The migration of flavonoids from low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film (0.4%, w/w) to aqueous food simulants over 16 weeks at 0, 15, and 30 °C was investigated. The migration amount of total flavonoids was calculated based on the rutin contents determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Diffusion and partition coefficients, along with the activation energy (Ea) were calculated based on Fick's second law. The results showed that the migration of flavonoids was influenced by temperature, time and the simulants. The Ea values for flavonoid diffusion were 49.2, 55.9, and 25.8 kJ mol(-1) in distilled water, 4% acetic acid and 30% ethanol, respectively. This study indicated that the flavonoids in LDPE film easily migrated into food simulants; and this behaviour was related to the low Ea values of flavonoid diffusion, especially in ethanol at 0-30 °C, when the antioxidants were released from the film.
The role of genetic alterations in PIK3CA gene has not been fully explored in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). The present study was undertaken to assess mutations and amplifications of exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA in 51 Chinese OCCC patients. Activating missense mutations of PIK3CA were found in nine (17.6%) cases. One novel mutation T544P was identified in exon 9 which can increase AKT phosphorylation in cell culture. Amplifications of PIK3CA were observed in six cases (11.8%). PIK3CA mutations and amplifications are mutually exclusive. Our study demonstrates relatively low frequency of PIK3CA mutations and amplifications in OCCC.
?1-Acid glycoprotein (AGP) is a positive acute phase protein which is elevated 1-10 times during inflammation. Whereas AGP has been reported to have immunomodulatory properties, other biological functions of this protein such as its effects on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium are unknown. Tight junction (TJ) proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) are crucial in maintaining BBB integrity and brain homeostasis. As inflammatory cytokines have been shown to alter BBB integrity and TJ protein expression, we hypothesized that AGP changes BBB function by stimulating inflammatory cytokines and/or directly modulating TJ protein expression. We used primary rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (RBMECs) as an in vitro BBB model to study the direct effects of AGP on the brain microvasculature. No change in cytokine levels was detected in supernatant from AGP-treated RBMECs, despite increased mRNA expression by the cells. Paracellular permeability was decreased up to 20%, across RBMEC monolayers following treatment with AGP, suggesting its role in enhancing BBB integrity. RBMECs showed a biphasic response of increased occludin protein expression following AGP treatment while ZO-1 expression changed in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These changes in TJ proteins suggest that AGP induced changes in occludin related to enhanced barrier properties while the change in ZO-1 may play a secondary role in BBB integrity and/or as an intracellular signaling molecule. AGP significantly changed transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) DNA-binding activity which provides evidence of the potential cell signaling pathways that contribute to the effect of AGP in RBMECs. Together, this supports our hypothesis that AGP has a direct effect in brain microvasculature and may play an important role in altering BBB integrity in inflammatory-related diseases.
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