, interventional studies to treat early GVHD are lacking. We conducted a single-arm prospective phase II trial to test the hypothesis that treatment of newly diagnosed grade 1 acute GVHD with etanercept and topical corticosteroids would reduce progression to grade 2 to 4 within 28 days. Study patients (n = 34) had a median age of 51 years (range, 10 to 67 years) and had undergone unrelated (n = 22) or related (n = 12) donor HSCT. Study patients were treated with etanercept (.4 mg/kg, maximum 25 mg/dose) twice weekly for 4 to 8 weeks. Ten of 34 patients (29%) progressed to grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD within 28 days. The cumulative incidence of grade 2 to 4 and grade 3 to 4 acute GVHD at 1 year was 41% and 3%, respectively. Nonrelapse mortality was 19% and overall survival was 63% at 2 years. Among a contemporaneous control cohort of patients who were diagnosed with grade 1 acute GVHD and treated with topical corticosteroids but not etanercept during the study period, 12 of 28 patients (43%) progressed to grade 2 to 4 GVHD within 28 days, with a 1-year incidence of grade 2 to 4 GVHD and grade 3 to 4 GVHD of 61% (41% versus 61%, P = .08) and 18% (3% versus 18%, P = .05), respectively. Patients treated with etanercept also experienced less increase in GVHD plasma biomarkers suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (P = .06) and regenerating islet-derived 3-alpha (P = .01) 28 days after grade 1 acute GVHD diagnosis compared with contemporaneous control patients. This study was terminated early because of poor accrual. Future prospective studies are needed to identify patients with grade 1 acute GVHD at risk of swift progression to more severe GVHD and to establish consensus for the treatment of grade 1 acute GVHD. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00726375.
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Restricted feedback control in discrete-time dynamical systems with memory.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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When an equilibrium state of a physical or biological system suffers a loss of stability (e.g., via a bifurcation), it may be both possible and desirable to stabilize the equilibrium via closed-loop feedback control. Significant effort has been devoted towards using such control to prevent oscillatory or chaotic behavior in dynamical systems, both continuous-time and discrete-time. Regarding control in discrete-time systems, most prior attempts to stabilize unstable equilibria require that the system be perturbed once during each time step. However, there are examples of systems for which this is neither feasible nor possible. In this paper, we analyze a restricted feedback control method for discrete-time systems (restricted in the sense that the controller's perturbations may be applied only in every other time step). We apply our theoretical analysis to a specific example from cardiac electrophysiology in which this sort of restricted feedback control is especially relevant. The example is a useful test case for the theory, and one for which an experimental setup is rather straightforward.
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Inhibition of SMP30 gene expression influences the biological characteristics of human Hep G2 cells.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30), a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated antigen had been identified by our research group. To study its mechanisms of regulation and associations with the occurrence and development of HCC, we inhibited expression by RNAi technique, and observed effects on the biological characteristics of Hep G2 cells. In cell viability assays, cell growth in the experimental group (with siRNA transfection) was elevated. In Transwell invasion assays, compared with blank and control groups, numbers of invading cells in the experimental group were significantly increased, whereas in apoptosis assays, the percentage apoptosis demonstrated no differences, but after UV irradiation, that in the experimental group was higher than the other two groups. In a word, SMP30 can inhibit the proliferation and invasion of human hepatoma cells and thus can be regarded as a cancer suppressive factor.
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Chrysanthemum CmNAR2 interacts with CmNRT2 in the control of nitrate uptake.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Nitrate transporters are an important component of plant growth and development. Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important ornamental species, for which a sufficient supply of nitrogenous fertilizer is required to maintain economic yields. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the nitrate transporter genes CmNRT2 and CmNAR2 were isolated. CmNRT2 transcript accumulation was inducible by both nitrate and ammonium, but the latter ion down-regulated the transcript accumulation of CmNAR2. CmNRT2 might be a plasma membrane localized protein, while CmNAR2 was distributed throughout the cell. CmNAR2 was shown to interact with CmNRT2 by in vitro and in vivo assays. Arabidopsis thaliana plants heterologously expressing CmNRT2 showed an increased rate of nitrate influx, while this trait was unaltered in plants expressing CmNAR2. Double transformants (CmNRT2 plus CmNAR2) exhibited an enhanced rate of nitrate influx into the root. Our data indicated that the interaction of CmNAR2 with CmNRT2 contributed to the uptake of nitrate.
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A Comprehensive Analysis of CXCL12 Isoforms in Breast Cancer(1,2.)
Transl Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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CXCL12-CXCR4-CXCR7 signaling promotes tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer. Alternative splicing of CXCL12 produces isoforms with distinct structural and biochemical properties, but little is known about isoform-specific differences in breast cancer subtypes and patient outcomes. We investigated global expression profiles of the six CXCL12 isoforms, CXCR4, and CXCR7 in The Cancer Genome Atlas breast cancer cohort using next-generation RNA sequencing in 948 breast cancer and benign samples and seven breast cancer cell lines. We compared expression levels with several clinical parameters, as well as metastasis, recurrence, and overall survival (OS). CXCL12-?, -?, and -? are highly co-expressed, with low expression correlating with more aggressive subtypes, higher stage disease, and worse clinical outcomes. CXCL12-? did not correlate with other isoforms but was prognostic for OS and showed the same trend for metastasis and recurrence-free survival. Effects of CXCL12-? remained independently prognostic when taking into account expression of CXCL12,CXCR4, and CXCR7. These results were also reflected when comparing CXCL12-?, -?, and -? in breast cancer cell lines. We summarized expression of all CXCL12 isoforms in an important chemokine signaling pathway in breast cancer in a large clinical cohort and common breast cancer cell lines, establishing differences among isoforms in multiple clinical, pathologic, and molecular subgroups. We identified for the first time the clinical importance of a previously unstudied isoform, CXCL12-?.
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Study of Enteromorpha polysaccharides as a new-style coagulant aid in dye wastewater treatment.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Enteromorpha is one of the common fouling green algae, which has brought serious environmental problems in past years. This study was aimed to apply it in water treatment process. Enteromorpha polysaccharides (Ep) were used as a new-style coagulant aid to assess its effect on coagulation behavior and floc characteristics. Color removal was used to evaluate coagulation effects and floc properties were investigated by Photometric Dispersion Analyzer (PDA). Results showed that when Ep was used in combination with aluminum chloride (AC), color removal could be apparently improved, and the optimal solution pH ranged 6.0-8.0. The growth rate and average size of flocs formed by AC-Ep were larger than those by AC in steady-state after floc growth phase, and meanwhile the distribution of floc size had a wider range. Besides, floc recoverability could be significantly improved when Ep was used as coagulant aid.
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Copper-catalyzed asymmetric hydroboration of ?-dehydroamino acid derivatives: facile synthesis of chiral ?-hydroxy-?-amino acids.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The Cu-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate hydroboration reaction of ?-substituted ?-dehydroamino acid derivatives has been established, affording enantioenriched syn- and anti-?-boronate-?-amino acid derivatives with excellent combined yields (83-99%, dr ? 1:1) and excellent enantioselectivities (92-98% ee). The hydroboration products were expediently converted into valuable ?-hydroxy-?-amino acid derivatives, which were widely used in the preparation of chiral drugs and bioactive molecules.
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Chemically crosslinked alginate porous microcarriers modified with bioactive molecule for expansion of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Microcarrier is an essential matrix for the large-scale culture of anchorage-dependent cells. In this study, chemical cross-linked alginate porous microcarriers (AMC) were prepared using microemulsion and freeze-drying technology. Moreover, chitosan was coated on the surface of microcarriers (AMC-CS) via electrostatic interactions to improve the mechanical strength. The size of AMC can be modulated through adjusting the concentration of alginate, amount of dispersant and stirring rate. The surface chemical characteristics and morphology of AMC-CS were evaluated by Fourier transformed infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope. Fibronectin (Fn) or heparin/basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was then immobilized on the surface of microcarriers via layer-by-layer technology to improve the cytocompatibility. Our data suggested that the size of AMC can be accurately modulated from 90 ?m to 900 ?m with a narrow size distribution. Micropore structures of AMC-CS were relatively disordered and the pore size ranged between 20 ?m and 100 ?m. Using AMC after modified with Fn or bFGF as the cell expansion microcarriers, we showed that the proliferation rates of HepG2 cells increased significantly, reaching to more than 30-fold of cell expansion after 10 days of culture, with minor cellular damage caused by the microcarriers. Moreover, the AMC microcarriers modified with Fn or bFGF can increase albumin secretion of HepG2. We suggest that our new modified AMC-based microcarriers will be an attractive candidate for the large-scale cell culture of therapeutic cells.
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Pachytene piRNAs instruct massive mRNA elimination during late spermiogenesis.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Spermatogenesis in mammals is characterized by two waves of piRNA expression: one corresponds to classic piRNAs responsible for silencing retrotransponsons and the second wave is predominantly derived from nontransposon intergenic regions in pachytene spermatocytes, but the function of these pachytene piRNAs is largely unknown. Here, we report the involvement of pachytene piRNAs in instructing massive mRNA elimination in mouse elongating spermatids (ES). We demonstrate that a piRNA-induced silencing complex (pi-RISC) containing murine PIWI (MIWI) and deadenylase CAF1 is selectively assembled in ES, which is responsible for inducing mRNA deadenylation and decay via a mechanism that resembles the action of miRNAs in somatic cells. Such a highly orchestrated program appears to take full advantage of the enormous repertoire of diversified targeting capacity of pachytene piRNAs derived from nontransposon intergenic regions. These findings suggest that pachytene piRNAs are responsible for inactivating vast cellular programs in preparation for sperm production from ES.
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Gender differences on osteoporosis health beliefs and related behaviors in non-academic community Chinese.
J Community Health
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Osteoporosis represents the major public health concern worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess osteoporosis beliefs and actual performance of osteoporosis preventive behaviors in non-academic community Chinese population and to explore whether the differences exist in community females and males. A cross sectional study including 137 females and 122 males was conducted in four non-academic communities of Xi'an city during November 2012, selected by multi-stage sampling method. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The respondents' mean age was 56.06 ± 5.81 years. 35.5% of the participants had a bone mineral density test. The participants exhibit relatively low osteoporosis health beliefs. The total health belief score was 63.30 ± 8.55 and 64.13 ± 6.47 in females and males respectively. There was significant gender differences in the subscales of Perceived seriousness (p = 0.03), Perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.004) and Perceived motivation (p = 0.01). Participants had low frequencies of preventive practices. Gender differences were revealed in current smoking and alcohol intake, soybean food intake, smoking history (p < 0.001), alcohol intake history (p = 0.001), meat or egg intake (p = 0.019). The findings from the study suggest an increased awareness of this major public health problem in non-academic Chinese and the scope for enhancing osteoporosis intervention considering the gender difference.
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A putative high affinity phosphate transporter, CmPT1, enhances tolerance to Pi deficiency of chrysanthemum.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is essential for plant growth, and phosphorus deficiency is a main limiting factor in plant development. Its acquisition is largely mediated by Pht1 transporters, a family of plasma membrane-located proteins. Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental plants, its productivity is usually compromised when grown in phosphate deficient soils, but the study of phosphate transporters in chrysanthemum is limited.
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High-fat diet from perilla oil induces insulin resistance despite lower serum lipids and increases hepatic fatty acid oxidation in rats.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a high-fat diet from perilla oil on serum lipids, hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.
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Transportation of Berberine into HepG2, HeLa and SY5Y Cells: A Correlation to Its Anti-Cancer Effect.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The anti-cancer activities of berberine (BBR) have been reported extensively in various cancer cell lines. However, the minimal inhibitory concentrations of BBR varied greatly among different cell lines and very few studies have been devoted to elucidate this aspect. In this study, we employed three cancer cell lines, HepG2, HeLa and SY5Y, to compare the transportation and distribution of BBR. HPLC results demonstrated that BBR was capable of penetrating all the cell lines whereas the cumulative concentrations were significantly different. HepG2 cells accumulated higher level of BBR for longer duration than the other two cell lines. Molecular docking studies revealed the BBR binding site on P-glycoprotein 1 (P-gp). In addition, we elucidated that BBR regulated P-gp at both mRNA and protein levels. BBR induced the transcription and translation of P-gp in HeLa and SY5Y cells, whereas BBR inhibited P-gp expression in HepG2 cells. Further study showed that BBR regulates P-gp expression depending on different mechanisms (or affected by different factors) in different cell lines. To summarize, our study has revealed several mechanistic aspects of BBR regulation on P-gp in different cancer cell lines and might shed some useful insights into the use of BBR in the anti-cancer drug development.
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Insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R) expression and survival in non-small cell lung cancer patients: a meta-analysis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF1R) plays an important role in cancer progression. Previous studies have been controversial with respect to the associations between IGF1R expression and non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) prognosis. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the prognostic value of IGF1R expression in NSCLC patients and the relationship between the expression of IGF1R and clinical characteristics. Two independent reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Ovid Medline and CNKI to identify eligible studies. Overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) and clinicopathological characteristics were collected from included studies. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to estimate the effect. 17 studies comprising 3,294 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed IGF1R positive expression was associated with an unfavorable DFS in NSCLC patients on univariate analysis (HR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.09-1.46, P = 0.002) and multivariate analysis (HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.20, p = 0.045), but the relationship between IGF1R expression and OS have no significant difference on univariate analysis (HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.82-1.01, P = 0.157) and multivariate analysis (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.45-1.41, P = 0.427). Ever smoking and smaller tumor size (T1 or T2) were associated with IGF1R positive expression: pooled OR 1.45 (1.13-1.85) and pooled OR 0.61 (0.60-0.95). Our results suggested IGF1R positive expression as an unfavorable factor for DFS in NSCLC patients, and IGF1R expression was associated with smoking status and tumor size.
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Transport and metabolism behavior of brazilein during its entrance into neural cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Brazilein, a natural small molecule, shows a variety of pharmacological activities, especially on nervous system and immune system. As a potential multifunctional drug, we studied the distribution and the transport behavior and metabolic behavior of brazilein in vivo and in vitro. Brazilein was found to be able to distribute in the mouse brain and transport into neural cells. A metabolite was found in the brain and in the cells. Positive and negative mode-MS/MS and Q-TOF were used to identify the metabolite. MS/MS fragmentation mechanisms showed the methylation occurred at the 10-hydroxyl of brazilein (10-O-methylbrazilein). Further, catechol-O- methyltransferase (COMT) was confirmed as a crucial enzyme correlated with the methylated metabolite generation by molecular docking and pharmacological experiment.
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Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization in qRT-PCR analysis in watermelon.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Watermelon is one of the major Cucurbitaceae crops and the recent availability of genome sequence greatly facilitates the fundamental researches on it. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) is the preferred method for gene expression analyses, and using validated reference genes for normalization is crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been conducted on watermelon. In this study, transcripts of 15 candidate reference genes were quantified in watermelon using qRT-PCR, and the stability of these genes was compared using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified ClTUA and ClACT, ClEF1? and ClACT, and ClCAC and ClTUA as the best pairs of reference genes in watermelon organs and tissues under normal growth conditions, abiotic stress, and biotic stress, respectively. NormFinder identified ClYLS8, ClUBCP, and ClCAC as the best single reference genes under the above experimental conditions, respectively. ClYLS8 and ClPP2A were identified as the best reference genes across all samples. Two to nine reference genes were required for more reliable normalization depending on the experimental conditions. The widely used watermelon reference gene 18SrRNA was less stable than the other reference genes under the experimental conditions. Catalase family genes were identified in watermelon genome, and used to validate the reliability of the identified reference genes. ClCAT1and ClCAT2 were induced and upregulated in the first 24 h, whereas ClCAT3 was downregulated in the leaves under low temperature stress. However, the expression levels of these genes were significantly overestimated and misinterpreted when 18SrRNA was used as a reference gene. These results provide a good starting point for reference gene selection in qRT-PCR analyses involving watermelon.
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Fuzi attenuates diabetic neuropathy in rats and protects schwann cells from apoptosis induced by high glucose.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Radix aconite lateralis preparata (Fuzi), a folk medicine, has long been used for the treatment of diabetes and paralysis in China. We examined the effect of Fuzi alone on diabetic rats and Schwann cells in high glucose and the components responsible for its activity. The major constituents of FZE were identified by HPLC-MS/MS data. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n?=?36) were randomly divided into control, diabetic, FZE 1.75 g/kg, FZE 3.50 g/kg, FZE 7.00 g/kg, and methylcobalamin groups. After two weeks treatment, nerve conduction velocity and paw withdrawal latency were measured. In vitro, the Schwann cells were grouped according to exposure: normal glucose (NG), normal glucose plus mannitol (NG+M), high glucose (HG), and HG plus different concentrations of FZE (0.1 µg/ml, 1.0 µg/ml, and 10.0 µg/ml). Oxygen free radicals and apoptosis were evaluated through DCFH2DA, DHE and annexin-PE/7-AAD assay, respectively. Apoptosis factors (Bax, Bcl-2, CytoC, caspase-3, and caspase-9) were analyzed using immunofluorescence. Nine alkaloids were identified. The results from animal model showed that FZE was effective in accelerating nerve conduction velocity and shortening paw withdrawal latency in diabetic rats. And in vitro, FZE was also found to protect Schwann cells against high glucose injury. FZE could significantly decrease the apoptotic ratio, superoxide anion and peroxide level. Furthermore, the apoptosis factors, including Bax, Bcl-2, CytoC, caspase-3, and caspase-9 were ameliorated in FZE treated groups. The HPLC-MS(n) method is simple and suitable for the identification of alkaloids in Fuzi. FZE has a protective effect in diabetic neuropathic rats, which is probably achieved by the antiapoptotic effect of FZE on Schwann cells. Apoptosis factor data imply that FZE protected Schwann cells through the mitochondria pathway. Alkaloids are major components contributing to the protective effect.
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Refined association of TSH receptor susceptibility locus to Graves' disease in the Chinese Han population.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Convincing evidence has demonstrated the association of TSH receptor (TSHR) with Graves' disease (GD) in the Chinese Han population.
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[Clinical application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for treatment of adult refractory cardiogenic shock].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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To summarize the clinical experience of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment for adult refractory cardiogenic shock.
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Chitosan-g-TPGS Nanoparticles for Anticancer Drug Delivery and Overcoming Multidrug Resistance.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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To overcome the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-induced multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells, a novel copolymer, chitosan-graft-d-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 (TPGS) (CT) was synthesized for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery by the P-gp inhibiting virtue of TPGS. DOX-loaded CT nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated by a modified solvent extraction/evaporation method combined with ionic cross-linking to form a uniform particle size of 140-180 nm with ?40% DOX loading efficiency. These drug-loaded CT NPs demonstrated a pH-responsive release behavior, and DOX was released more quickly under low pH values. Significant cell cytotoxicity was observed on the human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2 and BEL-7402) and human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7). The cell cytotoxicity and apoptosis of drug-resistant cells (MCF-7/DOX and BEL-7402/5-Fu), was greatly enhanced as compared to Adriamycin. The IC50 value showed that DOX-loaded CT NPs could be 1.5-199-fold more effective than Adriamycin. This can be attributed to the P-gp blocking and down-regulation of ATP levels by the CT NPs. The potential of these NPs to act as an oral delivery system was also investigated. Both the pharmacokinetic properties and in vivo antitumor activity of DOX-loaded CT NPs were improved compared with Adriamycin.
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Purification and characterization of a novel lectin with antiphytovirus activities from the wild mushroom Paxillus involutus.
Protein Pept. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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A novel lectin was isolated from the dried fruiting bodies of the wild mushroom Paxillus involutus. Isolation was conducted by anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose, Q-Sepharose and gel filtration on Superdex 75 using a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system. This lectin had a molecular mass of 28 kDa and was composed of four identical subunits, each with a molecular mass of 7 kDa. N-terminal amino acid sequence of the P. involutus lectin was determined to be CTCAVFLNNTTVKS, which showed a low level of similarity to mushroom lectin sequences reported previously. The biochemical properties of this lectin were determined, and the hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by inulin and O-Nitrophenyl-?-D-galacto-pyranoside. Additionally, Ca2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Fe2+, and Al3+ inhibited its hemagglutinating activity, while Cu2+ promoted this activity. This lectin exhibited poor thermostability and was sensitive to HCl, but it had a high tolerance to NaOH exposure. In terms of biological properties, this lectin manifested antiphytovirus activity towards tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) with a 70.61% inhibition at a concentration of 200 µg/mL. This lectin was devoid of inhibitory activities toward pathogenic fungi and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, and antiproliferative activities were observed in tumor cell lines including lung cancer A-549 and human colon cancer HCT-8 cells.
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Clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of mucinous breast carcinoma.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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The clinical features and prognosis of mucinous breast carcinoma (MBC) are unclear because of its rarity. The aim was to describe the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with MBC in comparison with nonmucinous breast carcinoma (NMBC). Furthermore, we described the biological behavior of pure mucinous breast carcinoma (PMBC) by comparing clinicopathological features and prognosis with mixed mucinous breast carcinoma (MMBC).
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Obligate mutualism within a host drives the extreme specialization of a fig wasp genome.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Fig pollinating wasps form obligate symbioses with their fig hosts. This mutualism arose approximately 75 million years ago. Unlike many other intimate symbioses, which involve vertical transmission of symbionts to host offspring, female fig wasps fly great distances to transfer horizontally between hosts. In contrast, male wasps are wingless and cannot disperse. Symbionts that keep intimate contact with their hosts often show genome reduction, but it is not clear if the wide dispersal of female fig wasps will counteract this general tendency. We sequenced the genome of the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi to address this question.
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Development of SCAR Markers to Determine the Mating Types of Lepista nuda Protoplast Monokaryons.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Lepista nuda (Bull. ex Fr.) Cooke belongs to Tricholomataceae and is an edible fungus with both economic and medical value. Mycelia were isolated from the fruiting bodies of L. nuda and were used to prepare the protoplast monokaryons. One hundred and fifteen monokaryons were obtained and their mating types were determined using somatic incompatibility tests. Protoplast monokaryons segregated into either the A1B1 or the A2B2 mating types. Inter-simple sequence repeats and sequence-related amplified polymorphism fingerprinting were used to analyse the mating types of these protoplast monokaryons and 16 sequence-characterised amplified region primers were developed to efficiently differentiate between the monokaryon mating types. Multiplex PCR analyses were also established. The data presented here outline a method for the precise and rapid identification of protoplast monokaryon mating types, which has the promise to shorten the period required for conventional crossbreeding.
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Effects of parafibromin expression on the phenotypes and relevant mechanisms in the DLD-1 colon carcinoma cell line.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Parafibromin is a protein encoded by the HRPT2 (hyperparathyroidism 2) oncosuppressor gene and its down-regulated expression is involved in pathogenesis of parathyroid, breast, gastric and colorectal carcinomas. This study aimed to clarify the effects of parafibromin expression on the phenotypes and relevant mechanisms of DLD-1 colon carcinoma cells.
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Purgative components in rhubarbs: adrenergic receptor inhibitors linked with glucose carriers.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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Rhubarbs and their extractives have been used as cathartic for many years. There have been numerous breakthroughs in the pharmacological research of the drug. However, as the key point of the mechanism, the targets of the effective components still remain unclear. In this paper, with an in vitro system of isolated intestine, we found that both the rhubarb extractives and the anthraquinone derivatives can antagonize the adrenaline effectively. Furthermore, computer based docking provided the binding model of the anthraquinone derivatives and adrenergic receptor. Then, based on the results of the small intestinal promotion and purgative effect experiments in vivo, we built an "inhibitor-carrier" hypothesis to elucidate the mechanism of rhubarb. This work provided key massages for the pharmacological research of rhubarb, such a common and active medicinal plant, and might be of help for the development of new purgative drugs.
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Identification of BACH2 as a susceptibility gene for Graves disease in the Chinese Han population based on a three-stage genome-wide association study.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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The BACH2 gene regulates B cell differentiation and function and has been reported to be a shared susceptibility gene for several autoimmune diseases. Our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) indicated that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BACH2 gene are associated with Graves disease (GD) in the Chinese Han population; however, the association did not achieve genome-wide significance levels. Recently, this association of BACH2 with GD was confirmed in Caucasians in the UK population, but fine mapping in this region has not yet been reported. Here, we provide a refined analysis of a 331-kb region in the BACH2 gene, which harbors 359 SNPs, using GWAS data from 1,442 GD patients and 1,468 controls. The SNPs rs2474619 and rs9344996 were implied as the independent variants associated with GD by forward and two-locus logistic regression analysis. We genotyped eight out of 10 tagSNPs with P < 1 × 10(-3) in 3,508 GD patients and 3,209 controls, the results also showed that rs2474619 was independently associated with GD in the combined population from GWAS and the second stage (P = 1.81 × 10(-5)). The rs2474619 and rs9344996 were further genotyped in the third stage cohorts, and rs2474619 showed evidence of association with GD at genome-wide significance levels in the combined population (P = 3.28 × 10(-8), odds ratio = 1.13). The association of rs9344996 with GD can be explained by its linkage to rs2474619 in the combined population. Our study clearly demonstrated that BACH2 is a susceptibility gene for GD in the Chinese Han population and further supported rs2474619, in intron 2 of BACH2, is the best association signal with GD. However, the mechanism by which BACH2 confers increased risk of GD requires further study.
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[The efficacy and safety of tocilizumab combined with disease-modifying anti-rheumatoid drugs in the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis: a multi-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of human anti-interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor antibody (tocilizumab) in combination with disease-modifying anti-rheumatoid drugs (DMARDs) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with moderate to severe activity and inadequate response to DMARDs.
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The role of EMMPRIN expression in ovarian epithelial carcinomas.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) was reported to involve in the invasion and metastasis of malignancies by regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in stromal and cancer cells. The study aimed to clarify the role of EMMPRIN expression in tumorigenesis and progression of ovarian epithelial carcinomas.
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Aberrant SERCA3 expression during the colorectal adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) 3 is involved in calcium mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol and is closely linked to metabolism, neuronal plasticity, gene transcription, cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, protein folding and carcinogenesis. In order to elucidate the role of SERCA3 in colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent progression, its expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH) on tissue microarrays containing colorectal carcinomas, adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM) and adenoma, and metastatic carcinoma in lymph node and liver. Colorectal carcinoma tissue and cell lines were assessed for SERCA3 expression by western blotting or RT-PCR, respectively. SERCA3 was distinctively expressed in Colo201, Colo205, DLD-1, HCT-15, HCT-116, HT-29, KM-12, SW480, SW620 and WiDr cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. SERCA3 mRNA expression was low in carcinoma when compared to that in matched NNM by quantitative PCR (P<0.05), while the converse was true by ISH. Lower expression of SERCA3 was immunohistochemically observed in colorectal carcinoma when compared to that in NNM and adenoma (P<0.05). In contrast, primary carcinoma showed high SERCA3 expression when compared to that in metastatic carcinoma in lymph node or liver by IHC (P<0.05). Immunohistochemically, SERCA3 expression was negatively related to lymphatic invasion, but not with age, gender, depth of invasion, venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, TNM stage, degree of differentiation or survival rate (P>0.05). There was a positive relationship between SERCA3 expression and serum CEA levels in the carcinoma patients (P<0.05). Coxs proportional hazards model indicated that depth of invasion and distant metastasis are independent prognostic factors for overall colorectal carcinomas (P<0.05). These findings suggest that aberrant SERCA3 expression is closely linked to the adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence and progression of colorectal carcinomas.
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pH-sensitive docetaxel-loaded D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate-poly(?-amino ester) copolymer nanoparticles for overcoming multidrug resistance.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major obstacles to successful chemotherapy. Overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an important factor responsible for MDR. Herein, a novel copolymer, D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000-block-poly(?-amino ester) (TPGS-b-PBAE, TP), was synthesized for overcoming multidrug resistance by the synergistic effect of the pH-sensitive behavior of PBAE and P-gp inhibiting activity of TPGS. Docetaxel (DTX) was chosen as the model drug. The resulting DTX-loaded nanoparticles were stable at pH 7.4, while they dissociated in a weakly acidic environment (pH 5.5) and released the incorporated DTX quickly. The DTX-loaded TP nanoparticles increased the cell cytotoxicity against both drug-sensitive human ovarian A2780 and drug-resistant A2780/T cells. The IC(50) of DTX-loaded TP against A2780/T cells was 100-fold lower than that of commercial DTX. This was associated with enhanced DTX-induced apoptosis and cell arrest in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, P-gp inhibition assays, including enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of rhodamine 123 and reduction of the intracellular ATP levels, confirmed the P-gp inhibition nature of the TP copolymer. The use of the TP copolymer is a new approach to improve the therapeutic effect of anticancer drugs in MDR tumors.
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Pantoea beijingensis sp. nov., isolated from the fruiting body of Pleurotus eryngii.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Four Gram-negative-staining, facultatively anaerobic bacterial isolates were obtained from a fruiting body of the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii showing symptoms of soft rot disease in Beijing, China. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, together with partial rpoB sequencing, placed these isolates in the genus Pantoea. Multilocus sequence analysis based on the partial sequences of gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD revealed Pantoea dispersa and Pantoea gaviniae as their closest phylogenetic relatives and indicated that these isolates constituted a possible novel species. DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed the classification of the new isolates as a novel species and phenotypic tests allowed for differentiation from the closest phylogenetic neighbours. The name Pantoea beijingensis sp. nov. [type strain LMG 27579(T) = KCTC 32406(T) = JZB2120001(T) (deposited at Institute of Plant and Environment Protection, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences)] is proposed.
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Susceptibility to corrosion and in vitro biocompatibility of a laser-welded composite orthodontic arch wire.
Ann Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Composite arch-wire (CoAW) is an arch wire formed by solder connection of nickel titanium shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biocompatibility of CoAW as an important foundation for its clinical application. The electrochemical corrosion and ion release behavior of CoAW upon immersion in solutions simulating oral cavity conditions were measured to evaluate the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Murine L-929 cells were co-cultured with CoAW extract to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the corrosion products in vitro. Polarization tests indicated that CoAW is resistant to corrosion in the tested artificial saliva (AS)-based solutions (chloric solution, simple AS, fluorinated AS, and protein-containing AS), and the amount of toxic copper ions released after immersion was lower than average daily dietary intake levels. The cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated the in vitro biocompatibility of CoAW. Based on the combined advantages of its base materials CoAW, with its resistance to biocorrosion and in vitro cytocompatibility, is a promising alternative material for use in orthodontic fixation applications.
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Secretome diversity and quantitative analysis of cellulolytic Aspergillus fumigatus Z5 in the presence of different carbon sources.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Aspergillus fumigatus Z5 has a strong ability to decompose lignocellulose biomass, and its extracellular protein secretion has been reported in earlier studies employing traditional techniques. However, a comprehensive analysis of its secretion in the presence of different carbon sources is still lacking. The goal of this work was to identify, quantify and compare the secretome of A. fumigatus Z5 in the presence of different carbon sources to understand in more details the mechanisms of lignocellulose decomposition by Aspergillus fumigatus Z5.
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[A spectrum extraction method based on uncertainty in noninvasive blood components examinaton].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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An improved spectrum extraction method is proposed based on the dynamic spectrum theory to improve the precision. First, the drift baseline is fitted to restrain the effect of relative motion between the finger and the probe. Then, the spectrum is extracted using the square-sum-root method as a replacement of the peak-peak value method to reduce the impact of system random error. Taking the measurement of oxygen saturation for instance, uncertainty analysis is performed for the oxygen saturation coefficient Q. Compared with the peak-peak value method, the square-sum-root method can reduce the uncertainty of oxygen saturation coefficient Q to 38% of the original value. Ten data sets were sampled from ten volunteers, and the uncertainty of the coefficient Q obtained using the two methods was directly evaluated and compared. The average ratio of the Q uncertainty by the two methods turned to be 42%. Both the theoretical analysis and the experimental results show that the square-sum-root method proposed can be used to extract the effective spectra more accurately from the photoplethysmography, suggesting a meaningful progress in noninvasive blood components measurement.
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Integral freeform illumination lens design of LED based pico-projector.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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In this paper, an illumination lens design for a LED-based pico-projector is presented. Different from the traditional illumination systems composed by lens group, the integral illumination lens consists of a total internal reflector (TIR) and a freeform surface. TIR acts as collimation lens and its top surface formed by a freeform surface reshapes the nonuniform circular light pattern generated by TIR to be rectangular and uniform. Diameter and height of the lens are 16 and 10 mm, respectively. An optimization method to deal with the problem of extended light source is also presented in detail in this paper. According to the simulation results of the final optimized lens, 77% (neglecting the effect of polarization) of the power of light source is collected on liquid crystal on silicon panel with a 16?9 ratio and illumination uniformity achieves 92%.
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Dense mapping of IL2RA shows no association with Graves disease in Chinese Han population.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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Associations between IL2RA and various autoimmune diseases have been reported in Caucasians. We investigated whether genetic polymorphisms at the IL2RA locus were associated with Graves disease (GD) in the Chinese Han population.
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Robust evidence for five new Graves disease risk loci from a staged genome-wide association analysis.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Graves disease (GD), characterized by autoantibodies targeting antigens specifically expressed in thyroid tissues causing hyperthyroidism, is triggered by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, only a few loci for GD risk were confirmed in the various ethnic groups, and additional genetic determinants have to be detected. In this study, we carried out a three-stage study in 9529 patients with GD and 9984 controls to identify new risk loci for GD and found genome-wide significant associations in the overall populations for five novel susceptibility loci: the GPR174-ITM2A at Xq21.1, C1QTNF6-RAC2 at 22q12.3-13.1, SLAMF6 at 1q23.2, ABO at 9q34.2 and an intergenic region harboring two non-coding RNAs at 14q32.2 and one previous indefinite locus, TG at 8q24.22 (Pcombined < 5 × 10(-8)). The genotypes of corresponding variants at 14q32.2 and 8q24.22 were correlated with the expression levels of C14orf64 and a TG transcript skipping exon 46, respectively. This study increased the number of GD loci with compelling evidence and indicated that non-coding RNAs might be potentially involved in the pathogenesis of GD.
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[The diagnostic value of conventional MRI in the differentiation of malignant tumor from benign lesion in prostatic peripheral zone].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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To evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of conventional MRI (T1WI, T2WI and Gd-enhancement T1WI) for differentiating prostate cancer from benign prostatic disorders in prostatic peripheral zone (PZ).
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Deep RNA-Seq uncovers the peach transcriptome landscape.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Peach (Prunus persica) is one of the most important of deciduous fruit trees worldwide. To facilitate isolation of genes controlling important horticultural traits of peach, transcriptome sequencing was conducted in this study. A total of 133 million pair-end RNA-Seq reads were generated from leaf, flower, and fruit, and 90 % of reads were mapped to the peach draft genome. Sequence assembly revealed 1,162 transcription factors and 2,140 novel transcribed regions (NTRs). Of these 2,140 NTRs, 723 contain an open reading frame, while the rest 1,417 are non-coding RNAs. A total of 9,587 SNPs were identified across six peach genotypes, with an average density of one SNP per ~5.7 kb. The top of chromosome 2 has higher density of expressed SNPs than the rest of the peach genome. The average density of SSR is 312.5/Mb, with tri-nucleotide repeats being the most abundant. Most of the detected SSRs are AT-rich repeats and the most common di-nucleotide repeat is CT/TC. The predominant type of alternative splicing (AS) events in peach is exon-skipping isoforms, which account for 43 % of all the observed AS events. In addition, the most active transcribed regions in peach genome were also analyzed. Our study reveals for the first time the complexity of the peach transcriptome, and our results will be helpful for functional genomics research in peach.
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Paxillin expression is closely linked to the pathogenesis, progression and prognosis of gastric carcinomas.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Paxillin encodes a focal adhesion-associated protein and is involved in the progression and aggressive phenotypes of malignancies through its interactions with the actin cytoskeleton and key signal transduction oncogenes. The present study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of paxillin in gastric cancer. The expression of paxillin was evaluated using tissue microarrays of gastric adjacent non-cancerous mucosa, adenoma and carcinoma specimens by immunohistochemistry. Paxillin expression was compared against clinicopathological parameters and the survival time of the patients. Paxillin was highly expressed in gastric adenoma compared with that in non-neoplastic mucosa and carcinoma (P<0.05). Paxillin expression was lower in the younger carcinoma patients compared with that in the elder carcinoma patients (P<0.05). Paxillin expression was negatively correlated with tumor size, depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis, but not with patient gender, lymphatic or venous invasion, or TNM staging (P>0.05). Higher paxillin expression was observed in intestinal-type compared with diffuse-type carcinoma (P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated a positive association between paxillin expression and cumulative survival rate in all, advanced and intestinal-type carcinoma patients (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model indicated that patient age, depth of invasion, lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, TNM staging and Lauren classification were independent prognostic factors for all gastric carcinomas (P<0.05). Aberrant paxillin expression may be involved in the growth, invasion, metastasis and differentiation of gastric carcinoma. Altered paxillin expression may, therefore, be employed as an indicator of pathobiological behaviors and prognosis of gastric carcinomas.
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CD147 mediates chemoresistance in breast cancer via ABCG2 by affecting its cellular localization and dimerization.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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CD147 and ABCG2 both have been reported to mediate Multidrug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer. Recent study demonstrates that CD147 could form a complex with ABCG2 on the cell membrane in primary effusion lymphoma. However, whether these two molecules regulate each other in breast cancer and result in MDR is not clear. We established four MCF-7 cell lines transfected with CD147 and/or ABCG2 and found that CD147 could increase the expression and dimerization of ABCG2, affect its cellular localization and regulate its drug transporter function. The findings derived from cells were confirmed subsequently in clinic samples of chemotherapy-sensitive/resistant breast cancer.
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[Effect of valproic acid against angiogenesis of Kasumi-1 xenograft tumor in nude mice].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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This study was aimed to investigate the effect of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on angiogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia in vivo and vitro, and to explore its molecular mechanism. Human t (8;21) AML cell line Kasumi-1 cells were treated with VPA at different concentration for 3 d, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Ang1 and Ang2 were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Nude mice model with xenograft Kasumi-1 tumor was established by subcutaneous inoculation of Kasumi-1 cells. The CD34, Ang1 and Ang2 protein levels were analyzed by immunohistochemistry method. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Ang1, Ang2 and VEGF were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. The results showed that in vitro, VPA at 3 mmol/L downregulated the Ang mRNA relative expression level for Ang1 from 0.360 ± 0.116 to 0.040 ± 0.008, Ang2 from 0.540 ± 0.049 to 0.146 ± 0.038. The animal experiment further verified that VPA 500 mg/kg, ip, for 14 d, reduced the relative expression of Ang1, Ang2 and VEGF mRNA and proteins in Kasumi-1 tumor of nude mice, and reduced microvascular density in xenograft tumor of nude mice (8.470 ± 0.300 vs 2.600 ± 0.200). It is concluded that VPA significantly inhibits tumor angiogenesis through the regulation of angiopoietins, thereby inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of leukemia cells.
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Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of Ki-67, caspase-3 and p53 expression in gastric carcinomas.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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The understanding of proliferative and apoptotic changes has aided the improvement of the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of gastric cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of Ki-67, caspase-3 and p53 in gastric cancer. The expression levels of Ki-67, caspase-3 and p53 were evaluated on tissue microarrays of gastric carcinomas specimens by immunohistochemistry and compared with the clinicopathological parameters and survival time of the patients. It was observed that the elder or male patients with gastric cancer showed p53 overexpression compared with the younger or female patients, respectively (P<0.05). The expression of Ki-67 and p53 was positively associated with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging (P<0.05). There was higher caspase-3 and p53 expression in the intestinal-type compared with the diffuse-type of carcinomas (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation among Ki-67, caspase-3 and p53 expression in gastric cancer (P<0.05). A Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that there was positive correlation between caspase-3 expression and the adverse prognosis of the patients (P>0.05). Coxs proportional hazards model indicated that the patient age, gender, depth of invasion, lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, TNM staging, Laurens classification and caspase-3 expression were independent prognostic factors for gastric carcinomas (P<0.05). The data indicated that the expression of Ki-67, caspase-3 and p53 may be involved in the progression or differentiation of gastric carcinoma. This expression may be employed as an indicator of the pathobiological behavior and prognosis of gastric carcinomas.
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Sorting short fragments of single-stranded DNA with an evolving electric double layer.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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We demonstrate a new procedure for separation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) fragments that are anchored to the surface of a gold electrode by end hybridization. The new separation procedure takes advantage of the strong yet evolving nonuniform electric field near the gold surface in contact with a buffer solution gradually being diluted with deionized water. Separation of short ssDNA fragments is demonstrated by monitoring the DNA at the gold surface with in situ fluorescence measurement. The experimental results can be rationalized with a simple theoretical model of electric double layer that relates the strength of the surface pulling force to the ionic concentration of the changing buffer solution.
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Crizotinib may be used in Lewis lung carcinoma: a novel use for crizotinib.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Lung cancer accounts for 13% (1.6 million) of the total cases and 18% (1.4 million) of the deaths in 2008. Crizotinib (PF-02341066) is identified as an ATP competitive small-molecular inhibitor for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved crizotinib to be used for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC in 2011. In the present study, the side population (SP) and main population (MP) cells were obtained from Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLC) and analyzed by DNA dye (Hoechst 33342) and flow cytometry. LLC SP and MP cells were confirmed as no ALK fusion gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The effects of crizotinib on LLC SP and MP cells both in vivo and in vitro were identified. Our results indicate that crizotinib can induce apoptosis and G1 phase arrest in LLC MP cells. Crizotinib used in combination with verapamil can inhibit proliferation of LLC SP cells. Moreover, crizotinib decreased tumor size and weight and inhibited angiogenesis in established xenografted tumors. To analyze the signaling pathway involved, computer simulation, Affymetrix microarray analysis and western blot analysis were performed. In these assays, crizotinib was found to dock into Smad3 and activate the Smad signaling pathway. Overall, these studies demonstrate the antitumor activity of crizotinib in LLC cell line, and provide a novel use for crizotinib.
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CD147 promotes MTX resistance by immune cells through up-regulating ABCG2 expression and function.
J. Dermatol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Methotrexate (MTX) is a drug used to treat psoriasis due to inducing immune cell apoptosis. However, certain patients show MTX resistant. CD147, highly expressed by psoriatic PBMCs, is assumed to regulate MTX sensitivity. The underlining mechanism is still relatively understudied.
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A refined study of FCRL genes from a genome-wide association study for Graves disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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To pinpoint the exact location of the etiological variant/s present at 1q21.1 harboring FCRL1-5 and CD5L genes, we carried out a refined association study in the entire FCRL region in 1,536 patients with Graves disease (GD) and 1,516 sex-matched controls by imputation analysis, logistic regression, and cis-eQTL analysis. Among 516 SNPs with P<0.05 in the initial GWAS scan, the strongest signals associated with GD and correlated to FCRL3 expression were located at a cluster of SNPs including rs7528684 and rs3761959. And the allele-specific effects for rs3761959 and rs7528684 on FCRL3 expression level revealed that the risk alleles A of rs3761959 and C of rs7528684 were correlated with the elevated expression level of FCRL3 whether in PBMCs or its subsets, especially in CD19(+) B cells and CD8(+) T subsets. Next, the combined analysis with 5,300 GD cases and 4,916 control individuals confirmed FCRL3 was a susceptibility gene of GD in Chinese Han populations, and rs3761959 and rs7528684 met the genome-wide association significance level (P(combined)?=?2.27×10(-12) and 7.11×10(-13), respectively). Moreover, the haplotypes with the risk allele A of rs3761959 and risk allele C of rs7528684 were associated with GD risk. Finally, our epigenetic analysis suggested the disease-associated C allele of rs7528684 increased affinity for NF-KB transcription factor. Above data indicated that FCRL3 gene and its proxy SNP rs7528684 may be involved in the pathogenesis of GD by excessive inhibiting B cell receptor signaling and the impairment of suppressing function of Tregs.
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piRNA-triggered MIWI ubiquitination and removal by APC/C in late spermatogenesis.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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The PIWI/PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) machinery has been well documented to maintain genome integrity by silencing transposons in animal germ cells. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of the biogenesis and function of this machinery; however, its metabolism has remained largely unexplored. Here, we show that murine PIWI (MIWI) is degraded through the APC/C-26S proteasome pathway and that piRNAs play an indispensable role in this process by enhancing MIWI interaction with an APC/C substrate-binding subunit. Interestingly, piRNA-triggered MIWI destruction occurs in late spermatids, which in turn leads to piRNA elimination, suggesting a feedforward mechanism for coordinated removal of the MIWI/piRNA machinery at a specific developmental stage. Importantly, the proper removal of MIWI/piRNA is essential for sperm maturation. Together, our results reveal a role for piRNAs in regulating the clearance of the MIWI/piRNA machinery via the ubiquitin-proteosome pathway and demonstrate the critical importance of proper temporal regulation of MIWI/piRNA in male germ cell development.
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Genetic Diversity of Pleurotus pulmonarius Revealed by RAPD, ISSR, and SRAP Fingerprinting.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Pleurotus pulmonarius is one of the most widely cultivated and popular edible fungi in the genus Pleurotus. Three molecular markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 15 Chinese P. pulmonarius cultivars. In total, 21 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), 20 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and 20 sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) primers or primer pairs were selected for generating data based on their clear banding profiles produced. With the use of these RAPD, ISSR, and SRAP primers or primer pairs, a total of 361 RAPD, 283 ISSR, and 131 SRAP fragments were detected, of which 287 (79.5 %) RAPD, 211 (74.6 %) ISSR, and 98 (74.8 %) SRAP fragments were polymorphic. Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) trees of these three methods were structured similarly, grouping the 15 tested strains into four clades. Subsequently, visual DNA fingerprinting and cluster analysis were performed to evaluate the resolving power of the combined RAPD, ISSR, and SRAP markers in the differentiation among these strains. The results of this study demonstrated that each method above could efficiently differentiate P. pulmonarius cultivars and could thus be considered an efficient tool for surveying genetic diversity of P. pulmonarius.
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Calcineurin B-like protein CBL10 directly interacts with AKT1 and modulates K+ homeostasis in Arabidopsis.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Potassium transporters and channels play crucial roles in K+ uptake and translocation in plant cells. These roles are essential for plant growth and development. AKT1 is an important K+ channel in Arabidopsis roots that is involved in K+ uptake. It is known that AKT1 is activated by a protein kinase CIPK23 interacting with two calcineurin B-like proteins CBL1/CBL9. The present study showed that another calcineurin B-like protein (CBL10) may also regulate AKT1 activity. The CBL10-over-expressing lines showed a phenotype as sensitive as that of the akt1 mutant under low-K+ conditions. In addition, the K+ content of both CBL10-over-expressing lines and akt1 mutant plants were significantly reduced compared with wild-type plants. Moreover, CBL10 directly interacted with AKT1, as verified in yeast two-hybrid, BiFC and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. The results of electrophysiological analysis in both Xenopus oocytes and Arabidopsis root cell protoplasts demonstrated that CBL10 impairs AKT1-mediated inward K+ currents. Furthermore, the results from the yeast two-hybrid competition assay indicated that CBL10 may compete with CIPK23 for binding to AKT1 and negatively modulate AKT1 activity. The present study revealed a CBL-interacting protein kinase-independent regulatory mechanism of calcineurin B-like proteins in which CBL10 directly regulates AKT1 activity and affects ion homeostasis in plant cells.
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Beclin 1 expression is an independent prognostic factor for gastric carcinomas.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Beclin 1, an important autophagy-related protein in human cells, is involved in autophagy, differentiation, anti-apoptosis, and cancer progression, which is increased during periods of cell stress and extinguished during the cell cycle. In order to clarify the role of Beclin 1 in gastric carcinogenesis and subsequent progression, its expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH) on tissue microarrays containing gastric carcinomas, adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa, and metastatic lymph node. Gastric carcinoma tissue and cell lines were studied for Beclin 1 expression by Western blot or RT-PCR, respectively. The results demonstrated that Beclin 1 was distinctively expressed in GES-1, AGS, BGC-823, GT-3 TKB, HGC-27, KATO-III, MGC-803, MKN28, MKN45, SCH, SGC-7901, or STKM-2 at both mRNA and protein levels. However, Beclin 1 mRNA was highly expressed in gastric carcinoma than matched mucosa by real-time PCR and ISH (P < 0.05). Beclin 1 expression was negatively related to distant metastasis and poor prognosis of gastric carcinoma (P < 0.05). Beclin 1 was highly expressed in male than female patients with gastric carcinoma (P < 0.05). The 65-year-elder patients with gastric carcinoma had higher Beclin 1 expression than the younger ones (P < 0.05). The diffuse-type carcinomas showed less Beclin 1 expression than intestinal- and mixed-type ones (P < 0.05). In intestinal-type gastric carcinoma, Beclin 1 expression was inversely associated with venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that Beclin 1 expression was positively linked to favorable prognosis of the patients with overall and intestinal-type carcinoma (P < 0.05). Coxs proportional hazard model indicated that venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, TNM staging, and Beclin 1 expression were independent prognostic factors for gastric carcinomas (P < 0.05). It was suggested that aberrant Beclin 1 expression is closely linked to pathogenesis, metastasis, and differentiation of gastric carcinoma. Beclin 1 expression might be employed to indicate the favorable prognosis of gastric carcinomas as an independent factor.
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The abundance and diversity of soil fungi in continuously monocropped chrysanthemum.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Chrysanthemum is an important ornamental plant which is increasingly being monocropped. Monocropping is known to affect both fungal abundance and species diversity. Here, quantitative PCR allied with DGGE analysis was used to show that fungi were more abundant in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil and that the fungal populations changed during the growth cycle of the chrysanthemum. The majority of amplified fragments appeared to derive from Fusarium species, and F. oxysporum and F. solani proved to be the major pathogenic species which are built up by monocropping.
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The Anti-Tumor Effects and Molecular Mechanisms of Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) on the Aggressive Phenotypes of Ovarian Carcinoma Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), have been shown to act selectively on gene expression, and are potent inducers of growth arrest, differentiation and apoptosis in various types of cancers in vitro and in vivo. This study aimed to elucidate the anti-tumor effects and molecular mechanisms of SAHA on the aggressive phenotypes of ovarian carcinoma. Two pairs of cell lines (SKOV3 and SKOV3/DDP; HO8910 and HO8910-PM) were exposed to SAHA treatment, and the effects on acetyl-Histone H3 and H4 expression levels were analyzed and compared against the aggressive behaviors of ovarian carcinoma. Our results showed that SAHA suppressed proliferation in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner in all four cell lines; induced S/G2 arrest in SKOV3 and SKOV3/DDP cells; and conversely, induced G1 arrest in HO8910 and HO8910-PM cells. SAHA treatment induced apoptosis and reduced migration, invasion and lamellipodia formation in the ovarian carcinoma cells; furthermore, SAHA decreased expression of Cyclin B1 and CDC2P34 mRNA, and downregulated CDC2P34, Erk1/2, CyclinB1 and MMP-9 proteins. In contrast, SAHA increased expression of Caspase-3, p21 and p53 mRNA, and upregulated acetyl-Histones H3 and H4, Caspase-8, and p53 proteins. Basal acetylation of histone H3 and H4 was higher in ovarian carcinoma compared to normal ovarian tissues and benign ovarian tumors, and in borderline tumor than in normal ovarian tissues, and was positively correlated with differentiation and expression of the proliferative marker, Ki-67 (P < 0.05). We suggest that SAHA may suppress growth, migration and invasion in ovarian carcinoma cells, including cisplatin-resistant or highly-invasive ovarian cells, by promoting histone acetylation and modulating their phenotype-related molecules. As such, aberrant acetylation of histone H3 and H4 may play an important role in the carcinogenesis and differentiation of ovarian carcinoma.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.