JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Diagnosis of Neonatal Pulmonary Atelectasis Using Lung Ultrasound.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Generally?the diagnosis of neonatal pulmonary atelectasis (NPA) is based on history, clinical and chest x-ray (CXR) findings while ultrasound could not be used in lung disease diagnostics. Recently, ultrasound has been used for the diagnosis of many kinds lung conditions, but few studies have investigated ultrasound for the diagnosis of NPA. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of NPA.
Related JoVE Video
Down-regulation of Slit-Robo Pathway Mediating Neuronal Cytoskeletal Remodeling Processes Facilitates the Antidepressive-like Activity of Gastrodia elata Blume.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nowadays, depression is a serious psychological disorder that causes extreme economic loss and social problems. Previously, we discovered that the water extract of Gastrodia elata Blume (WGE) improved depressive-like behavior by influencing neurotransmitters in rats subjected to the forced swimming test. To elucidate possible mechanisms, in the present study, we performed a proteomics and bioinformatics analysis to identify the related pathways. Western blot-validated results indicated that the core protein network modulated by WGE administration was closely associated with down-regulation of the Slit-Robo pathway, which modulates neuronal cytoskeletal remodeling processes. Although Slit-Robo signaling has been well investigated in neuronal development, its relationship with depression is not fully understood. We provide a potential hint on the mechanism responsible for the antidepressive-like activity of WGE. In conclusion, we suggest that the Slit-Robo pathway and neuronal cytoskeleton remodeling are possibly one of the pathways associated with the antidepressive-like effects of WGE.
Related JoVE Video
Spirocyclic acylphloroglucinol derivatives from Hypericum pyramidatum.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Five spirocyclic acylphloroglucinol derivatives (1-5) have been isolated from a hexanes extract of the leaves of Hypericum pyramidatum. Pyramidatones A-D (1-3, 5) are new, and chipericumin C (4) has been previously reported. The acylphloroglucinols were characterized based on spectroscopic (NMR, IR, UV-VIS) and mass spectrometric data.
Related JoVE Video
Design, synthesis, and characterization of 1,3,5-tri(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzene-based fluorescent supramolecular columnar liquid crystals with a broad mesomorphic range.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new kind of supramolecular columnar liquid crystal T-A with a broad mesomorphic range (up to 164.9 °C), good thermal stability, and strong fluorescence is designed and formed by the H-bonding between 1,3,5-tri(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzene (T) and serial gallic acid derivatives (A). Two components are easily available because of simple routes, common reactions, high yields, commercial starting materials, and inexpensive catalysts. The introduction of the 1,2,3-triazole structure into component A makes the textures different and is slightly disadvantageous for the T-A complexes.
Related JoVE Video
Lumbar facet injection for the treatment of chronic piriformis myofascial pain syndrome: 52 case studies.
Patient Prefer Adherence
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of lumbar facet joint injection for piriformis myofascial pain syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
A phase II trial of post-operative chemoradiotherapy for completely resected gastric cancer with D2 lymphadenectomy.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The optimal post-operative adjuvant treatment for completely resected gastric cancer with D2 lymphadenectomy remains controversial. The present study was a phase II trial on post-operative chemoradiotherapy in 30 patients with gastric cancer. Patients with stage II to IV (M0) gastric cancer received two cycles of chemotherapy prior to and following chemoradiotherapy. The chemotherapy consisted of a 2-h infusion of oxaliplatin (100 mg/m(2)) and folinic acid (100 mg/m(2)), which was followed by a 46-h continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 2,400 mg/m(2)) through a portable pump, repeated every 3 weeks. The chemoradiotherapy consisted of 45 Gy of radiotherapy for 5 weeks and 5-FU continuous infusion (350 mg/m(2)/day). In total, 30 patients were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent the chemoradiotherapy treatment as planned. A total of 10 (33.3%) patients relapsed; two (6.7%) locoregional relapses and mediastinum metastases, four (13.3%) peritoneal relapses, and four (13.3%) distant metastases. The three-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 72.7 and 65%, respectively. The toxicities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, consisting of neutropenia, nausea and hand-foot syndrome, were observed. In conclusion, post-operative chemoradiotherapy following complete resection of gastric cancer with D2 lymphadenectomy is feasible in a significant subset of patients.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of Ren meridian acupoints moxibustion on light propagation along the pericardium meridian at human wrist.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the relationship between acupoints and meridians.
Related JoVE Video
Light propagation along the pericardium meridian at human wrist as evidenced by the optical experiment and Monte Carlo method.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the characteristics of light propagation along the Pericardium Meridian and its surrounding areas at human wrist by using optical experiment and Monte Carlo method.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA-182 modulates chemosensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer to cisplatin by targeting PDCD4.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Overexpression of microRNA-182 (miR-182) is found in various human cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our aim is to investigate the association of miR-182 expression with the sensitivity of NSCLC to cisplatin.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of tree species diversity on fine-root biomass and morphological characteristics in subtropical Castanopsis carlesii forests].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fine roots in the Castanopsis carlesii plantation forest (MZ), the secondary forest of C. carlesii through natural regeneration with anthropogenic promotion (AR), and the secondary forest of C. carlesii through natural regeneration (NR) in Sanming City, Fujian Province, were estimated by soil core method to determine the influence of tree species diversity on biomass, vertical distribution and morphological characteristics of fine roots. The results showed that fine root biomass for the 0-80 cm soil layer in the MZ, AR and NR were (182.46 +/- 10.81), (242.73 +/- 17.85) and (353.11 +/- 16.46) g x m(-2), respectively, showing an increased tendency with increasing tree species diversity. In the three forests, fine root biomass was significantly influenced by soil depth, and fine roots at the 0-10 cm soil layer accounted for more than 35% of the total fine root biomass. However, the interaction of stand type and soil depth on fine-root distribution was not significant, indicating no influence of tree species diversity on spatial niche segregation in fine roots. Root surface area density and root length density were the highest in NR and lowest in the MZ. Specific root length was in the order of AR > MZ > NR, while specific root surface area was in the order of NR > MZ > AR. There was no significant interaction of stand type and soil depth on specific root length and specific root surface area. Fine root morphological plasticity at the stand level had no significant response to tree species diversity.
Related JoVE Video
[Estimation of water clarity in offshore marine areas based on modified semi-analysis spectra model].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The main objectives of the research described in the present paper are to develop a semi-analysis model of water clarity for case 2 waters without inputting the absorption and scattering coefficient, which are not easy to be obtained for offshore marine areas so far. Based on the Zsd (Secchi depth)inversion theory, a simple semi-analysis spectra model was established for offshore seawater clarity by analyzing the relationship between vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient K(d) (490) and the beam attenuation coefficient c(490) with remote sensing reflectance. This semi-analysis spectra model needed two band reflectance ratios on- ly, while tidal correction was produced for this model to improve the precision of the retrieving results. The semi-analysis spectra model was applied to ASD hyperspectral reflectance data measured in the Pearl River Estuary Ecological Zone (October 21, 23, 2012, November 2, 2012; N=20) and the Xuwen Coral Reef Protection Zone (January 13, 14, 2013, N=25) which covered different water body of tidal times and different pollution sources. The results indicated that the changing tendency of predicted values was consistent with the synchronous measurement values after comparing them. However, water clarity calculated by the ASD hyperspectral reflectance measured in spring tidal time, generated 0. 4 m deviation compared with in-situ water clarity, while water clarity calculated by the ASD hyperspectral reflectance measured in neap tidal time is close to the in-situ water clarity. So the tidal correction coefficient of 0.4 was further applied for the model. After modification, the coefficient of determination between the inversed and measured water clarity was 0. 663, the average absolute error was 0. 14 m and the average relative error was 19.5%. Research demonstrated that this semi-analysis inversion algorithm just needs two band reflectance ratio to complete the inversion of water clarity, which is simple and works relatively well for lower clarity (less than 2 meters) waters compared to He' (2004) and Doron' (2011) algorithms.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of lung tumor growth in nude mice by siRNA(CD31) targeting PECAM-1.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) provides a promising therapeutic approach in the silencing of disease-causing genes. In the present study, the use of 2'-O-methyl-modified siRNA-cluster of differentiation 31 (siRNA(CD31)), with cationic liposome RNA interference (RNAi)-mate as a carrier, effectively silenced the platelet endothelial cell molecule 1 (PECAM-1) gene of murine hemangioendothelioma cells in vitro. In vivo, 2'-O-methyl-modified siRNA(CD31) carried by RNAi-mate was successfully delivered, targeting the PECAM-1 gene in the vasculature of nude mouse lung carcinoma xenografts. The growth of the lung carcinoma xenografts was inhibited by the 2'-O-methyl-modified siRNA(CD31) and RNAi-mate complexes, and the expression of the PECAM-1 protein was downregulated, with a simultaneous decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein in the lung carcinoma xenografts. 2'-O-methyl-modified siRNA(CD31)-RNAi-mate complexes may provide a potential therapeutic strategy in lung carcinoma treatment. The effect of PECAM-1 on VEGF expression may possibly be attributed to the function of PECAM-1 signal transduction.
Related JoVE Video
Emission reduction of NOx, PM, PM-carbon, and PAHs from a generator fuelled by biodieselhols.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This investigation examines the particulate matter (PM), particulate carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from a generator fueled by petroleum diesel blended with waste-edible-oil-biodiesel and water-containing acetone. Experimental results show that using biodieselhols with water-containing (or pure) acetone as the fuel of generator, in comparison to using petroleum diesel, significantly reduces PM emission; roughly, this reduction increased as percentage of water-containing acetone increased. When the percentages of waste-edible-oil-biodiesel were ? 5 vol%, adding pure or water-containing acetone (1-3 vol%) to biodieselhols generated emission reductions of NOx, PM, particle-bound organic carbon (OC), total-PAHs, and total-BaPeq. Consequently, using water-containing acetone biodieselhols as an alternative generator fuel is feasible and helps recycle and reuse waste solvents containing water-containing acetone.
Related JoVE Video
Atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigates the atmospheric occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines. We determined sixty-six compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), in air samples simultaneously collected from the offshore oceanic atmosphere (n=6) and over a rural area (n=2). We calculated the atmospheric World Health Organization 2005 toxic equivalency levels (WHO2005-TEQ), for the total dioxin-like POPs, including PCDD/Fs, DLPCBs, and PBDD/Fs, being 0.00612 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) and 0.0138 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) over the ocean and land, respectively. We found unexpected lower averaged atmospheric PBDE concentrations in the rural area (15.9 pg/m(3)) than over the ocean (31.1 pg/m(3)) due to higher levels of the BDE209 congener, although the difference was not statistically significant. We have compared and reported our field results with previously published datasets over the global oceans, which suggest PCBs and PBDEs are the dominant chemical contaminants in the global oceanic atmosphere among these halogenated POPs (e.g. PCBs and ?di-hepta PBDEs could be found in the range of 0.09-48.7 and 8.07-94.0 pg/m(3), respectively, including our dataset). However, there are still very few investigations on the global atmospheric levels of PBDD/Fs, PCDEs and PBBs and our data sums to these earlier studies. Finally, we point out that the halogenated POPs originated from Taiwan or the continental East Asia which could easily reach remote ocean sites via atmospheric transport.
Related JoVE Video
Zinc(II) and cadmium(II) metal-organic frameworks with 4-imidazole containing tripodal ligand: sorption and anion exchange properties.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of a 4-imidazole containing tripodal ligand 1,3,5-tri(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene (H3L) enabled isolation of two three-dimensional (3D) porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Zn(HL)] · solvent (1) and [Cd(H3L)2](ClO4)2 · 10.5H2O (2) featuring 4,4- and 3,6-connected nets related to the structures of ecl and pyrite, respectively. Framework 1 has 3D channels based on Zn-Im(-) (Im(-) = imidazolate) moieties due to partial deprotonation of the 1H-imidazol-4-yl groups of H3L while porous framework 2 is constructed by the coordination of neutral H3L ligands with Cd(II). Desolvated solid 1' showed remarkable uptake for CO2, N2, H2, CH4 gases as well as the volatile organic vapor of MeOH, EtOH, i-PrOH and C6H6, significantly, exhibiting temperature dependent selective gas sorption for CO2 over N2. Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were performed to elucidate the mechanism of the selective gas adsorption. Cage-like motifs are found in pyrite-net 2, in which ClO4(-) anions are hosted, and the results of IR, elemental analysis and PXRD measurements confirm that 2 has a reversible anion exchange property among perchlorate, nitrate and nitrite anions.
Related JoVE Video
Ulcerative colitis as a polymicrobial infection characterized by sustained broken mucus barrier.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To reduce medication for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), we need to establish the etiology of UC. The intestinal microbiota of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been shown to differ from that of healthy controls and abundant data indicate that it changes in both composition and localization. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is significantly higher in IBD patients compared with controls. Probiotics have been investigated for their capacity to reduce the severity of UC. The luminal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract are covered by a mucus layer. This normally acts as a barrier that does not allow bacteria to reach the epithelial cells and thus limits the direct contact between the host and the bacteria. The mucus layer in the colon comprises an inner layer that is firmly adherent to the intestinal mucosa, and an outer layer that can be washed off with minimal rinsing. Some bacteria can dissolve the protective inner mucus layer. Defects in renewal and formation of the inner mucus layer allow bacteria to reach the epithelium and have implications for the causes of colitis. In this review, important elements of UC pathology are thought to be the intestinal bacteria, gut mucus, and the mucosa-associated immune system.
Related JoVE Video
Determination of nitrofuran metabolites in shrimp by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a new derivatization reagent.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method for the simultaneous determination of total nitrofuran metabolite residues (furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin, and nitrofurazone) in shrimp was developed. The method involves the acid hydrolysis of protein-bound metabolites, followed by the derivatization of the freed metabolites with the new fluorescent derivatization reagent 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde (HN) and subsequent liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Separation is achieved on a YMC-Pack Polymer C18 column under alkaline conditions, and the high fluorescence intensity of the derivatives at an emission wavelength Em=463nm (Ex=395nm) enables, for the first time, their simultaneous determination in shrimp at concentrations as low as 1?g/kg by HPLC-FLD. The method was validated using blank shrimp fortified with all four metabolites at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0?g/kg. Recoveries were >87% with relative standard deviations of <8.1% for all four metabolites. Furthermore, the results obtained by HPLC-FLD were in very good agreement with those obtained by LC-MS/MS analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of whole-body vibration for 3 months on arterial stiffness in the middle-aged and elderly.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common problem of middle-aged and older adults. Increased arterial stiffness is a CVD risk factor. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise for middle-aged and older adults; however, there have been few studies investigating the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness. This study mainly investigated the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults.
Related JoVE Video
Expansive soil crack depth under cumulative damage.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil.
Related JoVE Video
Induction of neutralizing antibodies against four serotypes of dengue viruses by MixBiEDIII, a tetravalent dengue vaccine.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The worldwide expansion of four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) poses great risk to global public health. Several vaccine candidates are under development. However, none is yet available for humans. In the present study, a novel strategy to produce tetravalent DENV vaccine based on envelope protein domain III (EDIII) was proposed. Tandem EDIIIs of two serotypes (type 1-2 and type 3-4) of DENV connected by a Gly-Ser linker ((Gly4Ser)3) were expressed in E. coli, respectively. Then, the two bivalent recombinant EDIIIs were equally mixed to form the tetravalent vaccine candidate MixBiEDIII, and used to immunize BALB/c mice. The results showed that specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies against all four serotypes of DENV were successfully induced in the MixBiEDIII employing Freund adjuvant immunized mice. Furthermore, in the suckling mouse model, sera from mice immunized with MixBiEDIII provided significant protection against four serotypes of DENV challenge. Our data demonstrated that MixBiEDIII, as a novel form of subunit vaccine candidates, might have the potential to be further developed as a tetravalent dengue vaccine in the near future.
Related JoVE Video
[Morphology and microRNA expression profiles of drug-resistant cells in hepatocellular carcinoma].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare morphological differences of three drug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell subclones (Huh-7/ADM, Huh-7/CBP, Huh-7/MMC) and their parental Huh-7 cell line, to analyze differential microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in these cells and, finally to screen for the abnormal expressed miRNAs in drug-resistant HCC cells.
Related JoVE Video
High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the determination of nitrofuran metabolites in pork muscle.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A simple and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) is reported for the simultaneous determination of metabolites of four nitrofuran drugs (furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazone) in pork muscle. The method involves acid hydrolysis of the protein-bound drug metabolites and the conjugation of the released side-chains with a novel fluorescence agent 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde. After liquid-liquid extraction and effective separation of the derivatives on a YMC-Pack Polymer C18 column at 40°C under alkaline conditions, the high fluorescence intensity of these derivatives at emission wavelength ?em = 463 nm enables their simultaneous determination in pork muscle at concentrations as low as 1 µg kg(-1). The method was validated using blank pork muscle fortified with all four metabolites at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µg kg(-1). Recoveries were > 92.3% with RSDs < 8.5% for all four metabolites. The results obtained with HPLC-FLD and LC-MS/MS methods showed very good agreement for pork muscle samples.
Related JoVE Video
Thrombin Promotes Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Expression through the PKC ? /c-Src/EGFR/PI3K/Akt/AP-1 Signaling Pathway in Human Chondrocytes.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Thrombin is a key mediator of fibrin deposition, angiogenesis, and proinflammatory processes. Abnormalities in these processes are primary features of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) may contribute to the breakdown of articular cartilage during arthritis. However, the role of thrombin in MMP-13 production in chondrocytes is unknown. In this study, we investigated the intracellular signaling pathways involved in thrombin-induced MMP-13 expression in human chondrocytes. We found that stimulation with thrombin led to increased secretion of MMP-13 in cultured human chondrocytes. Further, this thrombin-induced MMP-13 production was reduced after transfection with siRNAs against protease activated receptors 1 and 3 (PAR1 and PAR3), but not with PAR4 siRNA. Treatment with specific inhibitors for PKC ? , c-Src, EGFR, PI3K, Akt, or AP-1 or with the corresponding siRNAs against these signaling proteins also abolished the thrombin-mediated increase in MMP-13 production in chondrocytes. Our results provide evidence that thrombin acts through the PAR1/PAR3 receptors and activates PKC ? and c-Src, resulting in EGFR transactivation and activation of PI3K, Akt, and finally AP-1 on the MMP-13 promoter, thereby contributing to cartilage destruction during arthritis.
Related JoVE Video
[Spatiotemporal distribution of negative air ion concentration in urban area and related affecting factors: a review].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Negative air ion (NAI) concentration is an important indicator comprehensively reflecting air quality, and has significance to human beings living environment. This paper summarized the spatiotemporal distribution features of urban NAI concentration, and discussed the causes of these features based on the characteristics of the environmental factors in urban area and their effects on the physical and chemical processes of NAI. The temporal distribution of NAI concentration is mainly controlled by the periodic variation of solar radiation, while the spatial distribution of NAI concentration along the urban-rural gradient is mainly affected by the urban aerosol distribution, underlying surface characters, and urban heat island effect. The high NAI concentration in urban green area is related to the vegetation life activities and soil radiation, while the higher NAI concentration near the water environment is attributed to the water molecules that participate in the generation of NAI through a variety of ways. The other environmental factors can also affect the generation, life span, component, translocation, and distribution of NAI to some extent. To increase the urban green space and atmospheric humidity and to maintain the soil natural attributes of underlying surface could be the effective ways to increase the urban NAI concentration and improve the urban air quality.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of two soybean genotypes under dehydration and rehydration conditions.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soybean is an important crop that provides valuable proteins and oils for human use. Because soybean growth and development is extremely sensitive to water deficit, quality and crop yields are severely impacted by drought stress. In the face of limited water resources, drought-responsive genes are therefore of interest. Identification and analysis of dehydration- and rehydration-inducible differentially expressed genes (DEGs) would not only aid elucidation of molecular mechanisms of stress response, but also enable improvement of crop stress tolerance via gene transfer. Using Digital Gene Expression Tag profiling (DGE), a new technique based on Illumina sequencing, we analyzed expression profiles between two soybean genotypes to identify drought-responsive genes.
Related JoVE Video
A phase II study of preoperative chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX6 followed by surgery and postoperative chemoradiation in patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma.
Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The optimal neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment for gastric cancer remains controversial. We conducted a phase II study using preoperative chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX6 followed by surgical resection and postoperative chemoradiation in patients with gastric carcinoma. Preoperative chemotherapy (two or three cycles) consisted of a 2-h infusion of oxaliplatin (100 mg/m2) and folinic acid (100 mg/m2) followed by a 46-h continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 2,400 mg/m2). Surgical resection was planned 4 weeks after the last chemotherapy cycle. Patients underwent postsurgical chemoradiation, receiving a total dose of 45 Gy and 5-FU continuous infusion (350 mg/m2/day). The primary end points were feasibility, overall response rate, and R0 resectability rate after preoperative chemotherapy. The secondary end points were tolerability, treatment-associated complications, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Nineteen patients were enrolled in this study. After neoadjuvant treatment, four patients (21.1%) experienced progressive disease, six patients (31.6%) showed partial remission, and nine patients (47.3%) showed stable disease. In 15 patients (78.9%) R0 resectability could be achieved. Eleven of these patients (73.3%) were able to undergo postoperative chemoradiation. Notably, eight (72.7%) of these patients were disease free and alive at median follow-up of 60 months. Chemotherapy associated neutropenia, neutropenic fever, and anastomotic dehiscence were observed. The combination of preoperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiation is feasible in a significant subset of gastric cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
[Breeding ecology of Chinese Bulbul in the urban environment of Hangzhou, China].
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Chinese Bulbul, Pycnonotus sinensis, is one of the most abundant and widely distributed birds of south China, settling even in dense urban areas. From March-July 2012, we surveyed the Chinese Bulbul in the urban environment of Hangzhou, China, to gain a clearer perspective on their breeding ecology. Totally, 117 nests were found, mainly on the trees of Osmanthus fragrans (84.6%, n=117) in residential areas,street tree strips, and green belt. Our results include several noteworthy observations: nest height from the ground was 3.16±0.91 m (n=117); egg-laying begins in early April with peak times from April 11-25; and the nesting period was 11.85±1.12 days (n=47). In terms of fertility and reproduction, we also observed that the average incubation period was 11.34±1.12 days (n=32); average clutch size was 3.37±0.48 eggs (n=103); hatching success 68.3%, fledging rate 52.1%, and the total breeding success 35.58% (n=117). The main causes of breeding failure included egg and fledgling predation, as well as human disturbance.
Related JoVE Video
The immunologically active oligosaccharides isolated from wheatgrass modulate monocytes via Toll-like receptor-2 signaling.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Wheatgrass is one of the most widely used health foods, but its functional components and mechanisms remain unexplored. Herein, wheatgrass-derived oligosaccharides (WG-PS3) were isolated and found to induce CD69 and Th1 cytokine expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In particular, WG-PS3 directly activated the purified monocytes by inducing the expression of CD69, CD80, CD86, IL-12, and TNF-? but affected NK and T cells only in the presence of monocytes. After further purification and structural analysis, maltoheptaose was identified from WG-PS3 as an immunomodulator. Maltoheptaose activated monocytes via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) signaling, as discovered by pretreatment of blocking antibodies against Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and also determined by click chemistry. This study is the first to reveal the immunostimulatory component of wheatgrass with well defined molecular structures and mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
High p53 and MAP1 light chain 3A co-expression predicts poor prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
p53 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3A (LC3A) are regulators of apoptosis and autophagy and are expressed at high levels in a number of human tumors. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of p53 and LC3A expression levels in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs). p53 and LC3A expression levels were measured by immunohistochemistry in 114 patients with stage II/III (Tany N+M0 or T3,4 Nany M0) ESCCs treated with surgery followed by adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The overexpression of p53 and LC3A was observed in 57 and 54% of ESCC samples, respectively. p53 staining was nuclear and LC3A was localized to the cytoplasm of tumor cells. p53 overexpression was more frequently observed in ESCCs with positive lymph nodes (P=0.017). Patients with ESCCs overexpressing p53 and LC3A were associated with a lower 5?year overall survival rate than those with low p53 and LC3A expression (18.0 vs. 54.4%; P=0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the overexpression of p53 or LC3A was not associated with poor patient outcome (P>0.05). However, patients with high levels of p53 and LC3A co-expression had poor clinical prognoses (P=0.027). Thus, p53 and LC3A co-expression is an independent prognostic marker for patients with ESCC.
Related JoVE Video
Emissions from a generator fueled by blends of diesel, biodiesel, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol: analyses of emitted PM, particulate carbon, and PAHs.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biodiesel is one of alternative energies that have been extensively discussed and studied. This research investigates the characteristics of particulate matter (PM), particulate carbon, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from a generator fueled by waste-edible-oil-biodiesel with acetone and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) addition. The tested biodieselhols consisted of pure diesel oil (D100) with 1-3 vol.% pure acetone (denoted as A), 1-70 vol.% waste-edible-oil-biodiesel (denoted as W), and 1 vol.% pure isopropyl alcohol (the stabilizer, denoted as P). The results show that in comparison to W1D99, W3D97, W5D95, W10D90, and W20D80, the use of biodieselhols achieved additional reduction of PM and particulate organic carbon (OC) emission, and such reduction increased as the addition percentage of pure acetone increased. Regardless of the percentages of added waste-edible-oil-biodiesel, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol, the use of biodieselhol in place of D100 could reduce the emissions of Total-PAHs (by 6.13-42.5% (average = 24.1%)) and Total-BaPeq (by 16.6-74.8% (average = 53.2%)) from the diesel engine generator. Accordingly, the W/D blended fuels (W<20 vol.%) containing acetone (1-3 vol.%) and isopropyl alcohol (1 vol.%) are a potential alternative fuel for diesel engine generators because they substantially reduce emissions of PM, particulate OC, Total-PAHs, and Total-BaPeq.
Related JoVE Video
Histone deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A increases the expression of Dleu2/miR-15a/16-1 via HDAC3 in non-small cell lung cancer.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitor is a promising new approach to the treatment of lung cancer therapy via inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis. miR-15a and miR-16-1 are important tumor suppressors through modulating B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Cyclin D1, D2, and others. However, whether HDACs inhibitor modulates the expression of miR-15a/16-1 in lung cancer is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to identify a new miRNA-mediated mechanism which plays an important role in the anti-cancer effects of HDACs inhibitor. We found HDACs inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate upregulated the expression of miR-15a/16-1, residing in the host tumor suppressor Dleu2 gene, through increasing the histone acetylation in the region of Dleu2/miR-15a/16-1 promoter in lung cancer cells. Moreover, among class ? HDACs subtypes, only knockdown of HDAC3 by specific siRNA increased the hyperacetylation of Dleu2/miR-15a/16-1 promoter region and finally resulted in the upregulation of miR-15a/16-1. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-15a/16-1, which were always deleted or downregulated in lung cancer cells, effectively suppressed cell growth and reduced colony formation. Finally, TSA reduced the expression of Bcl-2, an important survival protein in lung cancer cells, partly through upregulation of miR-15a/16-1. Therefore, this offers a therapeutic strategy that lung cancer patients who exhibit low level of miR-15a/16-1 or high activity of HDACs may benefit from HDACs inhibitor-based therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of hypokalemia on transmural dispersion of ventricular repolarization in left ventricular myocardium.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe effects of hypokalemia on transmural heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization in left ventricular myocardium of rabbit, and explore the role of hypokalemia in malignant ventricular arrhythmia (MVA).
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA-21-3p, a berberine-induced miRNA, directly down-regulates human methionine adenosyltransferases 2A and 2B and inhibits hepatoma cell growth.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is the cellular enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the principal biological methyl donor and a key regulator of hepatocyte proliferation, death and differentiation. Two genes, MAT1A and MAT2A, encode 2 distinct catalytic MAT isoforms. A third gene, MAT2B, encodes a MAT2A regulatory subunit. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), MAT1A downregulation and MAT2A upregulation occur, known as the MAT1A:MAT2A switch. The switch is accompanied with an increasing expression of MAT2B, which results in decreased SAM levels and facilitates cancer cell growth. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from many medicinal herbs such as Coptis chinensis, has a wide range of pharmacological effects including anti-cancer effects. Because drug-induced microRNAs have recently emerged as key regulators in guiding their pharmacological effects, we examined whether microRNA expression is differentially altered by berberine treatment in HCC. In this study, we used microRNA microarrays to find that the expression level of miR-21-3p (previously named miR-21*) increased after berberine treatment in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line. To predict the putative targets of miR-21-3p, we integrated the gene expression profiles of HepG2 cells after berberine treatment by comparing with a gene list generated from sequence-based microRNA target prediction software. We then confirmed these predictions through transfection of microRNA mimics and a 3 UTR reporter assay. Our findings provide the first evidence that miR-21-3p directly reduces the expression of MAT2A and MAT2B by targeting their 3 UTRs. In addition, an overexpression of miR-21-3p increased intracellular SAM contents, which have been proven to be a growth disadvantage for hepatoma cells. The overexpression of miR-21-3p suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Overall, our results demonstrate that miR-21-3p functions as a tumor suppressor by directly targeting both MAT2A and MAT2B, indicating its therapeutic potential in HCC.
Related JoVE Video
[The effect of 5-HD on expression of PKC-alpha in rats of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effect of mito chondrial K(ATP) channels (mitoK(ATP)) inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate(5-HD) on chronic hypoxic pulmonary artery hypertension (CHPAH) rats and its underlying mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Remote therapeutic effectiveness of acupuncture in treating myofascial trigger point of the upper trapezius muscle.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the remote effect of acupuncture (AcP) on the pain intensity and the irritability of the myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of guizhi plus gegen decoction on ultrastructural changes of intervertebral disc annulus fibrosus cells].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the effect of Guizhi plus Gegen Decoction (GGD) on ultrastructural changes of intervertebral disc annulus fibrosus cells.
Related JoVE Video
Comprehensive proteome analysis of hippocampus, brainstem, and spinal cord from paralytic and furious dogs naturally infected with rabies.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Paralytic and furious forms are unique clinical entities of rabies in humans and dogs. However, molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders remained unclear. We investigated changes in proteomes of the hippocampus, brainstem and spinal cord of paralytic and furious dogs naturally infected with rabies compared to noninfected controls. Proteins were extracted from these tissues and analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) (n = 6 gels/region in each group, a total of 54 gels were analyzed). From >1000 protein spots visualized in each gel, spot matching, quantitative intensity analysis, and ANOVA with Tukeys posthoc multiple comparisons revealed 32, 49, and 67 protein spots that were differentially expressed among the three clinical groups in the hippocampus, brainstem and spinal cord, respectively. These proteins were then identified by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS and MS/MS), including antioxidants, apoptosis-related proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, heat shock proteins/chaperones, immune regulatory proteins, metabolic enzymes, neuron-specific proteins, transcription/translation regulators, ubiquitination/proteasome-related proteins, vesicular transport proteins, and hypothetical proteins. Among these, 13, 17, and 41 proteins in the hippocampus, brainstem and spinal cord, respectively, significantly differed between paralytic and furious forms and thus may potentially be biomarkers to differentiate these two distinct forms of rabies. In summary, we report herein for the first time a large data set of changes in proteomes of the hippocampus, brainstem and spinal cord in dogs naturally infected with rabies. These data will be useful for better understanding of molecular mechanisms of rabies and for differentiation of its paralytic and furious forms.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-inflammatory and free radial scavenging activities of the constituents isolated from Machilus zuihoensis.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new biflavonol glycoside, quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside-(3?O-3)-quercetin-3-O-?-D-galactopyranoside (9), together with eight known compounds was isolated for the first time from the leaves of Machilus zuihoensis Hayata (Lauraceae). The structure of compound 9 was elucidated by various types of spectroscopic data analysis. Analysis of the biological activity assay found that compound 9 showed significant superoxide anion scavenging activity (IC?? is 30.4 ?M) and markedly suppressed LPS-induced high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) protein secretion in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, the HMGB-1 protein secretion was also inhibited by quercitrin (3), ethyl caffeate (6), and ethyl 3-O-caffeoylquinate (7) treatment. In the LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activation analysis, two known compounds, quercetin (1) and ethyl caffeate (6), were found to markedly suppress nitric oxide (NO) production (IC?? value, 27.6 and 42.9 ?M, respectively) in RAW264.7 cells. Additionally, it was determined that ethyl caffeate (6) down-regulated mRNA expressions of iNOS, IL-1?, and IL-10 in the LPS-treatment of RAW264.7 cells via a suppressed NF-kB pathway. These results suggested for the first time that the new compound 9 and other constituents isolated from M. zuihoensis have potential anti-inflammatory and superoxide anion scavenging effects. These constituents may be useful for treating various inflammatory diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Large-scale identification of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal-binding proteins on apical membrane of distal renal tubular epithelial cells.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals onto apical surface of renal tubular epithelial cells is a crucial mechanism for crystal retention, leading to kidney stone formation. Various proteins on apical membrane may bind to COM crystals; however, these crystal-binding proteins remained unidentified. The present study therefore aimed to identify COM crystal-binding proteins on apical membrane of distal renal tubular epithelial cells. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells were cultivated to be polarized epithelial cells and apical membrane was isolated from these cells using a peeling method established recently. Enrichment and purity of isolated apical membrane were confirmed by Western blot analysis for specific markers of apical (gp135) and basolateral (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) membranes. Proteins derived from the isolated apical membrane were then resuspended in artificial urine and incubated with COM crystals. The bound proteins were eluted, resolved by SDS-PAGE, and analyzed by Q-TOF MS and MS/MS, which identified 96 proteins. Among these, expression and localization of annexin II on apical surface of MDCK cells were confirmed by Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence staining, and laser-scanning confocal microscopic examination. Finally, the function of annexin II as the COM crystal-binding protein was successfully validated by COM crystal-binding assay. This large data set offers many opportunities for further investigations of kidney stone disease and may lead to the development of new therapeutic targets.
Related JoVE Video
[Characteristics of soil respiration in Phyllostachys edulis forest in Wanmulin Natural Reserve and related affecting factors].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
By using Li-Cor 8100 open soil carbon flux system, the dynamic changes of soil respiration rate in Phyllostachys edulis forest in Wanmulin Natural Reserve in Fujian Province of China were measured from January 2009 to December 2009, with the relationships between the dynamic changes and related affecting factors analyzed. The monthly variation of soil respiration rate in the forest presented a double peak curve, with the peaks appeared in June 2009 (6. 83 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) and September 2009 (5.59 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)), and the seasonal variation of the soil respiration rate was significant, with the maximum in summer and the minimum in winter. The soil respiration rate had significant correlation with the soil temperature at depth 5 cm (P < 0.05), but no significant correlation with soil moisture (P > 0.05). The monthly variation of litter fall mass in the forest was in single peak shape, and there was a significantly positive correlation between the monthly litter fall mass and soil respiration rate (P < 0.05). Two-factor model of soil temperature and litter fall mass could explain 93.2% variation of the soil respiration rate.
Related JoVE Video
catena-Poly[[aqua-[1,4-bis-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene]cadmium]-?(3)-5-methyl-isophthalato].
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the title coordination polymer, [Cd(C(9)H(6)O(4))(C(12)H(10)N(4))(H(2)O)](n), the Cd(II) atom has a NO(6) donor set and is coord-inated by five carboxyl-ate O atoms from three different 5-methyl-1,3-phenyl-enediacetate (pda(2-)) anions, one O atom from a water mol-ecule and one N atom from a 1,4-bis-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene (L) ligand, displaying a highly distorted penta-gonal-bipyramidal geometry. Each pda(2-) anion acts as a ?(3)-bridge, linking Cd(II) atoms to form one-dimensional slabs extending parallel to [010]. In the crystal, adjacent mol-ecules are linked through N-H?N and N-H?O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network.
Related JoVE Video
Renal function of donors and recipients after living donor kidney transplantation in a Chinese cohort.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Living donor kidney transplantation (LKT) has been booming in China. This study aimed to elucidate the renal function of both Chinese donors and recipients after the donation and transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
[Association of leukotriene gene polymorphisms with response to antileukotriene treatment in patients with asthma].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the frequencies of leukotriene gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the asthmatic subjects of Han population in Wenzhou district, and the association between SNPs and response to montelukast treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of genes associated with nitrogen-use efficiency by genome-wide transcriptional analysis of two soybean genotypes.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soybean is a valuable crop that provides protein and oil. Soybean requires a large amount of nitrogen (N) to accumulate high levels of N in the seed. The yield and protein content of soybean seeds are directly affected by the N-use efficiency (NUE) of the plant, and improvements in NUE will improve yields and quality of soybean products. Genetic engineering is one of the approaches to improve NUE, but at present, it is hampered by the lack of information on genes associated with NUE. Solexa sequencing is a new method for estimating gene expression in the transcription level. Here, the expression profiles were analyzed between two soybean varieties in N-limited conditions to identify genes related to NUE.
Related JoVE Video
[Histopathological study of 268 hepatic allograft biopsies].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the histopathological features of posttransplant complications for hepatic allografts and evaluate their biopsy values.
Related JoVE Video
Glycoproteomic analysis and molecular modeling of haptoglobin multimers.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Extra-thiol groups on the ?-subunit allow haptoglobin (Hp) to form a variety of native multimers which influence the biophysical and biological properties of Hp. In this work, we demonstrated how differences of multimeric conformation alter the glycosylation of Hp. The isoform distributions of different multimers were examined by an alternative approach, i.e. 3-D-(Native/IEF/SDS)-PAGE, which revealed differences in N-glycosylation among individual multimers of the same Hp sample. Glycomic mapping of permethylated N-glycan indicated that the assembled monomer and multimeric conformation modulate the degree of glycosylation, especially the reduction in terminal sialic acid residues on the bi-antennary glycan. Loss of the terminal sialic acid in the higher order multimers increases the number of terminal galactose residues, which may contribute to conformation of Hp. A molecular model of the glycosylated Hp multimer was constructed, suggesting that the effect of steric hindrance on multimeric formation is critical for the enlargement of the glycan moieties on either side of the monomer. In addition, N241 of Hp was partially glycosylated, even though this site is unaffected by steric consideration. Thus, the present study provides evidence for the alteration of glycan structures on different multimeric conformations of Hp, improving our knowledge of conformation-dependent function of this glycoprotein.
Related JoVE Video
Honokiol inhibits LPS-induced maturation and inflammatory response of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Honokiol (HNK) is a phenolic compound isolated from the bark of houpu (Magnolia officinalis), a plant widely used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine. While substantial evidence indicates that HNK possesses anti-inflammatory activity, its effect on dendritic cells (DCs) during the inflammatory reaction remains unclear. The present study investigates how HNK affects lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human monocyte-derived DCs. Our experimental results show that HNK inhibits the inflammatory response of LPS-induced DCs by (1) suppressing the expression of CD11c, CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, and MHC-II on LPS-activated DCs, (2) reducing the production of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-12p70 but increasing the production of IL-10 and TGF-?1 by LPS-activated DCs, (3) inhibiting the LPS-induced DC-elicited allogeneic T-cell proliferation, and (4) shifting the LPS-induced DC-driven Th1 response toward a Th2 response. Further, our results show that HNK inhibits the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, p38, JNK1/2, IKK?, and I?B? in LPS-activated DCs. Collectively, the findings show that the anti-inflammatory actions of HNK on LPS-induced DCs are associated with the NF-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways.
Related JoVE Video
[Removal nitrogen of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland under aeration condition].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oxygen is an important limit factor of nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands, so it is the key point for improving nitrogen removal efficiency of constructed wetlands that the optimization of oxygen distribution within wetlands. Therefore, oxygen status, nitrogen removal and purification mechanism of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) under aeration condition in summer and winter have been studied. The results showed that both oxygen levels and aerobic zones were increased in the wetland substrates. The area of oxic zone I (expressing with depth) extended from 22 cm, 17 cm to 53 cm, 44 cm, in summer and winter, respectively. The electric potential (Eh) profiling demonstrated that artificial aeration maintained the pattern of sequential oxic-anoxic-oxic (O-A-O) redox zones within the aerated IVCW in winter, while only two oxic-anoxic (O-A) zones were present inside the non-aerated IVCW in the cold season. The decomposition of organic matter and nitrification were obviously enhanced by artificial aeration since the removal efficiency of COD, TN and NH4(+) -N were increased by 12.2%, 6.9% and 15.1% in winter, respectively. There was no significant accumulation of NO3(-) -N in the effluent with an aeration cycle of 8 h on and 16 h off in this experiment. Moreover, we found that oxic zone I was the main region of pollutants removal in IVCW system, and artificial aeration mainly acted to enhance the purification capacity of this oxic zone in the aerated IVCW. These results suggest that aeration is important for optimization and application of IVCW system.
Related JoVE Video
Poly[[?-1,4-bis-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene-?N:N](?-5-methyl-isophthalato-?O:O)cobalt(II)].
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the title coordination polymer, [Co(C(9)H(6)O(4))(C(12)H(10)N(4))](n), the Co(II) atom is four-coordinated by two O atoms from two different 5-methyl-isophthalate bivalent anions and two N atoms from two different 1,4-bis-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene ligands, forming a four-coordinated tetra-hedral coordination geometry. Each 5-methyl-isophthalate ligand acts as a ?(2)-bridge, linking two Co(II) atoms and forming chains which are further linked by 1,4-bis-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene ligands into a two-dimensional network parallel to ([Formula: see text]01). These planes are, in turn, linked by two inter-molecular N-H?O inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional structure. Weak C-H?O hydrogen bonds are also present in the structure.
Related JoVE Video
Calcium oxalate dihydrate crystal induced changes in glycoproteome of distal renal tubular epithelial cells.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals can adhere onto the apical surface of renal tubular epithelial cells. This process is associated with crystal growth and aggregation, resulting in kidney stone formation. Glycoproteins have been thought to play roles in response to crystal adhesion. However, components of the glycoproteome that are involved in this cellular response remain largely unknown. Our present study therefore aimed to identify altered glycoproteins upon COD crystal adhesion onto tubular epithelial cells representing distal nephron, the initiating site of kidney stone formation. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells were maintained in culture medium with or without COD crystals for 48 h (n = 5 flasks per group). Cellular proteins were extracted, resolved by 2-DE and visualized by SYPRO Ruby total protein stain, whereas glycoproteins were detected by Pro-Q Emerald glycoprotein dye. Spot matching and quantitative intensity analysis revealed 16 differentially expressed glycoprotein spots, whose corresponding total protein levels were not changed by COD crystal adhesion. These altered glycoproteins were successfully identified by Q-TOF MS and/or MS/MS analyses, and potential glycosylation sites were identified by the GlycoMod tool. For example, glycoforms of three proteasome subunits (which have a major role in regulating cell-cell dissociation) were up-regulated, whereas a glycoform of actin-related protein 3 (ARP3) (which plays an important role in cellular integrity) was down-regulated. These coordinated changes implicate that COD crystal adhesion induced cell dissociation and declined cellular integrity in the distal nephron. Our findings provide some novel insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of kidney stone disease at the molecular level, particularly cell-crystal interactions.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of Brugia malayi immunogens by an immunoproteomics approach.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Filariasis remains a health problem in tropical countries. Identification of immunogens from its causative organism would lead to development of a better diagnostic test, as well as vaccine discovery to effectively prevent this disease. We applied immunoproteomics to define potential immunogens of adult Brugia malayi that were recognized by IgM, IgG1 and IgG4 in sera of patients with four distinct clinical spectra of filariasis, including endemic asymptomatic, lymphangitis, elephantiasis and microfilaremia (n=5/group). Sera of healthy individuals (n=5) from non-endemic area served as the negative control. Brugian proteins were resolved by 2-DE and subjected to 2-D Western blot analysis probed with these sera. A total of 30 immunoreactive proteins recognized by IgM, IgG1 and IgG4 in sera from all four filarial groups were identified by Q-TOF MS and MS/MS analyses. Interestingly, only three immunogens were recognized by IgM in lymphangitis, elephantiasis and microfilaremia, but not in endemic asymptomatic group. IgG1 recognized 20 immunogens in endemic asymptomatic, lymphangitis and microfilaremia (mostly in endemic asymptomatic group), but not in elephantiasis, whereas IgG4 recognized 28 immunogens in all four filarial groups (mostly in microfilaremia). This large data set is an important resource for further development of a new diagnostic test and/or vaccine for filariasis.
Related JoVE Video
Porous cobalt(II)-imidazolate supramolecular isomeric frameworks with selective gas sorption property.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two porous supramolecular isomeric frameworks show unique sorption properties, one with temperature dependent stepwise and hysteretic selective sorption of CO(2) while the other one shows gas uptake capacity for CO(2), N(2), H(2) and CH(4) at low temperature and selective sorption of CO(2) over N(2) around room temperature.
Related JoVE Video
[Histopathologic analysis of 1500 renal allograft biopsies].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To summarize the histopathological features of posttransplant complications for renal allografts and evaluate the biopsy values.
Related JoVE Video
Glycoproteomics analysis to identify a glycoform on haptoglobin associated with lung cancer.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glycosylation is a common protein modification that is of interest in current cancer research because altered carbohydrate moieties are often found during cancer progress. A search for biomarkers in human lung cancer serum samples using glycoproteomic approaches identified fucosylated haptoglobin (Hp) significantly increased in serum of each subtype of lung cancer compared to normal donors. In addition, MS provided evidence of an increase of Hp fucosylation; the glycan structure was determined to be an ? 2,6-linked tri-sialylated triantennary glycan containing ?1,3-linked fucose attached to the four-linked position of the three-arm mannose of N-linked core pentasaccharide. These preliminary findings suggest that the specific glycoform of Hp may be useful as a marker to monitor lung cancer progression.
Related JoVE Video
Down-regulation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by 3C-like proteinase in transfected A549 human lung carcinoma cells.
BMC Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a severe respiratory illness caused by a novel virus, the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). 3C-like protease (3CLpro) of SARS-CoV plays a role in processing viral polypeptide precursors and is responsible of viral maturation. However, the function of 3CLpro in host cells remains unknown. This study investigated how the 3CLpro affected the secretion of cytokines in the gene-transfected cells.
Related JoVE Video
Coregulation of transcription factors and microRNAs in human transcriptional regulatory network.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recent studies have suggested that miRNAs and transcription factors are primary metazoan gene regulators; however, the crosstalk between them still remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Characteristics of particulate emissions from a diesel generator fueled with varying blends of biodiesel and fossil diesel.
J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigated the particulate matter (PM), particle-bound carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from a diesel-engine generator fuelled with blends of pure fossil diesel oil (D100) and varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel (W10, 10 vol %; W20, 20 vol %; W30, 30 vol %; and W50, 50 vol %) under generator loads of 0, 1.5, and 3 kW. On average, the PM emission factors of all blends was 30.5 % (range, 13.7-52.3 %) lower than that of D100 under the tested loads. Substituting pure fossil diesel oil with varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel reduced emissions of particle-bound total carbon (TC) and elemental carbon (EC). The W20 blend had the lowest particle-bound organic carbon (OC) emissions. Notably, W10, W20, and W30 also had lower Total-PAH emissions and lower total equivalent toxicity (Total-BaP(eq)) compared to D100. Additionally, the brake-specific fuel consumption of the generator correlated positively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel. However, generator energy efficiency correlated negatively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel.
Related JoVE Video
Reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation and highly selective adsorption property of three-dimensional cobalt(II) frameworks.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A three-dimensional (3D) coordination polymer, [Co(3)(L)(2)(BTEC)(H(2)O)(2)]·2H(2)O [1, HL = 3,5-di(imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid, H(4)BTEC = 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid], with tfz-d topology has been hydrothermally synthesized. The framework of 1 has high thermal stability and exhibits single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) transformations upon removing and rebinding the noncoordinated and coordinated water molecules. X-ray crystallographic analyses revealed that the coordination geometry of Co(II) changes from octahedral to square pyramid upon dehydration, accompanying the appearance of one-dimensional (1D) open channels with dimensions of 2.0 × 2.8 Å. The dehydrated form [Co(3)(L)(2)(BTEC)] (2) exhibits highly selective adsorption of water molecules over N(2), CH(3)OH, and CH(3)CH(2)OH, which could be used as sensors for water molecules. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of 1 and 2 were investigated, showing the existence of ferromagnetic interaction between the Co(II) atoms within the trinuclear subunit.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of laser irradiation of acupuncture points Shenshu on ovariectomized rats.
Photomed Laser Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effect of laser acupuncture on obesity in postmenopausal women remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this form of treatment using an animal model.
Related JoVE Video
Increased risk of urinary tract calculi among patients with diabetes mellitus--a population-based cohort study.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the inter-relationship among diabetes, urinary tract infection (UTI), and urinary tract calculi (UTC).
Related JoVE Video
Wide host range and strong lytic activity of Staphylococcus aureus lytic phage Stau2.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In searching for an alternative antibacterial agent against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, we have isolated and characterized a lytic staphylophage, Stau2. It possesses a double-stranded DNA genome estimated to be about 134.5 kb and a morphology resembling that of members of the family Myoviridae. With an estimated latency period of 25 min and a burst size of 100 PFU/infected cell, propagation of Stau2 in liquid culture gave a lysate of ca. 6 × 10(10) PFU/ml. It was stable at pH 5 to 13 in normal saline at room temperature for at least 4 weeks and at -85°C for more than 2 years, while 1 × 10(9) out of 2 × 10(12) PFU/ml retained infectivity after 36 months at 4°C. Stau2 could lyse 80% of the S. aureus isolates (164/205) obtained from hospitals in Taiwan, with complete lysis of most of the isolates tested within 3 h; however, it was an S. aureus-specific phage because no lytic infection could be found in the coagulase-negative staphylococci tested. Its host range among S. aureus isolates was wider than that of polyvalent phage K (47%), which can also lyse many other staphylococcal species. Experiments with mice demonstrated that Stau2 could provide 100% protection from lethal infection when a multiplicity of infection of 10 was administered immediately after a challenge with S. aureus S23. Considering these results, Stau2 could be considered at least as a candidate for topical phage therapy or an additive in the food industry.
Related JoVE Video
[Litter fall production and carbon return in Cunninghamia lanceolata, Schima superba, and their mixed plantations].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
From March 2005 to April 2007, an investigation was made on the litter fall production and carbon return of Cunninghamia lanceolata, Schima superba, and their mixed plantations in the Jian ou Science and Education Park of Soil and Water Conservation, Fujian. In these three plantations, the mean annual litter fall production was from 2470.85 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1) to 4285.99 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1), and dominated by leaf litter, accounting for 68.62%-87.26% of the total production. In C. lanceolata plantation, the litter fall production peaked in April-May, July, and December; while in S. superba and mixed plantations, this production only peaked in March. Comparing with pure plantations, mixed plantation had a higher litter fall production per tree of broadleaved S. superba while a lower litter fall production per tree of coniferous C. lanceolata. Leaf litter in the three plantations was the main body of the litter falls carbon return, and the total amount of the carbon return was the largest (2.12 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1)) in mixed plantation and the smallest (1.19 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1)) in C. lanceolata plantation, which was in accordance with the annual litter fall production of the plantations. This study demonstrated that comparing with pure coniferous or broadleaved plantation, coniferous-broadleaved mixed plantation had higher annual litter fall production and carbon return, and thus, higher potential of C sequestration.
Related JoVE Video
Temperature dependent selective gas sorption of the microporous metal-imidazolate framework [Cu(L)] [H2L = 1,4-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene].
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A highly stable copper(II) microporous framework with cylindrical channels constructed from 1,4-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene (H(2)L) and CuCl(2)·2H(2)O is composed of Cu(II)-imidazolate tubes interconnected by the 1,4-phenylene group of L(2-), and shows temperature dependent selective gas sorption properties.
Related JoVE Video
One-pot tandem copper-catalyzed library synthesis of 1-thiazolyl-1,2,3-triazoles as anticancer agents.
ACS Comb Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
One-pot multicomponent synthesis to assemble compounds has been an efficient method for constructing a compound library. We have developed one-pot tandem copper-catalyzed azidation and CuAAC reactions that afford 1-thiazolyl-1,2,3-triazoles with anticancer activity. By utilizing this one-pot synthetic strategy, we constructed a library of 1-thiazolyl-1,2,3-triazoles in search of the potent lead compound. Furthermore, 1-thiazolyl-1,2,3-triazoles were evaluated for anticancer activity against the multidrug-resistant cancer cells MES-SA/Dx5. Most of the 1-thiazolyl-1,2,3-triazoles revealed cytotoxic effect against cancer cells at micromolar to low micromolar range. Testing some of the most potent compounds (5{4,2-4} and 5{5,1-3}) against the normal cell line Vero showed no significant toxicity (except 5{4,2}) to normal cells. This result indicates that compounds 5{4,3-4} and 5{5,1-3} possessed good potency and selectivity to cancer cells over normal cells.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of traffic loading on particle-bound water-soluble ions and carbons collected near a busy road and at an urban site.
J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examines size-resolved particle-bound water-soluble ions and carbons (element carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC)) collected near a busy road and at an urban site. The traffic-related fine and coarse particles were collected using two manual dichotomous samplers (Dichots) equipped with Quartz filters. The PM(2.5)/PM(2.5-10) value during rush hour (3.57) exceeded that during slack time (2.72). During weekdays and weekends, although the roadside PM(2.5) concentration correlated well with traffic flow (R(2)= 0.91 and 0.81, respectively), the roadside PM(2.5-10) concentration did not. The lowest second aerosol concentrations were observed from 19:00 to 21:00 during weekdays and weekends. The average content of total water-soluble ions in PM(2.5) was 30.7% and 35.7% for weekday and weekend samples, respectively (a total average of 33.2%). In PM(2.5), the content of NO(3)(-) (8.95-11.0%) exceeded that of SO(4)(2-) (7.08-8.10%) at the roadside site. Conversely, the content of PM(2.5)-bound SO(4)(2-) was higher than that of PM(2.5)-bound NO(3)(-) at the urban site. The mean content of PM(2.5)-bound TC was 35.8%, while that of PM(2.5-10)-bound TC was 15.9%. Moreover, the R(2) values of traffic flow versus PM(2.5)-bound EC concentration on weekdays and weekends were 0.89 and 0.56, respectively, and were 0.82 and 0.38, respectively, for those of traffic flow versus PM(2.5)-bound OC concentration.
Related JoVE Video
[Soil soluble organic nitrogen content in different forest stands in Wanmulin Nature Reserve].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An investigation was made on the soil soluble organic nitrogen (SON) in two natural forests Altingia gracilies (ALG) and Castanopsis carlesii (CAC) and an adjacent 35-year-old Cunninghamia lanceolata (CUL) plantation in Wanmulin Nature Reserve in Jianou, Fujian Province. Among the three forest stands, ALG had a significantly higher content of soil SON, being 95.3, 78.3, and 72.5 mg x kg(-1) in 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, and 10-20 cm soil layers, respectively (P<0.05), while CAC and CUL had lesser differences in their soil SON content, which was 74.5, 70.1, and 65.6 mg x kg(-1) in the three soil layers for CAC, and 78.6, 68.9, and 69.1 mg x kg(-1) in the three soil layers for CUL, respectively. The proportion of SON to total soluble nitrogen (TSN) in 0-20 cm soil layer was 79.17-80.78% for CAC, 68.64%-74.51% for CUL, and 59.97%-69.66% for ALG. With increasing soil depth, the proportion of soil SON to soil TSN and total nitrogen (TN) for the three forest stands all increased. Soil SON content had a significant positive correlation with soil organic carbon (r=0.982, P<0.01), and also, had definite correlations with soil TSN, TN, NH4(+)-N, and NO3(-)-N. It also correlated with the factors such as forest type, topography, altitude, and tree age.
Related JoVE Video
Prospective highlights of serum glycoproteins in spontaneous tolerance after orthotopic liver transplantation.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We examined the effects and the mechanisms of serum glycoproteins on spontaneous tolerance after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) between DA (RT-1(a)) and PVG (RT-1(c)) rats.
Related JoVE Video
The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is important for dengue virus infection in primary human endothelial cells.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are the most severe forms of dengue virus infection with hemorrhage and plasma leakage. However, pathogenic mechanisms of DHF and DSS remain poorly understood. We therefore investigated host responses as determined by changes in the cellular proteome of primary human endothelial cells upon infection with dengue virus serotype 2 (DEN-2) at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10 for 24 h. Two-dimensional PAGE and quantitative intensity analysis revealed 38 significantly altered protein spots (16 upregulated and 22 downregulated) in DEN-2-infected cells compared to mock controls. These altered proteins were successfully identified by mass spectrometry, including those involved in oxidative stress response, transcription and translation, cytoskeleton assembly, protein degradation, cell growth regulation, apoptosis, cellular metabolism, and antiviral response. The proteomic data were validated by Western blot analyses [upregulated ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 (UBE1) and downregulated annexin A2] and an immunofluorescence study (upregulated MxA). Interestingly, we found that MxA was colocalized with DEN-2 viral capsid protein, strengthening its role as an antiviral protein. Moreover, we also identified upregulation of a proteasome subunit. Our functional study revealed the significant role of ubiquitination in dengue infection and UBE1 inhibition by its specific inhibitor (UBEI-41) caused a significant reduction in the level of viral protein synthesis and its infectivity. Our findings suggest that various biological processes were triggered in response to dengue infection, particularly antiviral IFN and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways.
Related JoVE Video
Association of Alix with late endosomal lysobisphosphatidic acid is important for dengue virus infection in human endothelial cells.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The most severe form of dengue virus (DENV) infection is dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), which is accompanied by increased vascular permeability indicating that endothelial cells are the targets of DENV infection. However, molecular mechanisms underlying DENV replication in endothelial cells remained poorly understood. We therefore examined changes in subcellular proteomes of different cellular compartments (including cytosolic, membrane/organelle, nucleus, and cytoskeleton) of human endothelial (EA.hy926) cells upon DENV2 infection using a 2-DE-based proteomics approach followed by Q-TOF MS and MS/MS. A total of 35 altered proteins were identified in these subcellular locales, including an increase in the level of Alix (apoptosis-linked gene-2-interacting protein X) in the cytosolic fraction of DENV2-infected cells compared to mock control cells. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed colocalization of Alix with late endosomal lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA). This complex has been proposed to be involved in the export of DENV proteins from late endosomes to the cytoplasm. Subsequent functional study revealed that pretreatment with an anti-LBPA antibody prior to DENV challenge significantly reduced the level of viral envelope protein synthesis and DENV replication. Our data indicate that Alix plays a pivotal role in the early phase of DENV replication, particularly when it arrives at the late endosome stage. Blocking this step may lead to a novel therapeutic approach to reducing the level of DENV replication in vivo.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.