The literature described that neural damage caused by ischemia definitely occurs in brain areas. However, few studies have shown real-time changes of extracellular monoamine levels at the time of transient ischemia.
Follistatin-like 5 (Fstl5), a member of the follistatin family of genes, encodes a secretory glycoprotein. Previous studies revealed that other members of this family including Fstl1 and Fstl3 play an essential role in development, homeostasis, and congenital disorders. However, the in vivo function of Fstl5 is poorly understood. To gain insight into the function of Fstl5 in the mouse central nervous system, we examined the Fstl5 expression pattern in the adult mouse brain. The results of in situ hybridization analysis showed a highly restricted pattern of Fstl5, namely, with localization in the olfactory system, hippocampal CA3 area and granular cell layer of the cerebellum. Restricted expression in the olfactory system suggests a possible role for Fstl5 in maintaining odor perception.
The spinal nerve, which is composed of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory axons and spinal motor axons, forms the dorsal ramus projecting to the dorsal musculature. By using the free-floating immunohistochemistry method, we closely examined the spatiotemporal pattern of the formation of the dorsal ramus and the relationship between its projection to the myotome/dorsal musculature and semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), which is an axonal guidance molecule. In embryonic day (E) 10.5-E11.5 wild-type mouse embryos, we clearly showed the existence of a waiting period for the dorsal ramus projection to the myotome. In contrast, in E10.5-E11.5 Sema3A-deficient embryos, the dorsal ramus fibers projected beyond the edge of the myotome without exhibiting the waiting period for projection. These results strongly suggest that the delayed innervation by dorsal ramus fibers may be caused by Sema3A-induced axon repulsion derived from the myotome. Next, by performing culture experiments, we confirmed that E12.5 mouse axons responded to Sema3A-induced repulsion. Together, our results imply that Sema3A may play a key role in the proper development of the dorsal ramus projection.
Developmental dynamics of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are crucial for embryonic and adult neurogenesis, but its regulatory factors are not fully understood. By differential subtractive screening with NSPCs versus their differentiated progenies, we identified the radmis (radial fiber and mitotic spindle)/ckap2l gene, a novel microtubule-associated protein (MAP) enriched in NSPCs. Radmis is a putative substrate for the E3-ubiquitin ligase, anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), and is degraded via the KEN box. Radmis was highly expressed in regions of active neurogenesis throughout life, and its distribution was dynamically regulated during NSPC division. In embryonic and perinatal brains, radmis localized to bipolar mitotic spindles and radial fibers (basal processes) of dividing NSPCs. As central nervous system development proceeded, radmis expression was lost in most brain regions, except for several neurogenic regions. In adult brain, radmis expression persisted in the mitotic spindles of both slowly-dividing stem cells and rapid amplifying progenitors. Overexpression of radmis in vitro induced hyper-stabilization of microtubules, severe defects in mitotic spindle formation, and mitotic arrest. In vivo gain-of-function using in utero electroporation revealed that radmis directed a reduction in NSPC proliferation and a concomitant increase in cell cycle exit, causing a reduction in the Tbr2-positive basal progenitor population and shrinkage of the embryonic subventricular zone. Besides, radmis loss-of-function by shRNAs induced the multipolar mitotic spindle structure, accompanied with the catastrophe of chromosome segregation including the long chromosome bridge between two separating daughter nuclei. These findings uncover the indispensable role of radmis in mitotic spindle formation and cell-cycle progression of NSPCs.
Melatonin has ubiquitous actions, both as a direct free-radical scavenger and as an indirect anti-oxidant. The present study examined in vivo neuroprotective effects of melatonin on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in zitter (zi/zi) rat, which displays abnormal metabolism of superoxide leading to age-related degeneration of the dopaminergic system. For up to 9 months after weaning, zi/zi rats had ad libitum access to drinking water containing melatonin. Chronic treatment with melatonin attenuated the decreases of dopamine and its metabolite in zi/zi rat caudate-putamen (CPU). Immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was consistent with neurochemical data in the CPU and demonstrated substantial sparing of the reduction of TH-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to analyze mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-?) and the anti-oxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and 2, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1)) in the striatum and midbrain in order to examine the neuroprotective effect of melatonin. IL-1? and TNF-? mRNA expressions were significantly increased in both areas of 3-month-old zi/zi rats, whereas there was a significant decrease in CAT mRNA expression in the striatum of 6-month-old zi/zi rat as compared to age-matched controls. With the exception of the high TNF-? mRNA expression in 3-month-old zi/zi midbrains, chronic treatment of melatonin attenuated expressional changes of IL-1?, CAT, SOD1, and GPx1. These results suggest that besides its direct scavenger effects, chronic melatonin treatment provides a neuroprotective effect against dopaminergic degeneration by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulating anti-oxidant enzyme expression.
ABSTRACT Environmental enrichment (EE) facilitates recovery from behavioral abnormalities and spatial memory disabilities in several neurological disease models. Exposure to EE improves spatial memory acquisition and enhances the survival of newly generated cells in the dentate gyri of adult rodents. However, the effects of EE on spatial learning and neurogenesis in the methylazoxymethanol acetate-induced microencephalic rat have not been investigated. Depletion of serotonin in the rat hippocampus is known to influence spatial memory and adult neurogenesis, suggesting a role for serotonin in these processes. To confirm this hypothesis, male methylazoxymethanol acetate-induced microencephalic rats were exposed to EE or conventional housing after weaning; half of these rats further received intracisternal 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine on postnatal day 3, to induce long-lasting depletion of serotonin. As adults, these microencephalic rats were observed using the Morris water maze test and examined for hippocampal neurogenesis. EE alleviated the impairment of spatial memory acquisition and enhanced neurogenesis in the dentate gyri of adult microencephalic rats. Injection of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine during the neonatal period caused pronounced reductions in hippocampal serotonin levels in these rats. Long-lasting depletion of serotonin eliminated the EE-induced alleviation of spatial memory acquisition and neurogenesis impairment in microencephalic rats. The present results suggest that EE alleviates spatial memory performance deficits in microencephalic rats and further indicate that serotonin might be involved in the underlying mechanisms through increased hippocampal neurogenesis. These data provide new insights into therapeutic interventions for individuals with human migration disorders associated with learning disabilities.
Recent neuropathological studies have shown that Fluoro-Jade C (FJC), an anionic fluorescent dye, is a good marker of degenerating neurons. However, those studies have mostly examined acute rather than chronic models of neurodegeneration. We therefore compared FJC staining using the intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-injected rat as an acute model and the zitter rat as a chronic model, as both show dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration. In the 6-OHDA-injected rat, FJC-positive neurons were found in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) before the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive DA neurons. In the zitter rat, FJC-labeled fibers were first detected at 1 month old (1M) and were considerably increased in the striatum at 4M, whereas FJC-labeled cell bodies were found at 4M, but not at 1M in the SNc. Furthermore, FJC-labeled neurons of the zitter rat showed TH-immunoreactivity in fibers, but little in cell bodies, while those from the 6-OHDA-injected rat showed TH-immunoreactivity even in the cell bodies. These results demonstrate that FJC is a useful tool for detecting chronically degenerating neurons, and suggest that intracellular substances bound to FJC may accumulate in the cell bodies from fibers at a slower rate in the chronic model than in the acute model.
In order to elucidate the regeneration properties of serotonergic fibers in the hippocampus of methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-induced micrencephalic rats (MAM rats), we examined serotonergic regeneration in the hippocampus following neonatal intracisternal 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) injection. Prenatal exposure to MAM resulted in the formation of hippocampal heterotopia in the dorsal hippocampus. Immunohistochemical and neurochemical analyses revealed hyperinnervation of serotonergic fibers in the hippocampus of MAM rats. After neonatal 5,7-DHT injection, most serotonergic fibers in the hippocampus of 2-week-old MAM rats had degenerated, while a small number of serotonergic fibers in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM) of the hippocampus and in the hilus adjacent to the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) had not. Regenerating serotonergic fibers from the SLM first extended terminals into the hippocampal heterotopia, then fibers from the hilus reinnervated the DG and some fibers extended to the heterotopia. These findings suggest that the hippocampal heterotopia exerts trophic target effects for regenerating serotonergic fibers in the developmental period in micrencephalic rats.
The spinal nerve, which is composed of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) axons and spinal motor axons, divides into ventral and dorsal rami. Although the development of the ventral ramus has been examined in considerable detail, that of the dorsal ramus has not. Therefore, we first examined the spatial-temporal pattern of the dorsal ramus formation in the chick embryo, with special reference to the projection to the dermamyotome and its derivatives. Next, we focused on two guidance molecules, chick semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) and fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8), because these are the best candidates as molecules for controlling the dorsal ramus formation. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry methods, we clearly showed a close relationship between the spatial-temporal expression of SEMA3A/FGF8 and the projection of dorsal ramus fibers to the dorsal muscles. We further examined the axonal response of motor and DRG neurons to SEMA3A and FGF8. We showed that motor axons responded to both SEMA3A-induced repulsion and FGF8-induced attraction. On the other hand, DRG axons responded to SEMA3A-induced repulsion but not to FGF8-induced attraction. These findings suggest that FGF8-induced attraction may guide early motor axons beneath the myotome and that SEMA3A-induced repulsion may prevent these early motor axons from entering the myotome. Our results also imply that the loss of SEMA3A expression in the dorsal muscles may lead to the gross projection of the dorsal ramus fibers into the dorsal muscles. Together, SEMA3A and FGF8 may contribute to the proper formation of the dorsal ramus.
Rotenone, a commonly used lipophic pesticide, is a high-affinity mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. The aim of this project is to study the causal relationship between changes of brain monoamine levels and drinking behavior in rotenone-treated mice. In the first experiment, we investigated the effects of acute exposure to rotenone (20 mg/kg, p.o.) on the 8-h time limited-access alcohol drinking behavior and brain monoamine levels in C57BL/6J mice at 0, 2, 8 and 24 h. Dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) levels in the nucleus accumbens (ACC), caudate-putamen (C/P) and lateral hypothalamus (LH) of rotenone-treated mice were decreased at 2 and/or 8 h. Rotenone-exposed mice showed a suppression of voluntary alcohol intake at 4 and 8 h, but total daily alcohol intake did not differ significantly between the two groups. The effects of chronic exposure to rotenone (1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o. for 30 days) on the alcohol drinking behavior and monoamine levels of rotenone-exposed mice (10 mg/kg, p.o.) were investigated in the second experiment. The mice treated with rotenone showed increases in alcohol drinking behavior. Levels of DA and 5-HT in the ACC and C/P of chronic rotenone-treated mice were decreased, while the ratios of DOPAC to DA in the ACC and C/P and of 5HIAA to 5-HT in the ACC, C/P and DRN were increased significantly. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity of chronic rotenone-treated mice (10 mg/kg, p.o.) slightly were decreased in both the striatum and the substantia nigra. Ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolism was not significantly different between mice treated with rotenone (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and controls. It was suggested that rotenone-treated mice had increased alcohol drinking behavior associated with increases in the DA turnover ratios of ACC and striatum to compensate for the neural degeneration.
We have evaluated the effectiveness of systemic chemotherapy for patients with extrahepatic metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.
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