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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Distinct aetiopathogenesis in subgroups of functional dyspepsia according to the Rome III criteria.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Whether there is distinct pathogenesis in subgroups of functional dyspepsia (FD), the postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) remains controversial. We aimed to identify the risk factors of FD and its subgroups in the Chinese population.
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Population-based cohort study on the risk of pneumonia in patients with non-traumatic intracranial haemorrhage who use proton pump inhibitors.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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This nationwide cohort study investigated the association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) usage and the risk of pneumonia in patients with non-traumatic intracranial haemorrhage (ICH).
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The Cytotoxic and Mechanistic Effects of Aaptamine on Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common form of cancer and the third most frequent cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. We isolated aaptamine from the marine sponge Aaptos, and synthesized derivatives of this compound. Aaptamine and synthetic derivatives displayed various biological activities. This represents the first account of studies on the effects of aaptamine and its derivatives in hepatocarcinogenesis. In this study, Cell Counting Kit (CCK8) was used to evaluate the anti-proliferative effect of aaptamine on HCC in vitro. Additionally, a subcutaneous xenograft model was used to determine if aaptamine could inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma in vivo. We also used RT-PCR and Western blot to analyze the mechanisms behind these effects. Our results showed that aaptamine has anti-proliferation effects on the cell lines LM3 and HepG2. Aaptamine also suppressed the colony-formation ability of HCC cells. We found that aaptamine treatment led to cell cycle arrest in HCC cells, reduced the expression of SOX9 and CDK2. Significant anti-tumor effects were observed in aaptamine-administered tumor-bearing mice as compared to controls. (and inhibited subcutaneous HCC xenograft development in vivo.) However, structural changes made to aaptamine yielded two derivatives for which all the effects listed above were considerably reduced as compared to the original compound aaptamine. In conclusion, aaptamine is demonstrated for the first time to inhibit liver cancer progression. The aaptamine-induced cell cycle arrest was associated with the increased binding of p21 to Cdk2-cyclin D/E complexes, inhibition of Cdk2 kinase activity in HCC cells.). Furthermore, aaptamine appears to be a promising and efficient treatment of liver cancer HCC-LM3 in vivo. We have also uncovered structural changes that might affect the biological activity. The work provides a promising drug candidate for HCC treatment.
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Resveratrol suppresses TPA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through the inhibition of MAPK pathways in oral cancer cells.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Naturally occurring agents, such as resveratrol, have been determined to benefit health. Numerous studies have demonstrated that resveratrol has antioxidative, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. However, the effect of resveratrol exerts on the metastasis of oral cancer cells remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect the anti-invasive activity of resveratrol on a human oral cancer cell line (SCC-9) in vitro and the underlying mechanisms.
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Interferons and Their Receptors in Birds: A Comparison of Gene Structure, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Cross Modulation.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Interferon may be thought of as a key, with the interferon receptor as the signal lock: Crosstalk between them maintains their balance during viral infection. In this review, the protein structure of avian interferon and the interferon receptor are discussed, indicating remarkable similarity between different species. However, the structures of the interferon receptors are more sophisticated than those of the interferons, suggesting that the interferon receptor is a more complicated signal lock system and has considerable diversity in subtypes or structures. Preliminary evolutionary analysis showed that the subunits of the interferon receptor formed a distinct clade, and the orthologs may be derived from the same ancestor. Furthermore, the development of interferons and interferon receptors in birds may be related to an animal's age and the maintenance of a balanced state. In addition, the equilibrium between interferon and its receptor during pathological and physiological states revealed that the virus and the host influence this equilibrium. Birds could represent an important model for studies on interferon's antiviral activities and may provide the basis for new antiviral strategies.
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Porous Liquids: A Promising Class of Media for Gas Separation.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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A porous liquid containing empty cavities has been successfully fabricated by surface engineering of hollow structures with suitable corona and canopy species. By taking advantage of the liquid-like polymeric matrices as a separation medium and the empty cavities as gas transport pathway, this unique porous liquid can function as a promising candidate for gas separation. Moreover, such a facile synthetic strategy can be further extended to the fabrication of other types of nanostructure-based porous liquid, opening up new opportunities for preparation of porous liquids with attractive properties for specific tasks.
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Vivid, full-color aluminum plasmonic pixels.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Aluminum is abundant, low in cost, compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor manufacturing methods, and capable of supporting tunable plasmon resonance structures that span the entire visible spectrum. However, the use of Al for color displays has been limited by its intrinsically broad spectral features. Here we show that vivid, highly polarized, and broadly tunable color pixels can be produced from periodic patterns of oriented Al nanorods. Whereas the nanorod longitudinal plasmon resonance is largely responsible for pixel color, far-field diffractive coupling is used to narrow the plasmon linewidth, enabling monochromatic coloration and significantly enhancing the far-field scattering intensity of the individual nanorod elements. The bright coloration can be observed with p-polarized white light excitation, consistent with the use of this approach in display devices. The resulting color pixels are constructed with a simple design, are compatible with scalable fabrication methods, and provide contrast ratios exceeding 100:1.
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Increased plasma soluble CD40 ligand concentration in pelvic inflammatory disease.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The role of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) remains unclear. We sought to determine whether sCD40L was an efficient serum marker as with WBC and CRP in PID patients.
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Nobiletin suppresses the proliferation and induces apoptosis involving MAPKs and caspase-8/-9/-3 signals in human acute myeloid leukemia cells.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Nobiletin, a compound isolated from citrus fruits, is a polymethoxylated flavone derivative that was shown to have anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities in various solid tumors. The anticancer effect of nobiletin on nonsolid tumor remains unclear. Herein, the molecular mechanisms by which nobiletin exerts its anticancer effects on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells were investigated. The results showed that nobiletin suppressed cell proliferation in various types of AML cell lines. Moreover, nobiletin induced cell-cycle arrest of HL-60 AML cells at the G0/G1 phase by suppressing extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. Furthermore, nobiletin effectively induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells through caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspases-3 activation concomitantly with a marked induction of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, but without affecting expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, or Bid. Taken together, our results suggest that nobiletin inhibited HL-60 cell proliferation through inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis and could serve as a potential additional chemotherapeutic agent for treating AML.
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Licochalcone A inhibits the migration and invasion of human lung cancer cells via inactivation of the Akt signaling pathway with downregulation of MMP-1/-3 expression.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Licochalcone A (LicA), a major phenolic constituent of Glycyrrhiza inflata, has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-metastatic properties in various cancer cells and animal models. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-tumor effects of LicA on lung cancer cells. The results indicated that LicA exhibited effective inhibition of cell migration and invasion of A549 and H460 cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Furthermore, LicA was also found to significantly inhibit the proteins and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3 in A549 cells. Moreover, treatment of A549 cells with LicA-inhibited activation of the phosphorylation of Akt and inhibition of Akt by LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) or transfection with the constitutive active-Akt (CA-Akt) expression vector significantly abolished the LicA-inhibited migration and invasion through activation of the Akt pathway. Further mechanistic studies revealed that LicA inhibits Akt signaling pathways and downstream transcription factors Sp1 expression. These findings imply a critical role for Akt inhibition in the LicA-inhibited migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Thus, LicA might be used as an anti-invasive agent in the treatment of lung cancer.
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Pterostilbene simultaneously induced G0/G1-phase arrest and MAPK-mediated mitochondrial-derived apoptosis in human acute myeloid leukemia cell lines.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Pterostilbene (PTER) is a dimethylated analog of the phenolic phytoalexin, resveratrol, with higher anticancer activity in various tumors. Herein, the molecular mechanisms by which PTER exerts its anticancer effects against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells were investigated.
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Diatomological investigation in sphenoid sinus fluid and lung tissue from cases of suspected drowning.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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We report on the presence, distribution and numbers of diatoms within specific organs as a result of drowning in fresh, treated and seawater. Specimens of sphenoid sinus fluid and lung tissue from 100 cases of suspected drowning and 20 cases where death was by natural causes, to act as a control, were examined for the presence of diatoms. In the 100 cases where the deceased was suspected to have drowned, 94 were confirmed as a death by drowning after autopsy with the other six being reported as death by another cause. No diatoms were found in cases confirmed as death by causes unrelated to drowning, with the exception of possible contamination via open wounds and through decomposition. In 94 cases, where all fatalities were confirmed as death by drowning, there were 81 cases in which diatoms were detected in samples taken from the sphenoid sinus fluid and/or lung tissue. No, or only few, diatoms were observed from the samples where the deceased drowned in treated waters such as spa or swimming pools. A significantly higher number of diatoms were detected in the sphenoid sinus fluid and lung tissue of confirmed drowning cases in fresh water compared to seawater. More diatoms were observed in sphenoid sinus fluid compared to lung tissue regardless of the water in which the deceased drowned. This study illustrates the potential use of diatom screening using both sphenoid sinus fluid and lung tissue to determine the cause of death in suspected cases of drowning. This report also highlights specific variables that need to be considered prior to such as conclusion being reached.
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Quercetin induces mitochondrial-derived apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-mediated ERK activation in HL-60 leukemia cells and xenograft.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Quercetin is a plant-derived bioflavonoid that was recently shown to have multiple anticancer activities in various solid tumors. Here, novel molecular mechanisms through which quercetin exerts its anticancer effects in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells were investigated. Results from Western blot and flow cytometric assays revealed that quercetin significantly induced caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activation, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization in HL-60 AML cells. The induction of PARP cleavage by quercetin was also observed in other AML cell lines: THP-1, MV4-11, and U937. Moreover, treatment of HL-60 cells with quercetin induced sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and inhibition of ERK by an ERK inhibitor significantly abolished quercetin-induced cell apoptosis. MitoSOX red and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin fluorescence, respectively, showed that mitochondrial superoxide and intracellular peroxide levels were higher in quercetin-treated HL-60 cells compared with the control group. Moreover, both N-acetylcysteine and the superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTBAP, reversed quercetin-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production, ERK activation, and subsequent cell death. The in vivo xenograft mice experiments revealed that quercetin significantly reduced tumor growth through inducing intratumoral oxidative stress while activating the ERK pathway and subsequent cell apoptosis in mice with HL-60 tumor xenografts. In conclusions, our results indicated that quercetin induced cell death of HL-60 cells in vitro and in vivo through induction of intracellular oxidative stress following activation of an ERK-mediated apoptosis pathway.
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Chiral templating of self-assembling nanostructures by circularly polarized light.
Nat Mater
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The high optical and chemical activity of nanoparticles (NPs) signifies the possibility of converting the spin angular momenta of photons into structural changes in matter. Here, we demonstrate that illumination of dispersions of racemic CdTe NPs with right- (left-)handed circularly polarized light (CPL) induces the formation of right- (left-)handed twisted nanoribbons with an enantiomeric excess exceeding 30%, which is ?10 times higher than that of typical CPL-induced reactions. Linearly polarized light or dark conditions led instead to straight nanoribbons. CPL 'templating' of NP assemblies is based on the enantio-selective photoactivation of chiral NPs and clusters, followed by their photooxidation and self-assembly into nanoribbons with specific helicity as a result of chirality-sensitive interactions between the NPs. The ability of NPs to retain the polarization information of incident photons should open pathways for the synthesis of chiral photonic materials and allow a better understanding of the origins of biomolecular homochirality.
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Epigallocatechingallate inhibits migration of human uveal melanoma cells via downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and ERK1/2 pathway.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The effects of epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) on the migration and expression of MMP-2 of uveal melanoma cells have not been reported. We studied this effect and relevant signaling pathways in a human uveal melanoma cell line (M17). MTT study found that EGCG did not affect the cell viability of M17 cells up to 100?µM. Wound-healing assay showed that EGCG significantly reduced the migration of melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner from 20 to 100?µM. Gelatin zymography showed that secreted MMP-2 activity was dose-dependently inhibited by EGCG, whereas the MMP-2 expression at protein and mRNA levels was not affected as determined by western blot and RT-PCR analysis. EGCG significantly increased the expressions of MMP-2 endogenous inhibitors (TIMP-2 and RECK) in M17 cells. Western blot analysis of MAPK signal pathways showed that EGCG significantly decreased phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels, but not p38 and JNK levels, in melanoma cells. ERK1/2 inhibitors also reduced the migration and activity of MMP-2 in M17 cells. The present study suggested EGCG at nontoxic levels could inhibit migration of melanoma cells via downregulation of activities of secreted MMP-2 through the inhibition of the ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Therefore, EGCG may be a promising agent to be explored for the prevention of metastasis of uveal melanoma.
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A4383C and C76G SNP in Cathepsin B is respectively associated with the high risk and tumor size of hepatocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in some genes is a candidate for having or developing a cancer. Cathepsin B (CTSB) is considered to be the biomarker of cancers. The study aimed to evaluate the impacts of three SNPs in CTSB gene on the risk and progress of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The SNPs of CTSB C76G (rs12338), CTSB A4383C (rs13332), and CTSB A8422G (rs8898) from 135 patients with HCC and 520 control participants in Taiwan were determined by real-time PCR. Through analyzing by statistics, we found that the polymorphism of rs13332 was significantly associated to the risk of HCC cancer; a significantly high frequent tumor size development was observed in HCC patients carrying rs12338 polymorphic genotype than those carrying ancestral genotype. The SNPs of rs12338, rs13332, and rs8898 were irrelevant to the frequencies of HCC clinical status and the levels of HCC clinicopathological markers. In conclusions, CTSB A4383C SNP is observed modestly more often in patients who developed HCC than in healthy controls and might be associated with the risk of HCC. The association between CTSB C76G SNP and greater tumor size may warrant further study in regards to the biology of HCC.
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Pterostilbene suppresses oral cancer cell invasion by inhibiting MMP-2 expression.
Expert Opin. Ther. Targets
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Polyphenol compounds, present in a wide variety of natural plants, exhibit antioxidant and free radical scavenging ability and induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. However, the effect of pterostilbene on oral cancer cell metastasis has not been clarified.
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Annexin A2 in renal cell carcinoma: Expression, function, and prognostic significance.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal genitourinary cancer and intrinsically resistant to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormone therapy. Annexin A2 (Anxa2) is a calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein found on various cell types that plays multiple roles in regulating cellular functions. In RCC, Anxa2 expression was correlated with tumor differentiation, clinical outcomes, and the metastatic potential; however, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. This study investigated the role of Anxa2 in regulating tumorigenesis of RCC.
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Correlation of plasma osteopontin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels with the severity and clinical outcome of pelvic inflammatory disease.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To investigate the correlation of two important inflammatory biomarkers, plasma osteopontin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), with the severity and outcome of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
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A meta-learning approach for B-cell conformational epitope prediction.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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BackgroundOne of the major challenges in the field of vaccine design is identifying B-cell epitopes in continuously evolving viruses. Various tools have been developed to predict linear or conformational epitopes, each relying on different physicochemical properties and adopting distinct search strategies. We propose a meta-learning approach for epitope prediction based on stacked and cascade generalizations. Through meta learning, we expect a meta learner to be able integrate multiple prediction models, and outperform the single best-performing model. The objective of this study is twofold: (1) to analyze the complementary predictive strengths in different prediction tools, and (2) to introduce a generic computational model to exploit the synergy among various prediction tools. Our primary goal is not to develop any particular classifier for B-cell epitope prediction, but to advocate the feasibility of meta learning to epitope prediction. With the flexibility of meta learning, the researcher can construct various meta classification hierarchies that are applicable to epitope prediction in different protein domains.ResultsWe developed the hierarchical meta-learning architectures based on stacked and cascade generalizations. The bottom level of the hierarchy consisted of four conformational and four linear epitope prediction tools that served as the base learners. To perform consistent and unbiased comparisons, we tested the meta-learning method on an independent set of antigen proteins that were not used previously to train the base epitope prediction tools. In addition, we conducted correlation and ablation studies of the base learners in the meta-learning model. Low correlation among the predictions of the base learners suggested that the eight base learners had complementary predictive capabilities. The ablation analysis indicated that the eight base learners differentially interacted and contributed to the final meta model. The results of the independent test demonstrated that the meta-learning approach markedly outperformed the single best-performing epitope predictor.ConclusionsComputational B-cell epitope prediction tools exhibit several differences that affect their performances when predicting epitopic regions in protein antigens. The proposed meta-learning approach for epitope prediction combines multiple prediction tools by integrating their complementary predictive strengths. Our experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the combined approach in comparison with single epitope predictors.
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Optical characterization of single plasmonic nanoparticles.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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This tutorial review surveys the optical properties of plasmonic nanoparticles studied by various single particle spectroscopy techniques. The surface plasmon resonance of metallic nanoparticles depends sensitively on the nanoparticle geometry and its environment, with even relatively minor deviations causing significant changes in the optical spectrum. Because for chemically prepared nanoparticles a distribution of their size and shape is inherent, ensemble spectra of such samples are inhomogeneously broadened, hiding the properties of the individual nanoparticles. The ability to measure one nanoparticle at a time using single particle spectroscopy can overcome this limitation. This review provides an overview of different steady-state single particle spectroscopy techniques that provide detailed insight into the spectral characteristics of plasmonic nanoparticles.
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Single-Particle Spectroscopy Reveals Heterogeneity in Electrochemical Tuning of the Localized Surface Plasmon.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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A hyperspectral imaging method was developed that allowed the identification of heterogeneous plasmon response from 50 nm diameter gold colloidal particles on a conducting substrate in a transparent three-electrode spectroelectrochemical cell under non-Faradaic conditions. At cathodic potentials, we identified three distinct behaviors from different nanoparticles within the same sample: irreversible chemical reactions, reversible chemical reactions, and reversible charge density tuning. The irreversible reactions in particular would be difficult to discern in alternate methodologies. Additional heterogeneity was observed when single nanoparticles demonstrating reversible charge density tuning in the cathodic regime were measured dynamically in anodic potential ranges. Some nanoparticles that showed charge density tuning in the cathodic range also showed signs of an additional chemical tuning mechanism in the anodic range. The expected changes in nanoparticle free-electron density were modeled using a charge density-modified Drude dielectric function and Mie theory, a commonly used model in colloidal spectroelectrochemistry. Inconsistencies between experimental results and predictions of this common physical model were identified and highlighted. The broad range of responses on even a simple sample highlights the rich experimental and theoretical playgrounds that hyperspectral single-particle electrochemistry opens.
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Hyperplastic polyps identified during screening endoscopy: reevaluated by histological examinations and genetic alterations.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Screening colonoscopy is one of the most effective methods to detect and prevent colorectal cancer by removing neoplastic polyps. The recent discovery of serrated polyps with neoplastic potential has reclassified these polyps into hyperplastic polyps (HPs), sessile serrated adenoma (SSA), and traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) on the basis of macroscopic morphology and microscopic histology. In this study, we aimed to revisit HPs identified during screening endoscopy by histological reevaluation and genetic alterations.
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Impurity-Induced Plasmon Damping in Individual Cobalt-Doped Hollow Au Nanoshells.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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The optical properties of plasmonic nanoparticles in the size range corresponding to the electrostatic, or dipole, limit have the potential to reveal effects otherwise masked by phase retardation. Here we examine the optical properties of individual, sub-50 nm hollow Au nanoshells (Co-HGNS), where Co is the initial sacrificial core nanoparticle, using single particle total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) spectroscopy. The residual Co present in the metallic shell induces a substantial broadening of the homogeneous plasmon resonance line width of the Co-HGNS, where the full width at half-maximum (fwhm) broadens proportionately with increasing Co content. This doping-induced line broadening provides a strategy for controlling plasmon line width independent of nanoparticle size, and has the potential to substantially modify the relative decay channels for localized nanoparticle surface plasmons.
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Newcastle disease virus vector producing human norovirus-like particles induces serum, cellular, and mucosal immune responses in mice.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Human norovirus infection is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Development of an effective vaccine is required for reducing norovirus outbreaks. The inability to grow human norovirus in cell culture has hindered the development of live-attenuated vaccines. To overcome this obstacle, we generated a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV)-vectored experimental norovirus vaccine by expressing the capsid protein (VP1) of norovirus strain VA387. We compared two different NDV vectors, a conventional rNDV vector and a modified rNDV vector, for their efficiencies in expressing VP1 protein. Our results showed that the modified vector replicated to higher titers and expressed higher levels of VP1 protein in DF1 cells and in allantoic fluid of embryonated chicken eggs than did the conventional vector. We further demonstrated that the VP1 protein produced by rNDVs was able to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) that are morphologically similar to baculovirus-expressed VLPs. Evaluation of their immunogenicity in mice showed that the modified rNDV vector induced a higher level of IgG response than those induced by the conventional vector and by the baculovirus-expressed VLPs. The rNDV vectors predominantly induced IgG2a subclass antibody for the Th1 response, and specifically, high levels of gamma interferon (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) were detected in splenocytes. In addition, the modified rNDV vector induced a higher level of fecal IgA response in mice than did baculovirus-expressed VLPs. Our findings suggest that the rNDV vector is an efficient system to produce cost-effective VLPs in embryonated chicken eggs and has the potential to be used as a live-attenuated vaccine in humans.
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Comparative genomics of Riemerella anatipestifer reveals genetic diversity.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Riemerella anatipestifer is one of the most important pathogens of ducks. However, the molecular mechanisms of R. anatipestifer infection are poorly understood. In particular, the lack of genomic information from a variety of R. anatipestifer strains has proved severely limiting.
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Neoadjuvant bevacizumab and chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer: early outcome and technical impact on toxicity.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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We aimed to evaluate early clinical and pathological results for treating locally advanced rectal cancer with bevacizumab and neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy using the technique of prone-position volumetric modulated arc therapy and to compare the toxicity of volumetric modulated arc therapy with that of supine-position four-field box radiotherapy.
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RNA interference technology for anti-VEGF treatment.
Expert Opin Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Overexpression of VEGF has been identified to be associated with many pathologic processes such as tumors and retinopathy. Inhibiting uncontrolled growth of VEGF is a promising strategy to treat these diseases. Currently small molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies are the primary treatment. However, complex development, short half-life, limited effectiveness and potential systemic side effects limited their applications. Highly effective and safe therapeutic technologies are highly desirable to meet the growing clinical needs. RNA interference (RNAi) technology, inhibits special gene activity at the post transcriptional level and reduces the expression of relevant proteins, holding great potential due to its easy design and high efficacy. Some molecules based on RNAi have been investigating in different clinical trials.
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Metformin inhibits the invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and enhances the chemosensitivity to sorafenib through a downregulation of the ERK/JNK-mediated NF-?B-dependent pathway that reduces uPA and MMP-9 expression.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Metformin has been shown to exert anti-cancer activities in several cancer cells and animal models. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anti-metastatic activities remain poorly understood and warrant further investigation. The aims of this study were to evaluate the ability of metformin to inhibit the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and identify its effects on signaling pathways. Our data indicate that metformin inhibits the migration and invasion of human HCC cells. Metformin was also found to significantly inhibit the expression and secretion of MMP-9 and uPA in HCC cells, and suppress the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Treatment with an ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) or JNK1/2 inhibitor (SP600125) enhanced the inhibitory effects of metformin on the migration and invasion of HCC cells. Moreover, metformin-induced inhibition of MMP-9 and uPA promoter activity also blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-?B and its binding to the MMP-9 and uPA promoters, and these suppressive effects were further enhanced by PD98059 or SP600125. Moreover, metformin markedly enhanced the anti-metastatic effects of sorafenib. In conclusion, metformin inhibits the migration and invasion of HCC cells by suppressing the ERK/JNK-mediated NF-?B-dependent pathway, and thereby reducing uPA and MMP-9 expression. Additionally, combination treatment with metformin and sorafenib yielded synergistic inhibitory effects in suppressing cell migration and invasion of HCC cells. These findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-metastatic effects of metformin, as well as its ability to enhance the chemosensitivity of HCC cells to sorafenib.
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Dye-assisted gain of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in silver nanowires.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Noble metal nanowires are excellent candidates as subwavelength optical components in miniaturized devices due to their ability to support the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Nanoscale data transfer based on SPP propagation at optical frequencies has the advantage of larger bandwidths but also suffers from larger losses due to strong mode confinement. To overcome losses, SPP gain has been realized, but so far only for weakly confined SPPs in metal films and stripes. Here we report the demonstration of gain for subwavelength SPPs that were strongly confined in chemically prepared silver nanowires (mode area = ?(2)/40) using a dye-doped polymer film as the optical gain medium. Under continuous wave excitation at 514 nm, we measured a gain coefficient of 270 cm(-1) for SPPs at 633 nm, resulting in partial SPP loss compensation of 14%. This achievement for strongly confined SPPs represents a major step forward toward the realization of nanoscale plasmonic amplifiers and lasers.
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Stromal cell-derived factor 1 gene polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to adverse long-term allograft outcomes in non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Although the genetic polymorphism of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF-1) is associated with higher mortality of liver allograft recipients, the role of SDF-1 in the modulation of renal allograft outcomes is unclear. Between March 2000 and January 2008, we recruited 252 non-diabetic renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Baseline characteristics and blood chemistry were recorded. Genomic DNA extraction with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was utilized to analyze the genetic polymorphisms of SDF-1 (rs1801157). The influence of SDF-1 on an adverse renal allograft outcome, defined as either a doubling of serum creatinine, graft failure, or patient death was evaluated. Sixteen patients with the SDF-1 AA/AG genotype and nine with the SDF-1 GG genotype reached an adverse outcome. According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients carrying the SDF-1 AA/AG genotype or A allele showed a significantly higher risk of reaching an adverse outcome than those carrying the SDF-1 GG genotype or G allele (p=0.041; p=0.0051, respectively; log rank test). Stepwise multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis revealed that patients carrying the SDF-1 AA/AG genotype and A allele had a 2.742-fold (95% CI. 1.106-6.799, p=0.03) and 2.306-fold (95% CI. 1.254-4.24, p=0.008) risk of experiencing an adverse outcome. The SDF-1 AA/AG genotype and A allele have a detrimental impact on the long-term outcome of RTRs.
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Formyl Peptide receptor 1 expression is associated with tumor progression and survival in gastric cancer.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) as a regulator of innate inflammatory response has been implicated in tumor progression of gliomas. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic significance and the ligand-receptor interaction of FPR1 in gastric cancer (GC).
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Elevated plasma stromal-cell-derived factor-1 protein levels correlate with severity in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Background. The aim of this study was to investigate differential changes in plasma levels of stromal-cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) before and after antibiotic treatment in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and observe the association between the severity of CAP and the plasma SDF-1 level. Methods. We gathered blood specimens from 61 adult CAP patients before and after antibiotic treatment and from 60 healthy controls to measure the plasma concentrations of SDF-1 by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The plasma SDF-1 concentration was elevated significantly in patients with CAP before receiving treatment compared with the controls and decreased significantly after the patients received treatment. Leukocyte (WBC) and neutrophil counts and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels decreased significantly after antibiotic treatment. Moreover, differences in the plasma concentration of SDF-1 were significantly correlated with PSI, CURB-65, and APACHE II scores (r = 0.389, P = 0.002, and n = 61; r = 0.449, P < 0.001, and n = 61; and r = 0.363, P = 0.004, and n = 61, resp.). Conclusions. An elevated plasma SDF-1 concentration can be used as a biological marker for the early diagnosis of CAP and for the early detection of its severity.
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Terminalia catappa attenuates urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression through Erk pathways in Hepatocellular carcinoma.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The survival rate of malignant tumors, and especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has not improved primarily because of uncontrolled metastasis. In our previous studies, we have reported that Terminalia catappa leaf extract (TCE) exerts antimetastasis effects on HCC cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) in HCC metastasis have not been thoroughly investigated, and remain poorly understood.
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CD44 gene polymorphisms on hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility and clinicopathologic features.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in Taiwan. CD44, one of the well-known tumor markers, plays an essential role in tumor cell differentiation, invasion, and metastasis. We investigated the CD44 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with environmental risk factors related to HCC susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics. Six SNPs of CD44 were analyzed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 203 patients with HCC and in 561 cancer-free controls. We determined that the individuals carrying at least one G allele at CD44 rs187115 has higher risk of developing HCC than did wild-type (AA) carriers. We further observed that the CD44 rs187115 polymorphisms with at least one G allele had a higher frequency of distribution in nonsmoking stage III/IV HCC patients, compared with wild-type carriers. Our results suggested that patients with CD44 rs187115 variant genotypes (AG+GG) were associated with a higher risk of HCC development and that these patients might possess chemoresistance, causing more likely progression to late-stage HCC than wild-type carriers without the overexpression of CD44 induced by heavy smoking. CD44 rs187115 might be involved in CD44 isoform expression of p53 stress response in HCC and provide a marker for predicting worst-case prognosis of HCC.
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TIMP-3 -1296 T>C and TIMP-4 -55 T>C gene polymorphisms play a role in the susceptibility of hepatocellular carcinoma among women.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate genetic impact of TIMP-3 -1296 T>C (rs9619311) and TIMP-4 -55 T>C (rs3755724) gene polymorphisms on the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 759 subjects, including 530 healthy controls and 229 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, were recruited in this study. Allelic discrimination of TIMP-3 -1296 T>C (rs9619311) and TIMP-4 -55 T>C (rs3755724) polymorphisms was assessed with the ABI StepOne™ Real-Time PCR System. Among women group, individuals with TC or CC alleles of TIMP-3 -1296 T>C gene polymorphism protected against HCC (AOR?=?0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.12-0.97; p?=?0.04) compared to individuals with TT alleles, after adjusting for other confounders. Also, women with TC alleles and with TC or CC alleles of TIMP-4 -55 T>C polymorphisms had a 2.52-fold risk (95%CI?=?1.23-5.13; p?=?0.01) and 2.47-fold risk (95%CI?=?1.26-4.87; p?=?0.008) of developing HCC compared to individuals with TT alleles, after adjusting for other confounders. There was no synergistic effect between gene polymorphism and environmental risk factors, including tobacco and alcohol consumptions and clinical statuses of HCC as well as serum expression of liver-related clinicopathological markers. In conclusion, gene polymorphisms of TIMP-3 -1296 T>C (rs9619311) and TIMP-4 -55 T>C (rs3755724) play a role in the susceptibility of HCC among Taiwan women.
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Fatal falls from height in Taiwan.
J. Forensic Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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This study conducts an investigation of fatal falls from height, examines gender differences, and compares our findings with those of Western countries. We review deaths in Taiwan caused by falls from height that underwent forensic autopsy from 1994 to 2010. Among the examined cases, 182 were suicide, 156 were accidents, and 18 were homicides. Men who fell from greater heights had a lower probability of fatal head trauma (p = 0.045), and women exhibited a lower fatal head trauma rate when falling from heights of between 10 and 25 m in accident group (p = 0.003). There was no significant difference between cases of falling from greater and lower heights within the suicide group (p = 0.834). Psychiatric illness was only reported in 20.3% and 28.8% cases in suicide and accident groups. Only in male cases was the use of psychotropic substances higher in the suicide groups than in the accident groups (p = 0.047).
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Metastasis tumor-associated protein-2 knockdown suppresses the proliferation and invasion of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Metastasis tumor-associated protein 2 (MTA2) is a member of the MTA family that is closely associated with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the role of MTA2 in glioma cells remains unclear. The expression of MTA2 was measured using immunohistochemistry and western blotting in the human brain tumor tissue array and human glioma cell lines. The impact of MTA2 knockdown on GBM8401 and Hs683 cell growth was evaluated by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Cell migration and invasion were analyzed by cell-migration assay and Matrigel invasion assay. In addition, we used subcutaneous tumor models to study the effect of MTA2 on the growth of glioma cells in vivo. We found that MTA2 protein and mRNA expression are higher in GBM8401 and Hs683 cells than in other glioma cells (M059 J, M059 K and U-87 MG), and glioma tumor tissue correlated significantly with tumor grade (P < 0.001). Knockdown of MTA2 expression significantly inhibited cell growth, cell migration and invasion, and induced G0/G1 phase arrest in human GBM8401 and Hs683 cells in vitro. Moreover, in vivo studies using subcutaneous xenografts in mice models indicate that MTA2 knockdown significantly inhibited tumorigenicity. These results indicate that MTA2 plays an important oncogenic role in the development and progression of gliomas.
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Molecular characterization of duck enteritis virus CHv strain UL49.5 protein and its colocalization with glycoprotein M.
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The UL49.5 gene of most herpesviruses is conserved and encodes glycoprotein N. However, the UL49.5 protein of duck enteritis virus (DEV) (pUL49.5) has not been reported. In the current study, the DEV pUL49.5 gene was first subjected to molecular characterization. To verify the predicted intracellular localization of gene expression, the recombinant plasmid pEGFP-C1/pUL49.5 was constructed and used to transfect duck embryo fibroblasts. Next, the recombinant plasmid pDsRed1-N1/ glycoprotein M (gM) was produced and used for co-transfection with the pEGFP-C1/pUL49.5 plasmid to determine whether DEV pUL49.5 and gM (a conserved protein in herpesviruses) colocalize. DEV pUL49.5 was thought to be an envelope glycoprotein with a signal peptide and two transmembrane domains. This protein was also predicted to localize in the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum with a probability of 66.7%. Images taken by a fluorescence microscope at different time points revealed that the DEV pUL49.5 and gM proteins were both expressed in the cytoplasm. Overlap of the two different fluorescence signals appeared 12 h after transfection and continued to persist until the end of the experiment. These data indicate a possible interaction between DEV pUL49.5 and gM.
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Outcome of early-treated type III Gaucher disease patients.
Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Recombinant human acid ?-glucosidase GBA (rhGBA) infusion is an effective therapy for non-neuropathic (type I) Gaucher disease (GD), but its effect on subacute neuropathic (type III) GD is still controversial. The most common genotype for type III GD is homozygous c.1448T>C (p.L444P) mutation, and in this study, we treated seven such patients starting from an early age (median 2.1 years; range 1-2.9 years). Before the start of treatment, all patients presented hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, and thrombocytopenia, but with no neurological signs. Normalization of hemoglobin levels and platelet numbers was achieved in all patients in one year. However, after a median treatment period of 7.6 years (2.2-12.0 years), two patients developed horizontal gaze palsy, one had seizures, four demonstrated mental retardation, and five showed kyphosis. Moreover, lymphadenopathy in the neck, thorax, or abdomen was observed in four patients. Therefore, the progression of neurological symptoms in these patients probably reflected the neurologic natural history of type III GD. Residual somatic symptoms, including kyphosis and lymphadenopathy, may be more common than what we thought. An additional treatment will be necessary to improve the outcome of type III GD.
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Microbial communities in semi-consolidated carbonate sediments of the Southwest Indian Ridge.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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White semi-consolidated carbonate sediments attached to black ferromanganese oxide films were collected approximately 50 km west of a newly discovered hydrothermal field near the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). The biodiversity of the prokaryotic communities within the field was examined using clone library-based culture-independent analysis of the exterior black oxides and the interior white carbonates. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene analysis suggested that Gamma-proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Thaumarchaeota members dominated the bacterial and archaeal clone libraries. To further characterize the metabolic processes within the microbial community, analyses of the amoA (coding the alpha subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase for Archaea) and aprA (coding the alpha subunit of the dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase for the sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes) functional genes were conducted. The functional gene analysis results suggested that Thaumarchaeota and Alphaproteobacteria members were the potential players that participated in N and S cycles in this marine carbonate sedimentary environment. This paper is the first to describe the microbial communities and their potential metabolic pathways within the semi-consolidated carbonate sediments of the SWIR.
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Metabolic syndrome and smoking may justify earlier colorectal cancer screening in men.
Gastrointest. Endosc.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Gender, smoking, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are important risk factors of colorectal neoplasm. Whether presence of these factors may warrant earlier screening remains unclear.
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An attenuated duck plague virus (DPV) vaccine induces both systemic and mucosal immune responses to protect ducks against virulent DPV infection.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Duck plague (DP) is a severe disease caused by DP virus (DPV). Control of the disease is recognized as one of the biggest challenges in avian medicine. Vaccination is an efficient way to control DPV, and an attenuated vaccine is the main routine vaccine. The attenuated DPV vaccine strain CHa is a modified live vaccine, but the systemic and mucosal immune responses induced by this vaccine have been poorly understood. In this study, the immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccine were evaluated after subcutaneous immunization of ducks. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were counted by flow cytometry, and humoral and mucosal Ig antibodies were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that high levels of T cells and Ig antibodies were present postimmunization and that there were more CD4(+) T cells than CD8(+) T cells. Titers of humoral IgG were higher than those of humoral IgA. Local IgA was found in each sample, whereas local IgG was found only in the spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, harderian gland, liver, bile, and lung. In a protection assay, the attenuated DPV vaccine completely protected ducks against 1,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of the lethal DPV strain CHv via oral infection. These data suggest that this subcutaneous vaccine elicits sufficient systemic and mucosal immune responses against lethal DPV challenge to be protective in ducks. This study provides broad insights into understanding the immune responses to the attenuated DPV vaccine strain CHa through subcutaneous immunization in ducks.
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Current management of diminutive colorectal polyps in Taiwan.
Dig Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The majority of polyps detected during colonoscopy are diminutive polyps, for which the cost of pathological analysis is substantial. In our analysis of a screening cohort of 10737 subjects undergoing screening colonoscopy, a total of 15877 neoplastic lesions were detected, of which 10816 (68.1%) were diminutive lesions. Of those diminutive lesions, 90 (0.83%) had a villous component, 14 (0.1%) had high-grade dysplasia, and none had invasive cancer. Only 1.3% of patients were advised to decrease their surveillance interval because of unfavorable histology. Laws regulating medical practice, uncertainty regarding the accuracy of endoscopic diagnosis of diminutive polyps outside of academic centers, and the relatively low cost of pathological analysis are among the barriers to adopting a 'resect and discard' practice in Taiwan.
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Biscarbamate cross-linked low molecular weight Polyethylenimine polycation as an efficient intra-cellular delivery cargo for cancer therapy.
J Nanobiotechnology
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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A challenge in gene therapy is the efficient delivery of DNA/siRNA to the diseased cells. The physicochemical characteristics of siRNA, such as high molecular weight, negative charges and hydrophilic nature-prevent passive diffusion across the plasma membrane for most cells. A therapeutically feasible carrier for intra-cellular delivery of gene materials should accomplish a series of tasks such as: condensing nucleic acid, protecting nucleic acid from leaking in vivo, facilitating endosome escape and releasing DNA/siRNA to the target site. To meet these requirements, an efficient gene vector based on polycation synthesis for siRNA delivery both in vitro and in vivo was developed.
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Correlation of chitinase 3-like 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes with uterine cervical cancer in Taiwanese women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the relationships of chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes with the development of uterine cervical cancer in Taiwanese women. The SNPs frequencies and haplotypes were also correlated with the clinicopathologic variables of cervical cancer, cancer recurrence, and patient survival.
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In vitro expression and development of indirect ELISA for Capsid protein of duck circovirus without nuclear localization signal.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Duck circovirus was a newly discovered pathogen that causing ducks immunosuppression in recent years, but it can not been cultured in vitro that limited its depth study. In the present study, the Cap gene that defect the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of DuCV was amplified and connected to the express vector pET-32a (+), to express the recombinant Cap protein in the bacterium Escherichia coli Rosetta. The recombinant Cap protein was purified and an indirect ELISA method was developed based on the recombinant Cap protein. The results showed that the truncated Cap gene was 567 bp and cloned into pET-32a (+) vector successfully. The recombinant Cap protein was expressed as inclusion bodies. The results of optimization for indirect ELISA revealed that the optimal antigen and serum dilutions were selected to be 4 ?g/well and 1:40, respectively; the coating condition was 37°C for 1 h and 4°C overnight; the blocking time in 1% BSA was 1 h at 37°C and the second antibody dilution was 1:800, the cut-off value was 0.352. Known anti-sera samples of other duck common pathogens were tested by the developed ELISA and the results showed it was specific for DuCV anti-sera detection. The sensitivity of indirect ELISA reached 1:2560, and the coefficient of variation between intra-assay and inter-assay were less than 10%. Compared the PCR and indirect ELISA methods, the positive compliance rate was 95.6% for detected 59 duck samples.
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SLCO3A1, a Novel Crohn's Disease-Associated Gene, Regulates NF-?B Activity and Associates with Intestinal Perforation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To date, only one gene (TNFSF15) has been identified and validated as a Crohn's disease (CD)-associated gene in non-Caucasian populations. This study was designed to identify novel CD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/genes and to validate candidate genes using a functional assay.
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Glabridin mediate caspases activation and induces apoptosis through JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway in human promyelocytic leukemia cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Glabridin, a prenylated isoflavonoid of G. glabra L. roots, has been associated with a wide range of biological properties such as regulation of energy metabolism, estrogenic, neuroprotective, anti-osteoporotic, and skin-whitening in previous studies. However, the effect of glabridin on tumor cells metastasis has not been clearly clarified. Here, the molecular mechanism by which glabridin anticancer effects in human promyelocytic leukemia cells was investigated.
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Influence of Cross Sectional Geometry on Surface Plasmon Polariton Propagation in Gold Nanowires.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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We investigated the effects of cross sectional geometry on surface plasmon polariton propagation in gold nanowires (NWs) using bleach-imaged plasmon propagation and electromagnetic simulations. Chemically synthesized NWs have pentagonally twinned crystal structures, but recent advances in synthesis have made it possible to amplify this pentagonal shape to yield NWs with a five-pointed star cross section and sharp end tips. We found experimentally that NWs with a five-pointed star cross section, referred to as SNWs, have a shorter propagation length for surface plasmon polaritions at 785 nm, but a higher effective incoupling efficiency compared to smooth NWs with a pentagonal cross section labeled as PNWs. Electromagnetic simulations revealed that the electric fields were localized at the sharp ridges of the SNWs, leading to higher absorptive losses and hence shorter propagation lengths compared to PNWs. On the other hand, scattering losses were found to be relatively uncorrelated with cross sectional geometry, but were strongly dependent on the plasmon mode excited. Our results provide insight into the shape-dependent waveguiding properties of chemically synthesized metal NWs and the mode-dependent loss mechanisms that govern surface plasmon polariton propagation.
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PEG-PCL-DEX polymersome-protamine vector as an efficient gene delivery system via PEG-guided self-assembly.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Aim: The nonviral carrier system based on the triblock copolymer PEG-PCL-DEX (PPD) and protamine was developed for nucleic acid delivery. Materials & methods: Self-assembly occurred in the PEG continuous phase to form dextran-interior polymersomes. siRNA can be condensed by protamine and encapsulated into PPD polymersomes in order to form the PPD-protamine siRNA nanoparticles by thermodynamically preferential partition between the PEG continuous phase and the dextran cavity. Results: This system can package siRNA into PPD polymersomes to form 145.2 ± 8.02-nm (± standard deviation) nanoparticles, and the ?-potential can be reduced to approximately 0 mV. PPD-protamine siRNA nanoparticles achieved cellular uptake of siRNA in SMMC-7721 cells with negligible cytotoxicity, and the GL3 gene expression can be reduced to 61.73 ± 6.25%. A biodistribution study of nanoparticles suggested that the PPD-protamine siRNA nanoparticles mainly accumulated in liver. Conclusion: All of these results suggest that PPD-protamine carriers may offer a promising gene delivery strategy for the treatment of liver-related disease. Original submitted 14 September 2012; Revised submitted 21 March 2013.
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Using the Plasmon Linewidth To Calculate the Time and Efficiency of Electron Transfer between Gold Nanorods and Graphene.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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We present a quantitative analysis of the electron transfer between single gold nanorods and monolayer graphene under no electrical bias. Using single-particle dark-field scattering and photoluminescence spectroscopy to access the homogeneous linewidth, we observe broadening of the surface plasmon resonance for gold nanorods on graphene compared to nanorods on a quartz substrate. Because of the absence of spectral plasmon shifts, dielectric interactions between the gold nanorods and graphene are not important and we instead assign the plasmon damping to charge transfer between plasmon-generated hot electrons and the graphene that acts as an efficient acceptor. Analysis of the plasmon linewidth yields an average electron transfer time of 160 ± 30 fs, which is otherwise difficult to measure directly in the time domain with single-particle sensitivity. In comparison to intrinsic hot electron decay and radiative relaxation, we furthermore calculate from the plasmon linewidth that charge transfer between the gold nanorods and the graphene support occurs with an efficiency of ?10%. Our results are important for future applications of light harvesting with metal nanoparticle plasmons and efficient hot electron acceptors as well as for understanding hot electron transfer in plasmon-assisted chemical reactions.
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A combination of pterostilbene with autophagy inhibitors exerts efficient apoptotic characteristics in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant lung cancer cells.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR), meaning that cancer cells develop simultaneous resistance to different drugs, has limited the clinical efficacy and application of chemotherapy. Pterostilbene, a naturally occurring phytoalexin exerts a variety of pharmacologic activities, including cancer prevention, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activity. In this study, results proved the capability of pterostilbene to effectively inhibit the cell viability of docetaxel-induced MDR human lung cancer cell lines through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Meanwhile, the observation of LC3-II production and formation of acidic vesicular organelles revealed an induction of autophagy at an early stage by pterostilbene, which was triggered by an inhibition of the AKT and JNK pathways and activation of ERK1/2. Furthermore, pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1 or with beclin-1 small interfering RNA was able to enhance pterostilbene-triggered apoptosis. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that pterostilbene causes autophagy and apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, pterostilbene in combination with autophagy inhibitors may strengthen the efficiency of chemotherapeutic strategies in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant lung cancer cells, which may be of immense value for the clinical management of lung cancer patients with MDR.
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Hispolon induces apoptosis through JNK1/2-mediated activation of a caspase-8, -9, and -3-dependent pathway in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and inhibits AML xenograft tumor growth in vivo.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Hispolon is an active phenolic compound of Phellinus igniarius, a mushroom that was recently shown to have antioxidant and anticancer activities in various solid tumors. Here, the molecular mechanisms by which hispolon exerts anticancer effects in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells was investigated. The results showed that hispolon suppressed cell proliferation in the various AML cell lines. Furthermore, hispolon effectively induced apoptosis of HL-60 AML cells through caspases-8, -9, and -3 activations and PARP cleavage. Moreover, treatment of HL-60 cells with hispolon induced sustained activation of JNK1/2, and inhibition of JNK by JNK1/2 inhibitor or JNK1/2-specific siRNA significantly abolished the hispolon-induced activation of the caspase-8/-9/-3. In vivo, hispolon significantly reduced tumor growth in mice with HL-60 tumor xenografts. In hispolon-treated tumors, activation of caspase-3 and a decrease in Ki67-positive cells were observed. Our results indicated that hispolon may have the potential to serve as a therapeutic tool to treat AML.
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Autotaxin-lysophosphatidic Acid signaling axis mediates tumorigenesis and development of acquired resistance to sunitinib in renal cell carcinoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Sunitinib is currently considered as the standard treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We aimed to better understand the mechanisms of sunitinib action in kidney cancer treatment and in the development of acquired resistance.
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Turning the corner: efficient energy transfer in bent plasmonic nanoparticle chain waveguides.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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For integrating and multiplexing of subwavelength plasmonic waveguides with other optical and electric components, complex architectures such as junctions with sharp turns are necessary. However, in addition to intrinsic losses, bending losses severely limit plasmon propagation. In the current work, we demonstrate that propagation of surface plasmon polaritons around 90° turns in silver nanoparticle chains occurs without bending losses. Using a far-field fluorescence method, bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP), which creates a permanent map of the plasmonic near-field through bleaching of a fluorophore coated on top of a plasmonic waveguide, we measured propagation lengths at 633 nm for straight and bent silver nanoparticle chains of 8.0 ± 0.5 and 7.8 ± 0.4 ?m, respectively. These propagation lengths were independent of the input polarization. We furthermore show that subradiant plasmon modes yield a longer propagation length compared to energy transport via excitation of super-radiant modes.
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Usefulness of plasma YKL-40 in management of community-acquired pneumonia severity in patients.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Plasma YKL-40 level has been reported as playing a significant role in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the correlation between plasma level of YKL-40 and the severity of CAP has not been reported. This study identifies the relationship between plasma level changes of the YKL-40 gene in adult patients hospitalized with CAP. The ELISA was used to measure the plasma YKL-40 level from 61 adult CAP patients before and after antibiotic treatment and from 60 healthy controls. The plasma YKL-40 levels were significantly increased in patients with CAP compared to normal controls. Moreover, the plasma concentration of YKL-40 correlated with the severity of CAP based on the pneumonia severity index (PSI) score (r = 0.630, p < 0.001), the CURB-65 (confusion, uremia, respiratory rate, BP, age 65 years) score (r = 0.640, p < 0.001), the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score (r = 0.539, p < 0.001) and length of hospital stay (r = 0.321, p = 0.011), respectively. In conclusion, plasma YKL-40 may play a role in the diagnosis and clinical assessment of CAP severity, which could potentially guide the development of treatment strategies.
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Imaging of olfactory bulb and gray matter volumes in brain areas associated with olfactory function in patients with Parkinsons disease and multiple system atrophy.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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We explored if magnetic resonance imaging sequences might aid in the clinical differential diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinsons disease (IPD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We measured the volumes of the olfactory bulb, the olfactory tract, and olfaction-associated cortical gray matter in 20 IPD patients, 14 MSA patients, and 12 normal subjects, using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging sequences in combination with voxel-based statistical analysis. We found that, compared to normal subjects and MSA patients, the volumes of the olfactory bulb and tract were significantly reduced in IPD patients. The gray matter volume of IPD patients decreased in the following order: the olfactory area to the right of the piriform cortex, the right amygdala, the left entorhinal cortex, and the left occipital lobe. Further, the total olfactory bulb volume of IPD patients was associated with the duration of disease. The entorhinal cortical gray matter volume was negatively associated with the UPDRS III score.
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Zebularine inhibits tumorigenesis and stemness of colorectal cancer via p53-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Aberrant DNA hypermethylation is frequently found in tumor cells and inhibition of DNA methylation is an effective anticancer strategy. In this study, the therapeutic effect of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor zebularine (Zeb) on colorectal cancer (CRC) was investigated. Zeb exhibited anticancer activity in cell cultures, tumor xenografts and mouse colitis-associated CRC model. It stabilizes p53 through ribosomal protein S7 (RPS7)/MDM2 pathways and DNA damage. Zeb-induced cell death was dependent on p53. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) were affected by Zeb. Zeb induced p53-dependent ER stress and autophagy. Pro-survival markers of ER stress/UPR (GRP78) and autophagy (p62) were increased in tumor tissues of CRC patients, AOM/DSS-induced CRC mice and HCT116-derived colonospheres. Zeb downregulates GRP78 and p62, and upregulates a pro-apoptotic CHOP. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the anticancer activity of Zeb.
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Increased concentrations of plasma growth arrest-specific 6 and its soluble tyrosine kinase receptor sAxl in Taiwanese women with pelvic inflammatory disease.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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To investigate the concentrations of plasma growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6) and its soluble tyrosine kinase receptor sAxl in women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and their association with clinical outcomes of PID.
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Comparison of chemical compositions and osteoprotective effects of different sections of velvet antler.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Velvet antlers (VA) have been claimed for centuries to have numerous medical benefits including strengthen bones. To investigate and compare the anti-osteoporotic activities from different sections of VA.
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Vascular endothelial growth factor-C modulates proliferation and chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemic cells through an endothelin-1-dependent induction of cyclooxygenase-2.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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High-level expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C is associated with chemoresistance and adverse prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Our previous study has found that VEGF-C induces cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in AML cell lines and significant correlation of VEGF-C and COX-2 in bone marrow specimens. COX-2 has been reported to mediate the proliferation and drug resistance in several solid tumors. Herein, we demonstrated that the VEGF-C-induced proliferation of AML cells is effectively abolished by the depletion or inhibition of COX-2. The expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) rapidly increased following treatment with VEGF-C. We found that ET-1 was also involved in the VEGF-C-mediated proliferation of AML cells, and that recombinant ET-1 induced COX-2 mRNA and protein expressions in AML cells. Treatment with the endothelin receptor A (ETRA) antagonist, BQ 123, or ET-1 shRNAs inhibited VEGF-C-induced COX-2 expression. Flow cytometry and immunoblotting revealed that VEGF-C induces S phase accumulation through the inhibition of p27 and the upregulation of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 expressions. The cell-cycle-related effects of VEGF-C were reversed by the depletion of COX-2 or ET-1. The depletion of COX-2 or ET-1 also suppressed VEGF-C-induced increases in the bcl-2/bax ratio and chemoresistance against etoposide and cytosine arabinoside in AML cells. We also demonstrated VEGF-C/ET-1/COX-2 axis-mediated chemoresistance in an AML xenograft mouse model. Our findings suggest that VEGF-C induces COX-2-mediated resistance to chemotherapy through the induction of ET-1 expression. Acting as a key regulator in the VEGF-C/COX-2 axis, ET-1 represents a potential target for ameliorating resistance to chemotherapy in AML patients.
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Quantitative real-time PCR study of the expression and regulation of the tetracycline resistance gene in Riemerella anatipestifer.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) is one of the most important pathogens of 1- to 8-wk-old ducklings that severely affects the development of the duck industry in China. Every year, antibiotic medicines including tetracycline and doxycycline are used in the duck industry. Few reports compare the expression of multidrug-resistant genes in RA before and after addition of chemical drugs. With this in mind, the direct effects of gradient concentration of tetracyclines on the expression of tetracycline resistance genes (TETr) in RA at the cDNA level were studied by using a quantitative real-time PCR method. The expression of TETr, tetA, tetC, and tetM was investigated in ATCC11845 and in 30 RA isolated from different samples. Using a range of doxycycline concentrations up to 50% of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the optimal induction concentration of 0.0625 ?g/mL was selected. Under the optimal inducible expression, concentrations of TETr, tetC, and tetM cDNA were detected in all isolates, and the highest mRNA expression level of TETr genes was shown. Additionally, the expression levels of 3 TETr genes in RA14 (tetA and tetC) and RA17 (tetM and tetC) were compared. Both tetC and tetA found in isolate RA14 was found to express both tetC and tetA, and tetC cDNA was detected in isolate RA17 at all doxycycline concentrations tested, whereas tetM cDNA was not detected at any concentration. We can conclude that resistance pump is the main mechanism of tetracycline antibiotic resistance, and under the action of drug resistance pump tetC, the expression of tetM was not activated in RA17. These data suggest that the mRNA expression level of TETr genes was correlated with the MIC values, indicating that the degree of drug resistance is determined by the expression levels of TETr genes. Also, the induction of TETr is the major tetracycline resistance mechanism in RA, especially the resistance pump. However, lower concentrations of doxycycline induced higher TETr expression, and higher concentrations inhibited TETr expression. Maybe that is the reason for selection mutation to make tolerated bacteria survive.
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Serum vascular adhesion protein-1 predicts all-cause mortality and cancer-related mortality in subjects with colorectal cancer.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) participates in inflammation and catalyzes the breakdown of amines to produce aldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and ammonia. Serum VAP-1 can predict cancer mortality, including colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality, in type 2 diabetic subjects. However, it remains unknown if serum VAP-1 can predict mortality in CRC patients. This prospective cohort study investigates if serum VAP-1 is a novel biomarker for mortality prediction in CRC.
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Selaginella tamariscina extract suppresses TPA-induced invasion and metastasis through inhibition of MMP-9 in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE-1 cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is known for its high incidence of neck lymph node metastasis, which represents poor prognosis. The present study aimed to examine the anti-metastatic properties of Selaginella tamariscina extract (STE) in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE-1 cells in vitro.
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Cross-talk between mineralocorticoid receptor/angiotensin II type 1 receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways underlies aldosterone-induced atrial fibrotic responses in HL-1 cardiomyocytes.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Aldosterone is increasingly recognized for its involvement in atrial structural remodeling. However, the precise molecular mechanisms and signal pathways underlying aldosterone-induced atrial fibrosis are unknown.
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The transcription analysis of duck enteritis virus UL49.5 gene using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Duck enteritis virus (DEV) UL49.5 encoding glycoprotein N was a conserved gene. The transcription dynamic process of UL49.5 homologous genes in herpesviruses was reported. However, the transcription dynamic process of DEV UL49.5 gene has not yet been established. In this study, a real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) assay was established to test the transcription dynamic process of DEV UL49.5 gene, and the recombinant plasmid pUCm-T/UL49.5 was constructed as the standard DNA. The samples prepared from DEV-infected (at different time points) and uninfected cell were detected and calculated. The results demonstrated that the real-time qRT-PCR assay was successfully established. The transcription product of DEV UL49.5 gene was first detected at 0.5 h post infection (p.i.), increased at 8 h p.i. and reached a peak at 60 h p.i. Our results illustrated that DEV UL49.5 gene could be regarded as a late gene. The transcription dynamic process of DEV UL49.5 gene may provide a significant clue for further studies of DEV UL49.5 gene.
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Chinese goose (Anser cygnoides) CD8a: cloning, tissue distribution and immunobiological in splenic mononuclear cells.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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CD8 molecule is a cell membrane glycoprotein, which plays an important role in cell-mediated immunity. Here, we identified Chinese goose CD8? (goCD8?) gene for the first time. The full-length cDNA of goCD8? is 1459bp in length and contains a 711bp open reading frame. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the waterfowl CD8? formed a monophyletic group. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that transcripts of goCD8? mRNA were high in the immune-related organs and mucosal immune system in gosling, and high in thymus and spleen comparing to other immune-related tissues in goose. The obvious increase of CD8? expression was observed in spleen of acute new type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV) infected bird, while the increase of CD8? were observed in the thymus, bursa of fabricius, and cecum of chronic infected bird. The CD8? mRNA transcription level in spleen mononuclear cells was significantly up-regulated when stimulated by phytohemagglutinin, but not by lipopolysaccharide in vitro.
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