This study extensively examined the role of a 5-HT1A receptor in controlling voiding function in anesthetized male rats. A simultaneous recording of the intravesical pressure (IVP), external urethral sphincter (EUS)-electromyography (EMG), and urine flow rate (UFR) during continuous cystometry was used. 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, significantly improved the voiding efficiency, as detected by increases in the evoked contraction amplitude, EUS burst period, and silent period, and decreases in the volume threshold, pressure threshold, and residual volume. Interestingly, the UFR during voiding was reduced by 8-OH-DPAT, as evidenced by decreases in the maximal UFR and mean UFRs of the voiding period, spike duration, and interspike interval. Conversely, treating rats with WAY-100635, a 5-HT1A antagonist, produced effects opposite to those produced by 8-OH-DPAT. These findings suggest that 8-OH-DPAT improved the voiding efficiency by enhancing the detrusor contractile ability and prolonging EUS burst period, which would compensate for the lower UFR, resulting from urethral smooth muscle contractions and longer EUS silent periods during voiding. The present study contributes to our understanding of the role of 5-HT1A receptors in controlling the urine flow rate in male rats.
Multidisciplinary care is advocated as an effective chronic kidney disease treatment program in a few, but not all studies. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of multidisciplinary care on renal outcome and patient survival using a larger cohort.
Emerging data have suggested that acute kidney injury (AKI) is often incompletely repaired and can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is characterized by tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanisms linking AKI to CKD remain obscure. The present study aimed to investigate the role of cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61) after unilateral kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in mice. After IRI, increased expression of Cyr61 was detected, predominately in the proximal tubular epithelium. This was confirmed by in vitro experiments, which showed that hypoxia stimulated Cyr61 expression in cultured proximal tubular epithelial cells. The proinflammatory property of Cyr61 was indicated by its ability to upregulate monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and IL-6. Additionally, we found elevated urinary Cyr61 excretion in patients with AKI. Notably, treatment of mice with an anti-Cyr61 antibody attenuated the upregulation of kidney monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-6, IL-1?, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and reduced the infiltration of F4/80-positive macrophages on days 7 and 14 after IRI. In addition, blockade of Cyr61 reduced the mRNA expression of collagen, transforming growth factor-?, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-I as well as the degree of collagen fibril accumulation, as evaluated by picrosirius red staining, and levels of ?-smooth muscle actin proteins by day 14. Concurrently, in the treated group, peritubular microvascular density was more preserved on day 14. We conclude that Cyr61 blockade inhibits the triad of inflammation, interstitial fibrosis, and capillary rarefaction after severe ischemic AKI. The results of this study expand the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the AKI-to-CKD transition and suggest that Cyr61 is a potential therapeutic target.
Fibrosis of the peritoneal cavity remains a serious, life-threatening problem in the treatment of kidney failure with peritoneal dialysis. The mechanism of fibrosis remains unclear partly because the fibrogenic cells have not been identified with certainty. Recent studies have proposed mesothelial cells to be an important source of myofibroblasts through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition; however, confirmatory studies in vivo are lacking. Here, we show by inducible genetic fate mapping that type I collagen-producing submesothelial fibroblasts are specific progenitors of ?-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts that accumulate progressively in models of peritoneal fibrosis induced by sodium hypochlorite, hyperglycemic dialysis solutions, or TGF-?1. Similar genetic mapping of Wilms' tumor-1-positive mesothelial cells indicated that peritoneal membrane disruption is repaired and replaced by surviving mesothelial cells in peritoneal injury, and not by submesothelial fibroblasts. Although primary cultures of mesothelial cells or submesothelial fibroblasts each expressed ?-smooth muscle actin under the influence of TGF-?1, only submesothelial fibroblasts expressed ?-smooth muscle actin after induction of peritoneal fibrosis in mice. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of the PDGF receptor, which is expressed by submesothelial fibroblasts but not mesothelial cells, attenuated the peritoneal fibrosis but not the remesothelialization induced by hypochlorite. Thus, our data identify distinctive fates for injured mesothelial cells and submesothelial fibroblasts during peritoneal injury and fibrosis.
The mechanism of vascular calcification in CKD is not understood fully, but may involve collagen deposition in the arterial wall upon osteo/chondrocytic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Increased levels of circulating angiopoietin-2 correlate with markers of CKD progression and angiopoietin-2 regulate inflammatory responses, including intercellular and vascular adhesion and recruitment of VSMCs. Here, we investigate the potential role of angiopoietin-2 in the pathogenesis of arterial stiffness associated with CKD. In a cohort of 416 patients with CKD, the plasma level of angiopoietin-2 correlated independently with the severity of arterial stiffness assessed by pulse wave velocity. In mice subjected to 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy or unilateral ureteral obstruction, plasma levels of angiopoietin-2 also increased. Angiopoietin-2 expression markedly increased in tubular epithelial cells of fibrotic kidneys but decreased in other tissues, including aorta and lung, after 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy. Expression of collagen and profibrotic genes in aortic VSMCs increased in mice after 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy and in mice producing human angiopoietin-2. Angiopoietin-2 stimulated endothelial expression of chemokines and adhesion molecules for monocytes, increased Ly6C(low) macrophages in aorta, and increased the expression of the profibrotic cytokine TGF-?1 in aortic endothelial cells and Ly6C(low) macrophages. Angiopoietin-2 blockade attenuated expression of monocyte chemokines, profibrotic cytokines, and collagen in aorta of mice after 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy. This study identifies angiopoietin-2 as a link between kidney fibrosis and arterial stiffness. Targeting angiopoietin-2 to attenuate inflammation and collagen expression may provide a novel therapy for cardiovascular disease in CKD.
The incidence rate of AKI in hospitalized patients is increasing. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the association of AKI with long-term risk of adverse coronary events. Our study investigated hospitalized patients who recovered from de novo dialysis-requiring AKI between 1999 and 2008 using patient data collected from inpatient claims from Taiwan National Health Insurance. We used Cox regression with time-varying covariates to adjust for subsequent CKD and ESRD after discharge. Results were further validated by analysis of a prospectively constructed database. Among 17,106 acute dialysis patients who were discharged, 4869 patients recovered from dialysis-requiring AKI (AKI recovery group) and were matched with 4869 patients without AKI (non-AKI group). The incidence rates of coronary events were 19.8 and 10.3 per 1000 person-years in the AKI recovery and non-AKI groups, respectively. AKI recovery associated with higher risk of coronary events (hazard ratio [HR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.36 to 2.04) and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.57 to 1.79) independent of the effects of subsequent progression to CKD and ESRD. The risk levels of de novo coronary events after hospital discharge were similar in patients with diabetes alone and patients with AKI alone (P=0.23). Our results reveal that AKI with recovery associated with higher long-term risks of coronary events and death in this cohort, suggesting that AKI may identify patients with high risk of future coronary events. Enhanced postdischarge follow-up of renal function of patients who have recovered from temporary dialysis may be warranted.
Kidney disease is an escalating burden all over the world. In addition to preventing kidney injury, regenerating damaged renal tissue is as important as to retard the progression of chronic kidney disease to end stage renal disease. Although the kidney is a delicate organ and has only limited regenerative capacity compared to the other organs, an increasing understanding of renal development and renal reprogramming has kindled the prospects of regenerative options for kidney disease. Here, we will review the advances in the kidney regeneration including the manipulation of renal tubular cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and macrophages in renal disease. Several types of stem cells, such as bone marrow-derived cells, adipocyte-derived mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells are also applied for renal regeneration. Endogenous or lineage reprogrammed renal progenitor cells represent an attractive possibility for differentiation into multiple renal cell types. Angiogenesis can ameliorate hypoxia and renal fibrosis. Based on these studies and knowledge, we hope to innovate more reliable pharmacological or biotechnical methods for kidney regeneration medicine.
Pericytes are interstitial mesenchymal cells found in many major organs. In the kidney, microvascular pericytes are defined anatomically as extensively branched, collagen-producing cells in close contact with endothelial cells. Although many molecular markers have been proposed, none of them can identify the pericytes with satisfactory specificity or sensitivity. The roles of microvascular pericytes in kidneys were poorly understood in the past. Recently, by using genetic lineage tracing to label collagen-producing cells or mesenchymal cells, the elusive characteristics of the pericytes have been illuminated. The purpose of this article is to review recent advances in the understanding of microvascular pericytes in the kidneys. In healthy kidney, the pericytes are found to take part in the maintenance of microvascular stability. Detachment of the pericytes from the microvasculature and loss of the close contact with endothelial cells have been observed during renal insult. Renal microvascular pericytes have been shown to be the major source of scar-forming myofibroblasts in fibrogenic kidney disease. Targeting the crosstalk between pericytes and neighboring endothelial cells or tubular epithelial cells may inhibit the pericyte-myofibroblast transition, prevent peritubular capillary rarefaction, and attenuate renal fibrosis. In addition, renal pericytes deserve attention for their potential to produce erythropoietin in healthy kidneys as pericytes stand in the front line, sensing the change of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration. Further delineation of the mechanisms underlying the reduced erythropoietin production occurring during pericyte-myofibroblast transition may be promising for the development of new treatment strategies for anemia in chronic kidney disease.
In this study, we examined the possibility that 5-HT1A receptors may underlie sexually dimorphic mechanisms affecting the regulation of urethral functions in anesthetized rats. Simultaneous recordings of intravesical pressure under isovolumetric conditions, external urethral sphincter-electromyography, and urethral perfusion pressure were used to examine the effects of a 5-HT1A receptor agonist [8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT)] and antagonist (WAY-100635) on bladder and urethral functions. This research also evaluated the effects of 8-OH-DPAT and ?-bungarotoxin (a neuromuscular blockade agent) on urethral continence using leak point pressure testing, and the distribution of 5-HT1A receptors in the lower urinary tract was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The serotonergic mechanism that controls the urinary bladder and external urethral sphincter-electromyography activity showed no significant sexual differences, but urethral activity in urethral perfusion pressure and leak point pressure values exhibited some sexual differences. 8-OH-DPAT enhanced urethral pressure during continence in rats of both sexes, but the drug elevated the pressure during voiding in male rats and reduced it in female rats. The distribution of 5-HT1A receptors in the spinal cord also showed some sexual differences. The present study contributes to our understanding of the role of 5-HT1A receptors in physiological and immunohistochemical properties of urethral smooth muscle in rats of different sexes. These findings may be a basis for the future development of pharmacotherapies for stress urinary incontinence in men.
Abstract Aims: Free iron plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) via the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Systemic iron homeostasis is controlled by the hemojuvelin-hepcidin-ferroportin axis in the liver, but less is known about this role in AKI. Results: By proteomics, we identified a 42?kDa soluble hemojuvelin (sHJV), processed by furin protease from membrane-bound hemojuvelin (mHJV), in the urine during AKI after cardiac surgery. Biopsies from human and mouse specimens with AKI confirm that HJV is extensively increased in renal tubules. Iron overload enhanced the expression of hemojuvelin-hepcidin signaling pathway. The furin inhibitor (FI) decreases furin-mediated proteolytic cleavage of mHJV into sHJV and augments the mHJV/sHJV ratio after iron overload with hypoxia condition. The FI could reduce renal tubule apoptosis, stabilize hypoxic induced factor-1, prevent the accumulation of iron in the kidney, and further ameliorate ischemic-reperfusion injury. mHJV is associated with decreasing total kidney iron, secreting hepcidin, and promoting the degradation of ferroportin at AKI, whereas sHJV does the opposite. Innovation: This study suggests the ratio of mHJV/sHJV affects the iron deposition during acute kidney injury and sHJV could be an early biomarker of AKI. Conclusion: Our findings link endogenous HJV inextricably with renal iron homeostasis for the first time, add new significance to early predict AKI, and identify novel therapeutic targets to reduce the severity of AKI using the FI. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
In mice, a lack of cryptochrome results in up-regulation of aldosterone production due to high expression of the 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD3?) gene. The HSD3? pathway might play a pivotal role in aldosterone synthesis. This study aimed to determine the association of HSD3? and HSD3?2 gene variations with primary aldosteronism in a Taiwanese population.
This study was carried out to determine the effect of allergic inflammation on the airway response to increasing airway temperature. Our results showed the following: 1) In Brown-Norway rats actively sensitized by ovalbumin (Ova), isocapnic hyperventilation with humidified warm air (HWA) for 2 min raised tracheal temperature (Ttr) from 33.4 ± 0.6°C to 40.6 ± 0.1°C, which induced an immediate and sustained (>10 min) increase in total pulmonary resistance (Rl) from 0.128 ± 0.004 to 0.212 ± 0.013 cmH2O·ml(-1)·s (n = 6, P < 0.01). In sharp contrast, the HWA challenge caused the same increase in Ttr but did not generate any increase in Rl in control rats. 2) The increase in Rl in sensitized rats was reproducible when the same HWA challenge was repeated 60-90 min later. 3) This bronchoconstrictive effect was temperature dependent: a slightly smaller increase in peak Ttr (39.6 ± 0.2°C) generated a significant but smaller increase in Rl in sensitized rats. 4) The HWA-induced bronchoconstriction was not generated by the humidity delivered by the HWA challenge alone, because the same water content delivered by saline aerosol at room temperature had no effect. 5) The HWA-evoked increase in Rl in sensitized rats was not blocked by atropine but was completely prevented by pretreatment either with a combination of neurokinin (NK)-1 and NK-2 antagonists or with formoterol, a ?2 agonist, before the HWA challenge. This study showed that increasing airway temperature evoked a pronounced and reversible increase in airway resistance in sensitized rats and that tachykinins released from the vagal bronchopulmonary C-fiber endings were primarily responsible.
The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive lung vagal (CSLV) afferents by inflammatory mediators is important in the development of airway hypersensitivity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous mediator inducing hyperalgesia through transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptors located on nociceptors. We conducted this study to determine whether H2S elevates the sensitivity of rat CSLV afferents. In anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats, the inhalation of aerosolized sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor) caused no significant changes in the baseline activity of CSLV afferents. However, the afferent responses to right atrial injection of capsaicin or phenylbiguanide and to lung inflation were all markedly potentiated after NaHS inhalation. By contrast, the inhalation of its vehicle or NaOH (with a similar pH to NaHS) failed to enhance the afferent responses. Additionally, the potentiating effect on the afferent responses was found in rats inhaling L-cysteine (a substrate of H2S synthase) that slowly releases H2S. The potentiating effect of NaHS on the sensitivity of CSLV afferents was completely blocked by pretreatment of HC-030031 (a TRPA1 receptor antagonist) but was unaffected by its vehicle. In isolated rat CSLV neurons, the perfusion of NaHS alone did not influence the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration but markedly potentiated the Ca(2+) transients evoked by capsaicin. The NaHS-caused effect was totally abolished by HC-030031 pretreatment. These results suggest that H2S induces a nonspecific sensitizing effect on CSLV fibers to both chemical and mechanical stimulation in rat lungs, which appears mediated through an action on the TRPA1 receptors expressed on the nerve endings of CSLV afferents.
Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the pathophysiology is not thoroughly understood. Given that elevated albuminuria or circulating angiopoietin-2 associates with CVD and mortality in CKD patients, we were intrigued by the relationship between albuminuria and angiopoietin-2. A total of 416 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 were stratified by urine albumin-creatinine ratio as normoalbuminuria (<30 mg/g), microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/g), or macroalbuminuria (>300 mg/g). The levels of plasma angiopoietin-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increased, and soluble Tie-2 decreased in the subgroups of albuminuria; whereas angiopoietin-1 did not change. Linear regression showed a positive correlation between urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and plasma angiopoietin-2 (correlation coefficient r?=?0.301, 95% confidence interval 0.211-0.386, P<0.0001), but not between ACR and VEGF or soluble Tie-2. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that plasma angiopoietin-2 was independently associated with ACR (P?=?0.025). Furthermore, plasma angiopoietin-2 was positively correlated with high sensitive C-reactive protein (r?=?0.114, 95% confidence interval 0.018-0.208, P?=?0.020). In conclusion, plasma angiopoietin-2 was associated with albuminuria and markers of systemic microinflammation in CKD patients. Although previous evidence has shown that angiopoietin-2 destabilizes vasculature and induces inflammation in different scenarios, further study will be required to delineate the role of angiopoietin-2 in albuminuria and microinflammation in CKD patients.
Inhaled cigarette smoke (CS) triggers airway reflexes that are thought to result from the activation of lung vagal C-fiber afferents (LVCAs) via the action of reactive oxygen species in rats. We investigated the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and P2X receptors in LVCA activation. Activities of LVCAs were recorded in anesthetized and artificially ventilated rats. Airway challenge of CS produced a concentration-dependent fiber stimulation. Pretreatment with dimethylthiourea [DMTU; a scavenger of hydroxyl radical (OH)], capsazepine (CPZ; a TRPV1 receptor antagonist) and iso-pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2,5-disulphonate (iso-PPADS; a P2X receptor antagonist) separately reduced the fiber responses by 64, 40 and 44%, respectively, whereas pretreatment with hexamethonium (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) failed to alter the response. A combination of CPZ and iso-PPADS exerted a greater inhibitory effect compared with the effect of either single pretreatment. However, a combination of DMTU, CPZ and iso-PPADS did not further reduce the fiber response compared with the combined effect of CPZ and iso-PPADS. It was concluded that both TRPV1 and P2X receptors, but not nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, participate in the stimulation of LVCAs by inhaled CS, possibly through the action of OH.
Cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61) is a secreted matrix-associated protein that regulates a broad spectrum of biological and cellular activities. This study aimed to investigate the role of Cyr61 in progressive kidney fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery in mice. The expression of Cyr61 transcripts and proteins in the obstructed kidneys were increased from day 1 and remained high until day 10 after surgery. Immunohistochemistry indicated that Cyr61 was expressed mainly in renal tubular epithelial cells. The upregulated Cyr61 in UUO kidneys was reduced in mice treated with pan-transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) antibody. The role of TGF-? in tubular Cyr61 upregulation after obstructive kidney injury was further supported by experiments showing that TGF-?1 stimulated Cyr61 expression in cultured tubular epithelial cells. Notably, the upregulation of Cyr61 in UUO kidneys was followed by a marked increase in monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) transcripts and macrophage infiltration, which were attenuated in mice treated with anti-Cyr61 antibodies. This proinflammatory property of Cyr61 in inducing MCP-1 expression was further confirmed in tubular epithelial cells cultured with Cyr61 protein. The anti-Cyr61 antibody in UUO mice also reduced the levels of collagen type 1-?1 transcripts, collagen fibril accumulation evaluated by picrosirius red staining, and the levels of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) transcripts and proteins on day 4 after surgery; however, the antifibrotic effect was not sustained. In conclusion, the TGF-?-mediated increase in tubular Cyr61 expression involved renal inflammatory cell infiltration through MCP-1 induction during obstructive kidney injury. The Cyr61 blockade attenuated kidney fibrosis in the early phase, but the antifibrotic effect could not be sustained.
Fibrosis of vital organs is a major public health problem with limited therapeutic options. Mesenchymal cells including microvascular mural cells (pericytes) are major progenitors of scar-forming myofibroblasts in kidney and other organs. Here we show pericytes in healthy kidneys have active WNT/?-catenin signaling responses that are markedly up-regulated following kidney injury. Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK-1), a ligand for the WNT coreceptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP-5 and LRP-6) and an inhibitor of WNT/?-catenin signaling, effectively inhibits pericyte activation, detachment, and transition to myofibroblasts in vivo in response to kidney injury, resulting in attenuated fibrogenesis, capillary rarefaction, and inflammation. DKK-1 blocks activation and proliferation of established myofibroblasts in vitro and blocks pericyte proliferation to PDGF, pericyte migration, gene activation, and cytoskeletal reorganization to TGF-? or connective tissue growth factor. These effects are largely independent of inhibition of downstream ?-catenin signaling. DKK-1 acts predominantly by inhibiting PDGF-, TGF-?-, and connective tissue growth factor-activated MAPK and JNK signaling cascades, acting via LRP-6 with associated WNT ligand. Biochemically, LRP-6 interacts closely with PDGF receptor ? and TGF-? receptor 1 at the cell membrane, suggesting that it may have roles in pathways other than WNT/?-catenin. In summary, DKK-1 blocks many of the changes in pericytes required for myofibroblast transition and attenuates established myofibroblast proliferation/activation by mechanisms dependent on LRP-6 and WNT ligands but not the downstream ?-catenin pathway.
Glomerular capillary remodeling is an essential process in the development of glomerular hypertrophy. Angiopoietins, which are important regulators in angiogenesis, plays a role in the development of glomerulus during embryogenesis. Here, we evaluated the influence of angiopoietin on glomerular components and hypertrophy after uninephrectomy in adult male BALB/c mice. The actions of angiopoietin 1 or 2 were systemically antagonized by the subcutaneous administration of antagonists. We observed that the angiopoietin system was activated after uninephrectomy, and that the blockade of angiopoietin 1 or 2 decreased the activation of the angiopoietin receptor-tyrosine kinase with Ig and EGF homology domains-2-and attenuated the development of glomerular and podocyte hypertrophy. The increase in endothelial density staining (anti-CD31) following uninephrectomy was also reversed by angiopoietin 1 or 2 blockades. Glomerular basement thickness and foot process width were observed to decrease in the angiopoietin blockade groups. These changes were associated with the down regulation of the expression of genes for the glomerular matrix and basement membrane, including collagen type IV ?1, collagen type IV ?2, collagen type IV ?5, and laminin ?5. Thus, angiopoietin 1 or 2 may play an important role in the development of glomerular hypertrophy after uninephrectomy. A blockade of the angiopoietin system not only influenced the endothelium but also the podocyte, leading to diminished gene expression and morphological changes after uninephrectomy.
Inflammatory macrophages are abundant in kidney disease, stimulating repair, or driving chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Damage associated molecules (DAMPs), released from injured cells engage pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on macrophages, contributing to activation. Understanding mechanisms of macrophage activation during kidney injury may lead to strategies to alleviate chronic disease. We identified Triggering-Receptor-in-Myeloid-cells (TREM)-1, a regulator of TLR signaling, as highly upregulated in kidney inflammatory macrophages and tested the roles of these receptors in macrophage activation and kidney disease. Kidney DAMPs activated macrophages in vitro, independently of TREM-1, but partially dependent on TLR-2/-4, MyD88. In two models of progressive interstitial kidney disease, TREM-1 blockade had no impact on disease or macrophage activation in vivo, but TLR-2/-4, or MyD88 deficiency was anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic. When MyD88 was mutated only in the myeloid lineage, however, there was no bearing on macrophage activation or disease progression. Instead, TLR-2/-4 or MyD88 deficiency reduced activation of mesenchyme lineage cells resulting in reduced inflammation and fibrosis, indicating that these pathways play dominant roles in activation of myofibroblasts but not macrophages. To conclude, TREM-1, TLR2/4 and MyD88 signaling pathways are redundant in myeloid cell activation in kidney injury, but the latter appear to regulate activation of mesenchymal cells.
Patients with chronic kidney disease have abnormal energy expenditure and metabolism. The mechanisms underlying altered energy expenditure in uremia are unknown and remain to be elucidated. Irisin is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1-?-dependent myokine, and it increases energy expenditure in the absence of changes in food intake or activity. We hypothesize that chronic kidney disease patients have altered irisin levels. We measured resting irisin levels in 38 patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease and in 19 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. Plasma irisin levels were significantly decreased in chronic kidney disease patients (58.59%; 95% CI 47.9%-69.2%, p<0.0001). The decrease in irisin levels was inversely correlated with the levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Further association analysis revealed that irisin level is independently associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Our results suggest that chronic kidney disease patients have lower than normal irisin levels at rest. Furthermore, irisin may play a major role in affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and abnormal energy expenditure in chronic kidney disease patients.
To determine whether bilateral electrical stimulation (BiES) of the transected pudendal sensory nerves could further enhance the voiding efficiency beyond that produced by unilateral electrical stimulation (UniES) of transected pudendal afferents in rats with urinary retention.
Existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) is among the most potent predictors of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). Here we quantified this risk in a multicenter, observational study of 9425 patients who survived to hospital discharge after major surgery. CKD was defined as a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). AKI was stratified according to the maximum simplified RIFLE classification at hospitalization and unresolved AKI defined as a persistent increase in serum creatinine of more than half above the baseline or the need for dialysis at discharge. A Cox proportional hazard model showed that patients with AKI-on-CKD during hospitalization had significantly worse long-term survival over a median follow-up of 4.8 years (hazard ratio, 1.7) [corrected] than patients with AKI but without CKD.The incidence of long-term dialysis was 22.4 and 0.17 per 100 person-years among patients with and without existing CKD, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio for long-term dialysis in patients with AKI-on-CKD was 19.8 compared to patients who developed AKI without existing CKD. Furthermore, AKI-on-CKD but without kidney recovery at discharge had a worse outcome (hazard ratios of 4.6 and 213, respectively) for mortality and long-term dialysis as compared to patients without CKD or AKI. Thus, in a large cohort of postoperative patients who developed AKI, those with existing CKD were at higher risk for long-term mortality and dialysis after hospital discharge than those without. These outcomes were significantly worse in those with unresolved AKI at discharge.
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events, probably through mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-dependent endothelial cell dysfunction, in comparison with essential hypertension (EH).
Pericytes are the major source of scar-producing myofibroblasts following kidney injury; however, the mechanisms of this transition are unclear. To clarify this, we examined Collagen 1 (?1)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter mice (pericytes and myofibroblasts express GFP) following ureteral obstruction or ischemia-reperfusion injury and focused on the role of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-receptor (PDGFR) signaling in these two different injury models. Pericyte proliferation was noted after injury with reactivation of ?-smooth muscle actin expression, a marker of the myofibroblast phenotype. PDGF expression increased in injured tubules, endothelium, and macrophages after injury, whereas PDGFR subunits ? and ? were expressed exclusively in interstitial GFP-labeled pericytes and myofibroblasts. When PDGFR? or PDGFR? activation was inhibited by receptor-specific antibody following injury, proliferation and differentiation of pericytes decreased. The antibodies also blunted the injury-induced transcription of PDGF, transforming growth factor ?1, and chemokine CCL2. They also reduced macrophage infiltration and fibrosis. Imatinib, a PDGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, attenuated pericyte proliferation and kidney fibrosis in both fibrogenic models. Thus, PDGFR signaling is involved in pericyte activation, proliferation, and differentiation into myofibroblasts during progressive kidney injury. Hence, pericytes may be a novel target to prevent kidney fibrosis by means of PDGFR signaling blockade.
Fungal allergens are associated with the development of asthma, and some have been characterized as proteases. Here, we established an animal model of allergic airway inflammation in response to continuous exposure to proteolytically active Pen c 13, a major allergen secreted by Penicillium citrinum. In functional analyses, Pen c 13 exposure led to increased airway hyperresponsiveness, significant inflammatory cell infiltration, mucus overproduction, and collagen deposition in the lung, dramatically elevated serum levels of total IgE and Pen c 13-specific IgE and IgG1, and increased production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 by splenocytes stimulated in vitro with Pen c 13. To examine the mechanisms involved in the regulation of allergenicity by Pen c 13, we performed two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis analysis combined with nano-LC-MS/MS, followed by bioinformatics analysis to identify potential targets that associated with allergic inflammation, which suggested that galectin-3 and laminin might be involved in novel pathogenic mechanisms. Finally, we focused on junctional proteins between cells, because, in addition to opening of the epithelial barrier by environmental proteases possibly being the initial step in the development of asthma, these proteins are also associated with actin rearrangement. Taken together, our findings indicate that Pen c 13 exposure causes junctional structure alterations and actin cytoskeletal rearrangements, resulting in increased permeability and airway structural changes. These effects probably change the lung microenvironment and foster the development of allergic sensitization.
Microvascular pericytes and perivascular fibroblasts have recently been identified as the source of scar-producing myofibroblasts that appear after injury of the kidney. We show that cross talk between pericytes and endothelial cells concomitantly dictates development of fibrosis and loss of microvasculature after injury. When either platelet-derived growth factor receptor (R)-? signaling in pericytes or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)R2 signaling in endothelial cells was blocked by circulating soluble receptor ectodomains, both fibrosis and capillary rarefaction were markedly attenuated during progressive kidney injury. Blockade of either receptor-mediated signaling pathway prevented pericyte differentiation and proliferation, but VEGFR2 blockade also attenuated recruitment of inflammatory macrophages throughout disease progression. Whereas injury down-regulated angiogenic VEGF164, the dys-angiogenic isomers VEGF120 and VEGF188 were up-regulated, suggesting that pericyte-myofibroblast differentiation triggers endothelial loss by a switch in secretion of VEGF isomers. These findings link fibrogenesis inextricably with microvascular rarefaction for the first time, add new significance to fibrogenesis, and identify novel therapeutic targets.
Sepsis is the leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critical patients. The optimal timing of initiating renal replacement therapy (RRT) in septic AKI patients remains controversial. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of early or late initiation of RRT, as defined using the simplified RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal failure) classification (sRIFLE), on hospital mortality among septic AKI patients.
Whether preoperative proteinuria associates with adverse renal outcomes after cardiac surgery is unknown. Here, we performed a secondary analysis of a prospectively enrolled cohort of adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) at a medical center and its two affiliate hospitals between 2003 and 2007. We excluded patients with stage 5 CKD or those who received dialysis previously. We defined proteinuria, measured with a dipstick, as mild (trace to 1+) or heavy (2+ to 4+). Among a total of 1052 patients, cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) developed in 183 (17.4%) patients and required renal replacement therapy (RRT) in 50 (4.8%) patients. In a multiple logistic regression model, mild and heavy proteinuria each associated with an increased odds of CSA-AKI, independent of CKD stage and the presence of diabetes mellitus (mild: OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.52; heavy: OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.35 to 3.90). Heavy proteinuria also associated with increased odds of postoperative RRT (OR 7.29, 95% CI 3.00 to 17.73). In summary, these data suggest that preoperative proteinuria is a predictor of CSA-AKI among patients undergoing CABG.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can provide short-term cardiopulmonary support to critically ill patients. Among ECMO patients, acute renal failure requiring dialysis has an ominous prognosis. However, a prognostic scoring system and risk factors adjustment for hospital mortality in these patients have not been elucidated previously. A multicenter observational cohort study was conducted from January 2002 to December 2006. Information obtained included demographics, biochemical variables, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, III, and IV scores at ICU admission and initial acute dialysis, and hospital mortality in 102 non-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients receiving ECMO support with acute dialysis. This retrospective cohort study included 70 men and 32 women with a mean age of 47.9 ± 15.7 years. Seventy-two patients (70.6%) had hospital mortality. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed APACHE IV (0.653) had a better discriminative power to predict hospital mortality than APACHE II (0.584) and APACHE III (0.634) at initializing dialysis. Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics showed good calibration for all three scores to predict hospital mortality at initializing dialysis (APACHE IV, P = 0.392; APACHE III, P = 0.094; and APACHE II, P = 0.673). Independent predictors for hospital mortality by multivariate logistic regression analysis were higher central venous pressure (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; confidence interval [CI] 95%, 1.02-1.20; P = 0.016), higher APACHE IV score at initializing dialysis (OR, 1.03; CI 95%, 1.01-1.05; P = 0.003), and latency from hospital admission to dialysis (OR, 1.04; CI 95%, 1.00-1.08; P = 0.033). High mortality rate was noted in non-CABG patients receiving ECMO and acute dialysis. Predialysis APACHE IV scores had good calibration and moderate discrimination in predicting hospital mortality in these patients. Because ECMO support could stabilize cardiopulmonary status, APACHE IV scores would likewise underestimate disease severity at lower score ranges in these patients.
Kidney damage due to injury rarely resolves completely, and there are currently no therapies capable of promoting repair. In addition to understanding mechanisms by which tissues are damaged, illuminating mechanisms of repair and regeneration is also of great importance. Here we show that the melanoma-associated, transmembrane glycoprotein, Gpnmb, is up-regulated 15-fold following ischemic damage in kidney tissue and by more than 10-fold in macrophages and 3-fold in surviving epithelial cells. Gpnmb-expressing macrophages and epithelial cells were found to contain apoptotic bodies at 3 times the rate of nonexpressing cells. Either mutation of Gpnmb or ablation of inflammatory macrophages prevents normal repair of the kidney. Significantly, the kidneys from postischemic Gpnmb mutant mice exhibited a 5-fold increase in apoptotic cellular debris compared to wild-type mice. These mice also experienced an 85% increase in mortality following bilateral ischemic kidney. Finally, we demonstrate that Gpnmb is a phagocytic protein that is necessary for recruitment of the autophagy protein LC3 to the phagosome where these proteins are colocalized and for lysosomal fusion with the phagosome and hence bulk degradation of their content. Therefore, Gpnmb is a novel prorepair gene that is necessary for crosstalk between the macroautophagic degradation pathway and phagocytosis.
This study was carried out to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the elevation of cardiorespiratory responses during the development of intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced hypertension. Rats were exposed to either 30 days of IH [(30s N?)+(45 s room air (RA)] or RA for 6 h/day. After 5 days of exposure, stable mean arterial pressure, normalized low-frequency power of pulses interval spectrogram (a marker of cardiac sympathetic outflow), and minute ventilation (an index for arterial chemoreflex activation) were significantly increased throughout the observation period in IH-exposed rats, but not in RA-exposed rats. FosB expression in rostral ventrolateral medulla was elevated after IH exposure for 5 days. Intraperitoneal injection of MnTMPyP (a superoxide scavenger) or N-acetylcysteine (an antioxidant) prevented IH-induced elevation of the cardiorespiratory responses and lipid peroxidation of lung tissues. These results suggest that ROS are essential for IH-induced elevation of arterial chemoreflex activation and sympathetic outflow, which may, in turn, contribute to IH-induced hypertension.
The rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) is commonly used clinically for predicting the outcome of weaning from mechanical ventilation. We compared the RSBI and its predictive accuracies measured under 5 ventilatory strategies before weaning trials. Ninety-eight patients were included and divided into successful (n=71) and failed (n=27) groups based on their weaning outcomes. The RSBI was randomly measured when patients spontaneously breathed 21% O2 with no ventilator support (the control strategy) or were connected to ventilator breathing with 21% or 40% O2 and 0 or 5 cm H2O of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We found that the RSBI values did not exhibit significant differences among the 4 ventilator strategies, but all were higher than that of the control; this remained valid in the non-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) subgroup, but not in the COPD subgroup. Values of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the RSBI for the 5 strategies were 0.51-0.62 with no significant difference between any 2 strategies. The incidences of adverse reactions (respiratory rate > or =35 breaths/min or oxygen saturation < or =89% for > or =1 min) were relatively high for the 21% O2-0 and 5 cm H2O CPAP groups (20 patients each) and low for the 40% O(2)-5 cmH2O CPAP group (2 patients). We concluded that RSBI values increased with the use of a ventilator, but not with additional applications of 40% 02 and/or 5 cm H2O CPAP. Their accuracies for predicting weaning outcome were unaltered by any of these interventions, but the incidence of adverse reactions increased with the use of the ventilator and decreased with additional 40% O2 supplementation.
Capsaicin-sensitive lung vagal afferents (CSLVAs) are important in detecting pulmonary reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the mechanisms underlying the stimulation of CSLVAs by inhaled cigarette smoke (CS) in 216 anesthetized rats. In spontaneously breathing rats, CS evoked a CSLVA-mediated reflex bradypnea that was prevented by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; an antioxidant), HC-030031 [a transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptor antagonist], and iso-pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2,5-disulfonate (iso-PPADS; a P2X receptor antagonist). In paralyzed, artificially ventilated rats, CS evoked an increase in CSLVA fiber activity (DeltaFA) that was abolished by NAC and was attenuated by HC-030031, iso-PPADS, indomethacin (Indo; a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), and a combination of apyrase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) (ATP scavengers); the response to CS was reduced to 11.7+/-4.0%, 39.5+/-10.0%, 52.9+/-14.4%, 68.7+/-10.1%, and 47.2+/-12.9% of control, respectively. The suppressive effect on this afferent response was not improved by a combination of HC-030031 and Indo (DeltaFA=39.5+/-10.1% of control) compared with that induced by HC-030031 alone. In contrast, the suppressive effect was enhanced by a combination of HC-030031 and apyrase+ADA (DeltaFA=5.3+/-4.9% of control) or a combination of iso-PPADS and Indo (DeltaFA=23.3+/-7.7% of control) compared with that induced by HC-030031 alone or iso-PPADS alone. This afferent response was not altered by the vehicles for these drugs. These results suggest that activations of TRPA1 receptors by cyclooxygenase metabolites and P2X receptors by ATP are both necessary for the ROS-mediated stimulation of CSLVA fibers by CS in rats.
Macrophages are required for tissue homeostasis through their role in regulation of the immune response and the resolution of injury. Here we show, using the kidney as a model, that the Wnt pathway ligand Wnt7b is produced by macrophages to stimulate repair and regeneration. When macrophages are inducibly ablated from the injured kidney, the canonical Wnt pathway response in kidney epithelial cells is reduced. Furthermore, when Wnt7b is somatically deleted in macrophages, repair of injury is greatly diminished. Finally, injection of the Wnt pathway regulator Dkk2 enhances the repair process and suggests a therapeutic option. Because Wnt7b is known to stimulate epithelial responses during kidney development, these findings suggest that macrophages are able to rapidly invade an injured tissue and reestablish a developmental program that is beneficial for repair and regeneration.
Sevelamer hydrochloride is a recently developed phosphate binder, which is a quaternary amine anion exchanger without calcium or aluminum. Sevelamer is effective in controlling hyperphosphatemia without increasing the calcium load in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. We investigated whether sevelamer restored bone metabolism in chronic HD patients.
A common pharmacologic test for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) is the administration of captopril to determine whether an abnormal plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) to plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio(ARR) persists, although active renin concentration (ARC) may offer advantages with regard to processing and standardization.
Understanding the origin of myofibroblasts in kidney is of great interest because these cells are responsible for scar formation in fibrotic kidney disease. Recent studies suggest epithelial cells are an important source of myofibroblasts through a process described as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; however, confirmatory studies in vivo are lacking. To quantitatively assess the contribution of renal epithelial cells to myofibroblasts, we used Cre/Lox techniques to genetically label and fate map renal epithelia in models of kidney fibrosis. Genetically labeled primary proximal epithelial cells cultured in vitro from these mice readily induce markers of myofibroblasts after transforming growth factor beta(1) treatment. However, using either red fluorescent protein or beta-galactosidase as fate markers, we found no evidence that epithelial cells migrate outside of the tubular basement membrane and differentiate into interstitial myofibroblasts in vivo. Thus, although renal epithelial cells can acquire mesenchymal markers in vitro, they do not directly contribute to interstitial myofibroblast cells in vivo. Lineage analysis shows that during nephrogenesis, FoxD1-positive((+)) mesenchymal cells give rise to adult CD73(+), platelet derived growth factor receptor beta(+), smooth muscle actin-negative interstitial pericytes, and these FoxD1-derivative interstitial cells expand and differentiate into smooth muscle actin(+) myofibroblasts during fibrosis, accounting for a large majority of myofibroblasts. These data indicate that therapeutic strategies directly targeting pericyte differentiation in vivo may productively impact fibrotic kidney disease.
Roles for monocyte/macrophages (Mphi) in directing the development of tissue fibrosis are increasingly recognized. Macrophages form a heterogeneous group of inflammatory leukocytes, and the mechanisms by which they acquire heterogeneity and its functional significance are unclear. We used the unilateral ureteral obstruction model of progressive kidney fibrosis to explore macrophage heterogeneity and function further. Unilateral ureteral obstruction kidney Mphis form three distinct subpopulations defined by the marker Ly6C, all of which are derived from a single Ly6C(high) bone marrow monocyte population selectively recruited to the kidney. Conditional ablation of these Mphis in vivo in CD11b-DTR mice is potently antifibrotic. The mRNA transcription profile of these populations is consistent with differential functional roles for each subpopulation, with Ly6C(low) macrophages transcribing genes consistent with selective profibrotic or M2-type function. Furthermore, bone marrow chimerism studies indicate that although resident kidney macrophages proliferate markedly to comprise up to 40% of the inflammatory macrophage population, they do not contribute to fibrosis. Our data identify Ly6C as a marker of functionally discrete tissue macrophage subsets and support a model of selective recruitment of Ly6C(high) bone marrow monocytes to the kidney that differentiate into three populations of kidney macrophages, including a profibrotic Ly6C(low) population.
Abdominal surgery is probably associated with more likelihood to cause acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether early or late start of renal replacement therapy (RRT) defined by simplified RIFLE (sRIFLE) classification in AKI patients after major abdominal surgery will affect outcome.
New therapies that target chronic inflammation with fibrosis are urgently required. Increasing evidence points to innate activation of inflammatory cells in driving chronic organ fibrosis. Serum amyloid P is a naturally circulating soluble pattern recognition receptor, a member of the family of pentraxin proteins. It links danger-associated molecular pattern recognition to Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Here we show that fibrosis progression in the mouse kidney is significantly inhibited by therapeutic administration of human serum amyloid P, regulated by activating Fc gamma receptors, and dependent on inflammatory monocytes and macrophages, but not fibrocytes. Human serum amyloid P-mediated inhibition of mouse kidney fibrosis correlated with specific binding of human serum amyloid P to cell debris and with subsequent suppression of inflammatory monocytes and kidney macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and was dependent on regulated binding to activating Fc gamma receptors and interleukin-10 expression. These studies uncover previously unidentified roles for Fc gamma receptors in sterile inflammation and highlight serum amyloid P as a potential antifibrotic therapy through local generation of interleukin-10.
In healthy nonsmokers, inhalation of one single puff of cigarette smoke immediately evoked airway irritation and cough, which were either prevented or markedly diminished after premedication with hexamethonium. Single-fiber recording experiments performed in anesthetized animals showed that both C fibers and rapidly adapting receptors in the lungs and airways were stimulated by inhalation of one breath of cigarette smoke. Application of nicotine evoked an inward current and triggered depolarization and action potentials in a concentration-dependent manner in a subset of isolated vagal pulmonary sensory neurons. Taken together, these studies showed that activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on airway sensory nerves is mainly responsible for the acute airway irritation and cough reflex elicited by inhaled cigarette smoke. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke consistently induces enhanced cough responses to various inhaled tussive agents in guinea pigs. The increased cough sensitivity involves primarily an elevated sensitivity of cough sensors and also an enhanced synaptic transmission of their afferent signals at the nucleus tractus solitaries. In contrast to the observations in animal studies, both enhanced and diminished cough sensitivities to tussive agents have been reported in chronic smokers. This discrepancy is probably related to the history of chronic smoking of the individual smokers and the severity of existing airway inflammation and dysfunction. Furthermore, several other factors possibly contributing to the regulation of cough receptor sensitivity in chronic smokers should also be considered.
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) often start long-term haemodialysis (HD) thrice weekly, regardless of the level of residual renal function (RRF). In this study, we investigated whether ESRD patients having sufficient RRF can be maintained on twice-weekly HD, and how they fare compared to patients without RRF on thrice-weekly HD.
Autonomous secretion of aldosterone in patients with primary aldosteronism increases glomerular filtration rate and causes kidney damage. The influence of a mild decrease in kidney function on residual hypertension after adrenalectomy is unexplored.
We investigated the effect of N-arachidonyl dopamine (NADA), an endogenous agonist of both transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and cannabinoid CB1 receptors, on the sensitivity of rat capsaicin-sensitive lung vagal afferent (CSLVA) fibers. In artificially ventilated rats, an intravenous infusion of NADA (400 microg/kg/ml, 0.5 ml/min for 2 min) mildly elevated the baseline CSLVA fiber activity, whereas it markedly potentiated CSLVA fiber responses to a right atrial injection of capsaicin or adenosine, and to lung inflation. The potentiating effect on CSLVA fiber sensitivity to an adenosine injection or lung inflation was blocked by capsazepine pretreatment (a TRPV1 receptor antagonist), but was unaffected by AM251 pretreatment (a CB1 receptor antagonist). In spontaneously breathing rats, a NADA infusion similarly potentiated the CSLVA fiber-mediated apneic response evoked by an adenosine injection, and this potentiating effect was also prevented by capsazepine pretreatment. We concluded that NADA at the dose tested non-specifically increases CSLVA fiber sensitivity to chemical and mechanical stimulation via activation of TRPV1 receptors.
Anandamide (AEA), an arachidonic acid derivative produced during inflammatory conditions, is an endogenous agonist of both transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors and cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive lung vagal afferent (CSLVA) fibers by chemical mediators is important in the pathogenesis of hyperreactive airway diseases. We investigated the effect of the intravenous infusion of AEA (2 mg x kg(-1) x ml(-1), 0.5 ml/min for 2 min) on the sensitivity of CSLVA fibers to chemical and mechanical stimulation in anesthetized rats. In artificially ventilated rats, AEA infusion only mildly elevated the baseline activity of CSLVA fibers. However, CSLVA fiber responses to right atrial injection of capsaicin, AEA, or adenosine and to lung inflation (tracheal pressure = 30 cmH(2)O) were all markedly potentiated during AEA infusion, which reverted 20 min after termination of the infusion. The potentiating effect on the sensitivity of CSLVA fibers to adenosine injection or lung inflation was completely blocked by pretreatment with capsazepine (a TRPV1 receptor antagonist) but was unaffected by pretreatment with AM281 (a CB1 receptor antagonist). In spontaneously breathing rats, right atrial injection of adenosine evoked an apneic response that is presumably mediated through CSLVA fibers. Similarly, the adenosine-evoked apneic response was potentiated during AEA infusion, and this potentiating effect was also completely prevented by pretreatment with capsazepine. These results suggest that AEA infusion at the dose tested produces a mild activation of TRPV1 receptors and this nonspecifically increases CSLVA fiber sensitivity to chemical and mechanical stimulation.
The terminals of vagal lung C fibers (VLCFs) express various types of pharmacological receptors that are important to the elicitation of airway reflexes and the development of airway hypersensitivity. We investigated the blockade of the reflex and afferent responses of VLCFs to intravenous injections of agonists using perivagal treatment with antagonists (PAT) targeting the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, P2X, and 5-HT(3) receptors in anesthetized rats. Blockading these responses via perivagal capsaicin treatment (PCT), which blocks the neural conduction of C fibers, was also studied. We used capsaicin, ?,?-methylene-ATP, and phenylbiguanide as the agonists, and capsazepine, iso-pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2,5-disulfonate, and tropisetron as the antagonists of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, P2X, and 5-HT(3) receptors, respectively. We found that each of the PATs abolished the VLCF-mediated reflex apnea evoked by the corresponding agonist, while having no effect on the response to other agonists. Perivagal vehicle treatment failed to produce any such blockade. These blockades had partially recovered at 3 h after removal of the PATs. In contrast, PCT abolished the reflex apneic response to all three agonists. Both PATs and PCT did not affect the myelinated afferent-mediated apneic response to lung inflation. Consistently, our electrophysiological studies revealed that each of the PATs prevented the VLCF responses to the corresponding agonist, but not to any other agonist. PCT inevitably prevented the VLCF responses to all three agonists. Thus these PATs selectively blocked the stimulatory action of corresponding agonists on the VLCF terminals via mechanisms that are distinct from those of PCT. PAT may become a novel intervention for studying the pharmacological modulation of VLCFs.
Renal fibrosis is a disease affecting millions worldwide and is a harbinger of progressive renal failure. Understanding the mechanisms of renal fibrosis is important for discovering new therapies that are required to prevent loss of renal function. Recently, we identified pericytes that line the kidney microvasculature as the precursor cells of the scar-producing myofibroblasts during kidney injury. Kidney pericytes are extensively branched cells embedded within the capillary basement membrane and stabilize the capillary network through tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 and angiogenic growth factors. Pericytes detach from endothelial cells and migrate into the interstitial space where they undergo a transition into myofibroblasts after injury. Activation of endothelium, pericyte-myofibroblast transition, and recruitment of inflammatory macrophages lead to capillary rarefaction and fibrosis. Targeting endothelium-pericyte crosstalk by inhibiting vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptors and platelet-derived growth factor receptors in response to injury have been identified as new therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, targeting macrophage activation has also been proven as a novel and safe therapeutic approach for pericyte-myofibroblast transition. However, we are still far from understanding the interaction between pericytes and other cellular elements in normal physiology and during kidney fibrosis. Further studies will be required to translate into more specific therapeutic approaches.
Pericytes have been identified as the major source of precursors of scar-producing myofibroblasts during kidney fibrosis. The underlying mechanisms triggering pericyte-myofibroblast transition are poorly understood. Transforming growth factor ?-1 (TGF-?1) is well recognized as a pluripotent cytokine that drives organ fibrosis. We investigated the role of TGF-?1 in inducing profibrotic signaling from epithelial cells to activate pericyte-myofibroblast transition. Increased expression of TGF-?1 was detected predominantly in injured epithelium after unilateral ureteral obstruction, whereas downstream signaling from the TGF-?1 receptor increased in both injured epithelium and pericytes. In mice with ureteral obstruction that were treated with the pan anti-TGF-? antibody (1D11) or TGF-? receptor type I inhibitor (SB431542), kidney pericyte-myofibroblast transition was blunted. The consequence was marked attenuation of fibrosis. In addition, epithelial cell cycle G2/M arrest and production of profibrotic cytokines were both attenuated. Although TGF-?1 alone did not trigger pericyte proliferation in vitro, it robustly induced ? smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). In cultured kidney epithelial cells, TGF-?1 stimulated G2/M arrest and production of profibrotic cytokines that had the capacity to stimulate proliferation and transition of pericytes to myofibroblasts. In conclusion, this study identified a novel link between injured epithelium and pericyte-myofibroblast transition through TGF-?1 during kidney fibrosis.
Background: The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Taiwan ranks highest in the world, but the incidence of Chinese herb nephropathy (CHN) is unknown in this country where Chinese herb use is common. Methods: The etiologies of incident ESRD cases from 2000 to 2004 in a single tertiary referral medical center in Taiwan were independently reviewed by two nephrologists through medical records and telephone interview. Patients with obvious causes of ESRD were not diagnosed with CHN, in spite of Chinese herb use. Three categories of CHN (A, B and C) were defined according to the stringency of evidence. Results: Obvious causes of ESRD were identified in 1,359 out of 1,696 newly diagnosed ESRD patients. Among the remainders, 263 had histories of Chinese herb use; 164 patients (mean age 52.7 ± 13.2 years, female 71.6%) had CHN (category A: 51, category B: 38 and category C: 75). Among the three categories, there was no difference in age, gender, body mass index (BMI) or elapsed time from Chinese herb use to the detection of renal failure. In comparison with non-CHN patients (n = 99), more CHN patients were female, had lower BMI, lower blood pressure, shorter duration of Chinese herb use, less severe proteinuria, smaller kidney size, lower levels of hemoglobin and higher serum chloride levels (all p values <0.01). Conclusion: Based on highly stringent diagnostic criteria, nearly 10% of incident ESRD cases were due to CHN. CHN represents a significant cause of ESRD in Taiwan.
Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with poor outcomes in surgical patients. This study aims to evaluate whether the timing of renal replacement therapy (RRT) initiation affects the in-hospital mortality of patients with postoperative AKI.
The RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage) classification is widely used to gauge the severity of acute kidney injury, but its efficacy has not been formally tested in geriatric patients. To correct this we conducted a prospective observational study in a multicenter cohort of 3931 elderly patients (65 years of age or older) who developed acute kidney injury in accordance with the RIFLE creatinine criteria after major surgery. We studied the predictive power of the RIFLE classification for in-hospital mortality and investigated the potential interaction between age and RIFLE classification. In general, the survivors were significantly younger than the nonsurvivors and more likely to have hypertension. In patients 76 years of age and younger, RIFLE-R, -I, or -F classifications were significantly associated with increased hospital mortality in a stepwise manner. There was no significant difference, however, in hospital mortality in those over 76 years of age between patients with RIFLE-R and RIFLE-I, although RIFLE-F patients had significantly higher mortality than both groups. Thus, the less severe categorizations of acute kidney injury per RIFLE classification may not truly reflect the adverse impact on elderly patients.
Fibrosis of the kidney is a disease affecting millions worldwide and is a harbinger of progressive loss of organ function resulting in organ failure. Recent findings suggest that understanding mechanisms of development and progression of fibrosis will lead to new therapies urgently required to counteract loss of organ function. Recently, little-known cells that line the kidney microvasculature, known as pericytes, were identified as the precursor cells which become the scar-forming myofibroblasts. Kidney pericytes are extensively branched cells located in the wall of capillaries, embedded within the microvascular basement membrane, and incompletely envelope endothelial cells with which they establish focal contacts. In response to kidney injuries, pericytes detach from endothelial cells and migrate into the interstitial space where they undergo a transition into myofibroblasts. Detachment leads to fibrosis but also leaves an unstable endothelium, prone to rarefaction. Endothelial-pericyte crosstalk at the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and platelet derived growth factor receptors in response to injury have been identified as major new targets for therapeutic intervention.
Kidney pericytes are progenitors of scar-forming interstitial myofibroblasts that appear after injury. The function of kidney pericytes as microvascular cells and how these cells detach from peritubular capillaries and migrate to the interstitial space, however, are poorly understood. Here, we used an unbiased approach to identify genes in kidney pericytes relevant to detachment and differentiation in response to injury in vivo, with a particular focus on genes regulating proteolytic activity and angiogenesis. Kidney pericytes rapidly activated expression of a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs-1 (ADAMTS1) and downregulated its inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) in response to injury. Similarly to brain pericytes, kidney pericytes bound to and stabilized capillary tube networks in three-dimensional gels and inhibited metalloproteolytic activity and angiogenic signaling in endothelial cells. In contrast, myofibroblasts did not have these vascular stabilizing functions despite their derivation from kidney pericytes. Pericyte-derived TIMP3 stabilized and ADAMTS1 destabilized the capillary tubular networks. Furthermore, mice deficient in Timp3 had a spontaneous microvascular phenotype in the kidney resulting from overactivated pericytes and were more susceptible to injury-stimulated microvascular rarefaction with an exuberant fibrotic response. Taken together, these data support functions for kidney pericytes in microvascular stability, highlight central roles for regulators of extracellular proteolytic activity in capillary homoeostasis, and identify ADAMTS1 as a marker of activation of kidney pericytes.
Effects of long-term glucose load on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient safety and outcomes have seldom been reported. This study demonstrates the influence of long-term glucose load on patient and technique survival.
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