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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Transcriptome Analysis of a Subtropical Deciduous Tree: Autumn Leaf Senescence Gene Expression Profile of Formosan Gum.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Autumn leaf senescence is a spectacular natural phenomenon; however, the regulation networks controlling autumnal colors and the leaf senescence program remain largely unelucidated. Whether regulation of leaf senescence is similar in subtropical deciduous plants and temperate deciduous plants is also unknown. In this study, the gene expression of a subtropical deciduous tree, Formosan gum (Liquidambar formosana Hance) was profiled. The transcriptomes of April leaves (green leaves, "G") and December leaves (red leaves, "R") were investigated by next-generation gene sequencing. Out of 58402 de novo assembled contigs, 32637 were annotated as putative genes. Furthermore, L. formosana specific microarray were designed based on total contigs was used to extend the observation period throughout the growing seasons of 2011 to 2013. Network analysis from the gene expression profile focused on the genes upregulated when autumn leaf senescence occurred. LfWRKY70, LfWRKY75, LfWRKY65, LfSPL14, LfNAC100 and LfMYB113 were shown to be key regulators in leaf senescnece, and the genes regulated by LfWRKY75, LfNAC1, LfNAC100 and LfMYB113 are candidates to link chlorophyll degradation and anthocyanin biosynthesis to senescence. In summary, the leaf developing gene expression profiles of entire year from subtropical deciduous trees were used for in silico analysis and the putative gene regulations in autumn coloration and leaf senescence were discussed in this study.
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The convergence of autophagy, small RNA and the stress response - implications for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in plants.
Biomol Concepts
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Abstract Recent discoveries in eukaryotes have shown that autophagy-mediated degradation of DICER and ARGONAUTE (AGO), the proteins involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), can occur in response to viral infection and starvation. In plants, a virally encoded protein P0 specifically interacts with AGO1 and enhances degradation through autophagy, resulting in suppression of gene silencing. In HeLa cells, DICER and AGO2 protein levels decreased after nutrient starvation or after treatment to increase autophagy. Environmental exposures to viral infection and starvation have also recently been shown to sometimes not only induce a stress response in the exposed plant but also in their unexposed progeny. These, and other cases of inherited stress response in plants are thought to be facilitated through transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, and the mechanism involves the PTGS and transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) pathways. These recent discoveries suggest that the environmentally-induced autophagic degradation of the PTGS and TGS components may have significant effects on inherited stress responses.
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Draft Genome Sequences of Four Strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Three of Which Cause Early Mortality Syndrome/Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease in Shrimp in China and Thailand.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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We sequenced four Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, three of which caused serious acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease. Sequence analysis of the virulent strains revealed not only genes related to cholera toxin and the type IV pilus/type IV secretion system but also a unique, previously unreported, large extrachromosomal plasmid that encodes a homolog to the insecticidal Photorhabdus insect-related binary toxin PirAB.
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Integrating traditional Chinese medicine healthcare into diabetes care by reducing the risk of developing kidney failure among type 2 diabetic patients: A population-based case control study.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Our previous study indicated that the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan, which consists of six type of herbs, namely Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) DC., root, dried; Cornus officinalis Siebold & Zucc., fructus, dried; Dioscorea oppositifolia L., root, dried; Alisma plantago-aquatica subsp. orientale (Sam.) Sam., tuber, dried; Paeonia×suffruticosa Andrews, bark, dried; Poria cocos (Fr.) Wolf., sclerotium, dried, is the most frequently prescribed herbal formula used to treat type 2 diabetes patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the integration of TCM into diabetes care in terms of how it reduces the risk of developing kidney failure.
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Analysis of operative efficacy for giant pituitary adenoma.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Surgical treatment of giant pituitary adenomas is difficult due to complicated dissection of the sellar area. The extent of tumor resection affects the efficacy of surgical treatment. This study is to investigate the efficacy of microsurgical treatment for giant pituitary adenoma and to analyze the relationship between treatment efficacy and tumor resection extent.
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Integrase-Deficient Lentivirus: Opportunities and Challenges for Human Gene Therapy.
Curr Gene Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Lentivirus are powerful tools for gene delivery and have been widely used for the dissection of gene functions in both replicating and quiescent cells. Recently, they have also been used for delivering target sequences in gene therapy. Although lentiviral system provides sustained exogenous gene expression, serious concerns have been raised due to its unfavourable insertion-mediated mutagenesis effect, thereby leading to silence or activation of some unexpected genes. Accordingly, an array of modifications of the original vectors has been made to reduce the risks. Here, we briefly review the structure of integrase protein, which is an essential protein for viral insertion and integration, the mechanisms of integrase-mediated integration and the effects of the modification of integrase. Following this, we discuss the advantages resulting from integrase modifications and their future applications. Taken together, the generation of integrase-deficient lentivirus (IDLV) not only provides us with an opportunity to reduce the risk of virus-mediated insertions, which would improve the safety of gene therapy, but also favours gene correction and vaccine development.
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Phragmalin Limonoids from the Stem Barks of Chukrasia tabularis var. velutina.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Seven new phragmalin limonoids, chukvelutilides I-O (1-7), were isolated from the stem barks of Chukrasia tabularis var. velutina. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Among them, compound 1 showed moderate lethal activity against brine shrimp larvae, with an LC50 value of 84.1?µM.
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[Effect of acupuncture-anesthetic composite anesthesia on the incidence of POCD and TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 in elderly patients].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To explore the effect of acupuncture-anesthetic composite anesthesia (AACA) on the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and changes of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in elderly patients.
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H2S, a novel therapeutic target in renal-associated diseases?
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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For more than a century, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been regarded as a toxic gas. Recently, the understanding of the biological effects of H2S has been changed. This review surveys the growing recognition of H2S as an endogenous signaling molecule in mammals, with emphasis on its physiological and pathological pathways in the urinary system. This article reviews recent progress of basic and pharmacological researches related to endogenous H2S in urinary system, including the regulatory effects of H2S in the process of antioxidant, inflammation, cellular matrix remodeling and ion channels, and the role of endogenous H2S pathway in the pathogenesis of renal and urogenital disorders.
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Mipu1 Overexpression Protects Macrophages from oxLDL-Induced Foam Cell Formation and Cell Apoptosis.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Mipu1 (myocardial ischemic preconditioning upregulated protein 1) is a novel N-terminal Kruppel-associated box (KRAB)/C2H2 zinc finger superfamily protein, that displays a powerful effect in protecting H9c2 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis. The present study aims to investigate the effect of Mipu1 overexpression on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced foam cell formation, cell apoptosis, and its possible mechanisms. New Zealand healthy rabbits were used to establish atherosclerosis model, and serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were detected by an automatic biochemical analyzer. Sudan IV staining was used to detect atherosclerotic lesions. The RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was selected as the experimental material. Oil red O staining, high-performance liquid chromatography, and Dil-labeled lipoprotein were used to detect cholesterol accumulation qualitatively and quantitatively, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to determine cell apoptosis. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of the main proteins that are associated with the transport of cholesterol, such as ABCA1, ABCG1, SR-BI, and CD36. Western blot analysis was used to detect the protein expression of Mipu1. There were atherosclerotic lesions in the high-fat diet group with Sudan IV staining. High-fat diet decreased Mipu1 expression and increased CD36 expression significantly at the 10th week compared with standard-diet rabbits. Mipu1 overexpression decreased oxLDL-induced cholesterol accumulation, oxLDL uptake, cell apoptosis, and cleaved caspase-3. Mipu1 overexpression inhibited the oxLDL-induced CD36 mRNA and protein expression, but it did not significantly inhibit the mRNA expression of ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI. Mipu1 overexpression inhibits oxLDL-induced foam cell formation and cell apoptosis. Mipu1 overexpression reduces the lipid intake of macrophages and might be associated with the downregulation of CD36 expression in the presence of oxLDL.
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Cyclohexane-fused octahydroquinolizine alkaloids from Myrioneuron faberi with activity against hepatitis C virus.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Investigation of the alkaloids from Myrioneuron faberi, a plant unique to China, gave four pairs of enantiomers (1-4). (±)-?-Myrifabral A (1) and (±)-?-myrifabral A (2) formed an inseparable mixture of anomers (cluster A), as did (±)-?-myrifabral B (3) and (±)-?-myrifabral B (4) (cluster B). Their structures were determined by X-ray diffraction and NMR analysis. Compounds 1-4 possessed novel cyclohexane-fused octahydroquinolizine skeletons and represent the first quinolizidine alkaloids from the genus Myrioneuron. The epimers of cluster A (1 and 2) were modified and separated. In vitro, clusters A and B and their derivatives inhibited replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV, IC50 0.9 to 4.7 ?M) with cytotoxicity lower than that of telaprevir.
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Antimicrobial Constituents of the Mature Carpels of Manglietiastrum sinicum.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Seven new compounds, including a eupodienone-type lignan (1), a dibenzocyclooctadiene-type lignan (2), three tetrahydrofuran-type lignans (3-5), and two 1-phenylbutyl benzoates (6, 7), together with six known compounds, were isolated from the mature carpels of Manglietiastrum sinicum. The structures of new compounds 1-7 were defined by spectroscopic techniques, and the absolute configuration of manglisin A (1) was determined by X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1-4 exhibited moderate antimicrobial activities (MIC values: 0.016-0.14 ?M) against Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA 82(#), MRSA 92(#), MRSA 98(#), and MRSA 331(#). Compounds 2 and 3 showed weak cytotoxic activity against five human tumor cell lines.
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[Quantitative determination of 5 active ingredients in different harvest periods of Ligusticum chuanxiong by HPLC].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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A simple and quick method is described for the determination of ferulic acid, senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, senkyunolide A and ligustilide in rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong. The 5 active ingredients in the sample was extracted using 40% ethanol and analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Chromatography separation was performed using Agilent 1100 series HPLC system with a Symmetry C18 column and gradient elution with a mixture of three solvents : solvent A, acetonitrile, solvent B, methanol and solvent C, 1% aqueous acetic acid, 0 min to 5 min A: B: C 20: 40: 40, 5 min to 30 min A: B: C 60 to 100 : 0 : 40 to 0. The effluent was monitored using a VWD detector set at 321 nm (0-4.3 min) and 275 nm (4.31-30 min). The flow rate was set at 1 mL x min(-1) and the injection volume was 10 microL. The column temperature was maintained at 35 degrees C. The calibration curve was linear (r > or = 0.99) over the tested ranges. The average recovery was 94.44%-103.1% (n = 6). The method has been successfully applied to the analysis in different harvest periods of L. chuanxiong samples. In this paper, single-factor randomized block design to study the 5 components content of L. chuanxiong on ten collecting stages. For the L. chuanxiong collected from April 15th to May 30rd, the content of 5 ingredients increased primarily, and then decreased. Determine the appropriate harvest time has important significance to the promotion of the quality of L. chuanxiong.
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Undibacterium squillarum sp. nov., isolated from a freshwater shrimp culture pond.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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A bacterial strain designated CMJ-15(T) was isolated from a freshwater shrimp culture pond in Taiwan and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of strain CMJ-15(T) were facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative and motile by a single polar flagellum and formed light-yellow colonies. Growth occurred at 20-40 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), with 0-0.7% NaCl (optimum, 0-0.2%) and at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-7.0). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CMJ-15(T) belonged to the genus Undibacterium and its closest neighbour was Undibacterium oligocarboniphilum EM 1(T), with sequence similarity of 96.3%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c and/or C16:1?6c), C16:0 and C18:1?7c. The major cellular hydroxy fatty acid was C10:0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The polyamine profile was composed of the major compound putrescine and moderate amounts of 2-hydroxyputrescine. The major respiratory quinone was Q-8 and the DNA G+C content was 52.2 mol%. On the basis of these phylogenetic and phenotypic data, strain CMJ-15(T) should be classified as representing a novel species, for which the name Undibacterium squillarum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CMJ-15(T) ( = BCRC 80404(T) = LMG 26892(T) = KCTC 23917(T)).
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Copper-catalyzed aminotrifluoromethylation of unactivated alkenes with (TMS)CF3: construction of trifluoromethylated azaheterocycles.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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The first example of a copper(I)-catalyzed intramolecular aminotrifluoromethylation of unactivated alkenes using (TMS)CF3 (trimethyl(trifluoromethyl)silane) as the CF3 source is described. A broad range of electronically and structurally varied substrates undergo convenient and step-economical transformations for the concurrent construction of a five- or six-membered ring and a C-CF3 bond toward different types of trifluoromethyl azaheterocycles. The methodology not only circumvents use of expensive electrophilic CF3 reagents or the photoredox strategy but also expands the scope to substrates that are difficult to access by the existing methods. Mechanistic studies are conducted, and a plausible mechanism is proposed.
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A meta-learning approach for B-cell conformational epitope prediction.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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BackgroundOne of the major challenges in the field of vaccine design is identifying B-cell epitopes in continuously evolving viruses. Various tools have been developed to predict linear or conformational epitopes, each relying on different physicochemical properties and adopting distinct search strategies. We propose a meta-learning approach for epitope prediction based on stacked and cascade generalizations. Through meta learning, we expect a meta learner to be able integrate multiple prediction models, and outperform the single best-performing model. The objective of this study is twofold: (1) to analyze the complementary predictive strengths in different prediction tools, and (2) to introduce a generic computational model to exploit the synergy among various prediction tools. Our primary goal is not to develop any particular classifier for B-cell epitope prediction, but to advocate the feasibility of meta learning to epitope prediction. With the flexibility of meta learning, the researcher can construct various meta classification hierarchies that are applicable to epitope prediction in different protein domains.ResultsWe developed the hierarchical meta-learning architectures based on stacked and cascade generalizations. The bottom level of the hierarchy consisted of four conformational and four linear epitope prediction tools that served as the base learners. To perform consistent and unbiased comparisons, we tested the meta-learning method on an independent set of antigen proteins that were not used previously to train the base epitope prediction tools. In addition, we conducted correlation and ablation studies of the base learners in the meta-learning model. Low correlation among the predictions of the base learners suggested that the eight base learners had complementary predictive capabilities. The ablation analysis indicated that the eight base learners differentially interacted and contributed to the final meta model. The results of the independent test demonstrated that the meta-learning approach markedly outperformed the single best-performing epitope predictor.ConclusionsComputational B-cell epitope prediction tools exhibit several differences that affect their performances when predicting epitopic regions in protein antigens. The proposed meta-learning approach for epitope prediction combines multiple prediction tools by integrating their complementary predictive strengths. Our experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the combined approach in comparison with single epitope predictors.
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Effects and mechanism of downregulation of COX?2 expression by RNA interference on proliferation and apoptosis of human breast cancer MCF?7 cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of RNA interference with prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX?2) gene on the proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer MCF?7 cells, as well as the underlying mechanism. The present study constructed the eukaryotic expression vector of the targeted COX?2 gene, transfected the MCF?7 cells and screened the stably expressed clone. Changes in the COX?2 gene expression in breast cancer MCF?7 cells prior to and following transfection were examined; the proliferation and apoptosis of MCF?7 cells were analyzed. Furthermore, changes in the protein levels of survivin, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2) and Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) genes were detected. RNA interference mediated by a lentiviral expression vector significantly decreased the protein expression levels of the COX?2 gene, and therefore, the proliferation and growth of breast cancer MCF?7 cells was significantly suppressed and the apoptotic rate increased. Of note, the mRNA and protein expression levels of survivin and Bcl?2 decreased, while those of Bax increased following COX-2 silencing. RNA interference markedly deactivated the COX?2 gene, suppressed the proliferation of breast cancer MCF?7 cells, and, to a certain extent, enhanced the induced spontaneous apoptosis, which is regulated by the Bax gene. These results provided evidence for the potential applications of RNA interference of the targeted COX?2 gene in gene therapy for the treatment of breast cancer.
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Japodagricanones A and B, novel diterpenoids from Jatropha podagrica.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Two novel diterpenoids, japodagricanones A (1) and B (2), along with their biogenetically related diterpenoid 15-epi-4E-jatrogrossidentadion (3), were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Jatropha podagrica. Japodagricanones A (1) and B (2) are the first C-5-nor lathyrane-type diterpenoids. Their structures were established using spectroscopic data, including MS, NMR and ECD data. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for their generation was also proposed.
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Cytotoxic eburnamine-aspidospermine type bisindole alkaloids from Bousigonia mekongensis.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Four new eburnamine-aspidospermine type bisindole alkaloids, namely, mekongenines C-F (1-4), along with 27 known indole alkaloids were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Bousigonia mekongensis. Their structures with the absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and ECD analyses. All new compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines: HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480 in vitro. Alkaloids 1-4 exhibited inhibitory effects with IC50 values comparable to those of cisplatin.
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Enantioselective c?h bond functionalization triggered by radical trifluoromethylation of unactivated alkene.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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An asymmetric unactivated alkene/C?H bond difunctionalization reaction for the concomitant construction of C?CF3 and C?O bonds was realized by using a Cu/Brønsted acid cooperative catalytic system, thus providing facile access to valuable chiral CF3 -containing N,O-aminals with excellent regio-, chemo-, and enantioselectivity. Mechanistic studies revealed that this reaction may proceed by an unprecedented 1,5-hydride shift involving activation of unactivated alkenes and a radical trifluoromethylation to initiate subsequent enantioselective functionalization of C?H bonds. Control experiments also suggested that chiral Brønsted acid plays multiple roles and not only controls the stereoselectivity but also increases the reaction rate through activation of Togni's reagent.
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SIRT1 in cardiovascular aging.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, with aging as the key independent risk factor. Effective interventions are necessary to delay aging. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, is closely related to lifespan extension. SIRT1 exerts beneficial effects on aging and age-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the functions of SIRT1 in cardiovascular aging, focusing on the underlying molecular mechanisms, including inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation, and induction of autophagy. We also demonstrate that moderate up-regulation or activation of SIRT1 in cardiovascular aging and age-related CVD may confer important application values.
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Genetic analyses of the FRNK motif function of Turnip mosaic virus uncover multiple and potentially interactive pathways of cross-protection.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Cross-protection triggered by a mild strain of virus acts as a prophylaxis to prevent subsequent infections by related viruses in plants; however, the underling mechanisms are not fully understood. Through mutagenesis, we isolated a mutant strain of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), named Tu-GK, that contains an Arg182Lys substitution in helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro(K)) that confers complete cross-protection against infection by a severe strain of TuMV in Nicotiana benthamiana, Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0, and the Arabidopsis dcl2-4/dcl4-1 double mutant defective in DICER-like ribonuclease (DCL)2/DCL4-mediated silencing. Our analyses showed that HC-Pro(K) loses the ability to interfere with microRNA pathways, although it retains a partial capability for RNA silencing suppression triggered by DCL. We further showed that Tu-GK infection triggers strong salicylic acid (SA)-dependent and SA-independent innate immunity responses. Our data suggest that DCL2/4-dependent and -independent RNA silencing pathways are involved, and may crosstalk with basal innate immunity pathways, in host defense and in cross-protection.
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Increased risk of fracture and postfracture adverse events in patients with diabetes: two nationwide population-based retrospective cohort studies.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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The relationship between diabetes and fracture is not completely understood. This study evaluated fracture risk and postfracture mortality in patients with diabetes.
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Cardiac glycosides from the bark of Antiaris toxicaria.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Five new cardiac glycosides (1-5, namely antiaroside Y-ZC) together with 19 known compounds were obtained from the bark of Antiaris toxicaria. Their chemical structures were determined by IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR (HSQC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMBC, ROESY). The absolute configuration of sugar unit was defined by acid hydrolysis and appropriate derivatization. Compound 1 was rare 5?-H-10?-H-19-nor-cardenolide, which might derive from decarboxylative derivative of 19-COOH cardenolide. The inhibitory effects of cardiac glycosides 1-11 on the viability of NIH-H460 lung cancer cells and their induction of Nur77 expression were evaluated and preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) was also discussed.
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The genome and occlusion bodies of marine Penaeus monodon nudivirus (PmNV, also known as MBV and PemoNPV) suggest that it should be assigned to a new nudivirus genus that is distinct from the terrestrial nudiviruses.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Penaeus monodon nudivirus (PmNV) is the causative agent of spherical baculovirosis in shrimp (Penaeus monodon). This disease causes significant mortalities at the larval stage and early postlarval (PL) stage and may suppress growth and reduce survival and production in aquaculture. The nomenclature and classification status of PmNV has been changed several times due to morphological observation and phylogenetic analysis of its partial genome sequence. In this study, we therefore completed the genome sequence and constructed phylogenetic trees to clarify PmNV's taxonomic position. To better understand the characteristics of the occlusion bodies formed by this marine occluded virus, we also compared the chemical properties of the polyhedrin produced by PmNV and the baculovirus AcMNPV (Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus).
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Preconditioning effects of physiological cyclic stretch on pathologically mechanical stretch-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis and barrier dysfunction.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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We aim to investigate the effects of preconditioning of physiological cyclic stretch on the alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis induced by pathologically mechanical stretch and barrier dysfunction and how these effects are linked to differential expression of small GTPases Rac and Rho mRNA.
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Prescription pattern of Chinese herbal products for adult-onset asthma in Taiwan: a population-based study.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Throughout the world, asthma can be a life-threatening disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is commonly used among Taiwanese adults to control many diseases.
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The traditional Chinese medicine prescription patterns of Sjögren?s patients in Taiwan: a population-based study.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), when given for symptom relief, have gained widespread popularity among Sjögren?s patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of TCM among Sjögren?s patients in Taiwan.
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Thermal properties and crystallization behavior of thermoplastic starch/poly(?-caprolactone) composites.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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TPS/PCL composites were prepared by PCL melt blending with modified corn starch. The structure, thermal properties, morphology and crystallization behavior of these composites were investigated by FTIR, TGA, SEM, XRD and DSC. FTIR confirmed the existence of the interaction between PCL and TPS, whereas TGA showed that the thermal stability was decreased by the addition of TPS. Meanwhile, SEM showed a weak interfacial adhesion with increasing TPS. According to the Avrami theory, TPS functioned as a nucleating agent to improve the crystallinity rate of PCL. However, the XRD analysis revealed that the crystallinity decreased. At the same time, the ?E(a) of the composites was higher than those of neat PCL. These changes in values all indicated that mobility constraints existed in the PCL chains with the increasing of TPS, which leaded to a drop in the crystallization ability of PCL.
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Common bile duct dilatations in asymptomatic neonates: incidence and prognosis.
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Background. This retrospective study reviewed 213 asymptomatic neonates with common bile duct (CBD) dilatations diagnosed via ultrasound to evaluate their incidence and outcomes. Materials and Methods. From August 2001 to July 2010, 18,230 abdominal ultrasound scans were performed as newborn screening. There were 213 (1.17%) cases of CBD dilatation. Dilatation of neonatal CBD was defined when its diameter was ?2?mm. The neonates' birth history, CBD size, and follow-up results were analyzed. Results. In the 213 infants, four cystic dilatations (1.88%, 4/213) that were eventually diagnosed as choledochal cysts (CC). Among 209 neonates with fusiform dilatations (size 2.0-6.7?mm), 77 had ultrasound follow-up and 87% of them resolved spontaneously which were diagnosed as transient CBD dilatation (TCBDD). Eighty percent of TCBDDs resolved within 6 months. Patients with initial CBD size ?3?mm had significantly lower resolution rate and neonates whose mothers are older than 35 years took longer time to resolve. Conclusion. The incidence of CBD dilatation in asymptomatic neonates was 1.17%. Eighty percent of TCBDDs resolved within 6 months. Regular ultrasound follow-up every 6 months may be appropriate for asymptomatic neonates with fusiform CBD dilatations to ensure resolution or progression.
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Hybrid phononic crystal plates for lowering and widening acoustic band gaps.
Ultrasonics
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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We propose hybrid phononic-crystal plates which are composed of periodic stepped pillars and periodic holes to lower and widen acoustic band gaps. The acoustic waves scattered simultaneously by the pillars and holes in a relevant frequency range can generate low and wide acoustic forbidden bands. We introduce an alternative double-sided arrangement of the periodic stepped pillars for an enlarged pillars' head diameter in the hybrid structure and optimize the hole diameter to further lower and widen the acoustic band gaps. The lowering and widening effects are simultaneously achieved by reducing the frequencies of locally resonant pillar modes and prohibiting suitable frequency bands of propagating plate modes.
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High-throughput transcriptome analysis of the leafy flower transition of Catharanthus roseus induced by peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma infection.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma are obligate bacteria that cause leafy flower symptoms in Catharanthus roseus. The PnWB-mediated leafy flower transitions were studied to understand the mechanisms underlying the pathogen-host interaction; however, our understanding is limited because of the lack of information on the C. roseus genome. In this study, the whole-transcriptome profiles from healthy flowers (HFs) and stage 4 (S4) PnWB-infected leafy flowers of C. roseus were investigated using next-generation sequencing (NGS). More than 60,000 contigs were generated using a de novo assembly approach, and 34.2% of the contigs (20,711 genes) were annotated as putative genes through name-calling, open reading frame determination and gene ontology analyses. Furthermore, a customized microarray based on this sequence information was designed and used to analyze samples further at various stages of PnWB infection. In the NGS profile, 87.8% of the genes showed expression levels that were consistent with those in the microarray profiles, suggesting that accurate gene expression levels can be detected using NGS. The data revealed that defense-related and flowering gene expression levels were altered in S4 PnWB-infected leafy flowers, indicating that the immunity and reproductive stages of C. roseus were compromised. The network analysis suggested that the expression levels of >1,000 candidate genes were highly associated with CrSVP1/2 and CrFT expression, which might be crucial in the leafy flower transition. In conclusion, this study provides a new perspective for understanding plant pathology and the mechanisms underlying the leafy flowering transition caused by host-pathogen interactions through analyzing bioinformatics data obtained using a powerful, rapid high-throughput technique.
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A two-locus interaction causes interspecific hybrid weakness in rice.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Reproductive barriers perform a vital role during speciation. Hybrid weakness, the poorer development of hybrids compared with their parents, hinders gene exchange between different species at the postzygotic stage. Here we show that two incompatible dominant loci (Hwi1 and Hwi2) involving three genes are likely to determine the high temperature-dependent expression of hybrid weakness in interspecific hybrids of rice. Hwi1 comprises two leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) genes, 25L1 and 25L2, which are specific to wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) and induce hybrid weakness. Hwi2, a rare allele that is predominantly distributed in indica rice (Oryza sativa), encodes a secreted putative subtilisin-like protease. Functional analysis indicated that pyramiding of Hwi1 and Hwi2 activates the autoimmune response in the basal nodes of hybrids, interrupting root formation and then impairing shoot growth. These findings bring new insights into our understanding of reproductive isolation and may benefit rice breeding.
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Concurrent Use in Taiwan of Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Hormone Users Aged 55 Years to 79 Years and Its Association with Breast Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Study.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Background. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among women aged 55 to 79 years who had also been prescribed hormonal therapies (HT) and its association with breast cancer risk. Methods. The use, frequency of service, and CHP prescribed among 17,583 HT users were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and HT. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of breast cancer between the TCM nonusers and women who had undergone coadministration of HT and a CHP or CHPs. Results. More than one out of every five study subjects used a CHP concurrently with HT (CHTCHP patients). Shu-Jing-Huo-Xie-Tang was the most commonly used CHP coadministered with HT. In comparison to HT-alone users, the HRs for invasive breast cancer among CHTCHP patients were not significantly increased either in E-alone group or in mixed regimen group. Conclusions. The coadministration of hormone regimen and CHPs did not increase the risk of breast cancer.
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Efficient copper-catalyzed direct intramolecular aminotrifluoromethylation of unactivated alkenes with diverse nitrogen-based nucleophiles.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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A mild, convenient, and step-economical intramolecular aminotrifluoromethylation of unactivated alkenes with a variety of electronically distinct, nitrogen-based nucleophiles in the presence of a simple copper salt catalyst, in the absence of extra ligands, is described. Many different nitrogen-based nucleophiles (e.g., basic primary aliphatic and aromatic amines, sulfonamides, carbamates, and ureas) can be employed in this new aminotrifluoromethylation reaction. The aminotrifluoromethylation process allows straightforward access to diversely substituted CF3-containing pyrrolidines or indolines, in good to excellent yields, through a direct difunctionalization strategy from the respective acyclic starting materials. Mechanistic studies were conducted and a plausible mechanism was proposed.
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Optimization of high-pressure ultrasonic-assisted simultaneous extraction of six major constituents from Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome using response surface methodology.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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High-pressure ultrasound-assisted extraction technology was applied to extract ferulic acid, senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, senkyunolide A, ligustilide and levistolide A from Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizomes. Seven independent variables, including solvent type, pressure, particle size, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, ultrasound power, and extraction time were examined. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using a Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to optimize the experimental conditions (extraction temperature, ultrasonic power, and extraction time) on the basis of the results of single factor tests for the extraction of these six major components in L. chuanxiong rhizomes. The experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and were also examined using appropriate statistical methods. The best extraction conditions were as follows: extraction solvent: 40% ethanol; pressure: 10 MPa; particle size: 80 mesh; liquid-to-solid ratio: 100:1; extraction temperature: 70 °C; ultrasonic power, 180 W; and extraction time, 74 min.
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Medium-chain triglyceride as an alternative of in-feed colistin sulfate to improve growth performance and intestinal microbial environment in newly weaned pigs.
Anim. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Five hundred and twenty-eight newly weaned pigs were given four treatments, with eight replicates per treatment. Sixteen to 18 pigs were assigned per replicate and were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 3% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 0 or 40?ppm colistin sulfate (CS) in a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement for 2 weeks. The results showed that dietary supplementation with MCT improved the gain-to-feed ratio during days 3-7 and in the overall period (P?
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Indirect comparisons of efficacy and safety between seven newer targeted agents for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: A network meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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This network meta-analysis aimed to compare the clinical efficacy and safety among 7 newer targeted agents for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). All randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of targeted therapeutic drugs for mRCC were included. The study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. The analysis evaluated efficacy outcomes [improvement in the median progression-free survival (PFS)] and safety outcomes (number of withdrawals due to adverse events). The network analysis included direct and indirect analyses. The quality of the selected studies was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) method. We identified 7 articles eligible for inclusion in the study. The direct comparison of the targeted agents indicated better efficacy in terms of longer PFS, but worse safety (more withdrawals due to adverse events). The indirect analysis demonstrated that axitinib was significantly more effective compared to panzopanib; sunitinib was superior to sorafenib and temsirolimus regarding efficacy outcome, without any statistically significant difference in the safety outcome. The results of the quality assessment indicated moderate scores using the GRADE method. In conclusion, the result of this network analysis suggested that sunitinib and axitinib may be more clinically efficient and axitinib is associated with a lower risk of adverse events compared to sorafenib, pazopanib and temsirolimus.
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Angustifonines A and B, cytotoxic bisindole alkaloids from Bousigonia angustifolia.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Two new bisindole alkaloids, angustifonines A (1) and B (2), comprising the union of a rearranged monoterpenoid quinoline and an aspidospermine alkaloid, as well as 27 known indole alkaloids were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Bousigonia angustifolia. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by a combination of MS, NMR, and computational methods. Angustifonines A and B exhibited cytotoxicity against various human cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 2.71-16.22 ?M. A possible biosynthesis pathway toward the new bisindole alkaloids 1 and 2 is presented.
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Oxidized frying oil and its polar fraction fed to pregnant mice are teratogenic and alter mRNA expressions of vitamin A metabolism genes in the liver of dams and their fetuses.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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We previously observed a higher incidence of congenital malformations in the fetuses of dams fed an oxidized frying oil (OFO)-containing diet during pregnancy. In this study, we hypothesized that, during pregnancy, maternal ingestion of OFO, specifically the oxidized components (i.e. the polar fraction), modulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR?) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivity, altering the metabolism of retinoic acid (RA), a well-characterized morphogen, resulting in teratogenesis. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups which, from d1 (conception) to d18, were fed a diet containing 10 g/100 g of fresh soybean oil (SO), OFO or the non-polar (NP) or polar (PO) fraction of OFO. Reporter assays testing the transactivity of PPAR? and AhR showed that free fatty acids from OFO, specifically the PO fraction, up-regulated PPAR? transactivity and down-regulated AhR transactivity. In vivo study showed that the PO fraction group had a significantly higher number of dead fetuses and resorptions per litter than the SO and NP fraction groups. The incidence of abnormalities in terms of gross morphology and skeletal ossification of the fetus was greatest in the PO fraction group, followed by the OFO group, both values being significantly higher than in the other two groups. Hepatic expression of genes encoding enzymes associated with RA synthesis and catabolism in dams and fetuses was differentially affected by PO fraction assault. We conclude that OFO-mediated teratogenesis is associated with disturbed RA metabolism in the dams and fetuses caused, at least in part, by modulation of PPAR? and AhR transactivity by the oxidized components in OFO.
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The traditional Chinese medicine prescription patterns for migraine patients in Taiwan: a population-based study.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among migraine patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the utilization of TCM among migraine patients in Taiwan.
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Undibacterium macrobrachii sp. nov., isolated from a freshwater shrimp culture pond.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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A bacterial strain designated CMJ-9T was isolated from a freshwater shrimp culture pond in Taiwan and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomy approach. Cells of strain CMJ-9T were strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, motile by a single polar flagellum, poly-?-hydroxybutyrate-containing and forming light yellow-pigmented colonies. Growth occurred at 10-37 °C (optimum, 20-30 °C), with 0-0.8 % NaCl (optimum, 0-0.1 %) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-7.0). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CMJ-9T belonged to the genus Undibacterium and its closest neighbour was Undibacterium seohonense SHS5-24T with sequence similarities of 96.7 %. The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c and/or C16:1?6c) and C16:0. The major cellular hydroxy fatty acid was C10:0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile consisted of the predominant lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The polyamine profile was composed of the major compound putrescine and moderate amounts of 2-hydroxyputrescine. The major respiratory quinone was Q-8 and the DNA G+C content was 47.7 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic data, strain CMJ-9T should be classified as representing a novel species, for which the name Undibacterium macrobrachii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CMJ-9T (=BCRC 80406T =LMG 26891T =KCTC 23916T).
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Limonoids from Aphanamixis polystachya and Their Antifeedant Activity.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Eight new aphanamixoid-type aphanamixoids (C-J, 1-8) and six new prieurianin-type limonoids, aphanamixoids K-P (9-14), along with 10 known terpenoids were isolated from Aphanamixis polystachya, and their structures were established by spectroscopic data analysis. Among the new limonoids, 13 compounds exhibited antifeedant activity against the generalist Helicoverpa armigera, a plant-feeding insect, at various concentration levels. In particular, compounds 1, 4, and 5 showed potent activities with EC50 values of 0.017, 0.008, and 0.012 ?mol/cm(2), respectively. On the basis of a preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis, some potential active sites in the aphanamixoid-type limonoid molecules are proposed.
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Human pose recovery for rehabilitation using ambulatory sensors.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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In this paper, an approach for lower-leg pose recovery from ambulatory sensors is implemented and validated in a clinical setting. Inertial measurement units are attached to patients undergoing physiotherapy. The sensor data is combined with a kinematic model within an extended Kalman filter framework to perform joint angle estimation. Anthropometric joint limits and process noise adaptation are employed to improve the quality of the joint angle estimation. The proposed approach is tested on 7 patients following total hip or knee joint replacement surgery. The proposed approach achieves an average root-mean-square error of 0.12 radians at key poses.
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Antiproliferative cardiac glycosides from the latex of Antiaris toxicaria.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Phytochemical investigation of the latex of Antiaris toxicaria resulted in the isolation of 15 new [antiarosides J-X (1-15)] and 17 known cardiac glycosides. The effects of the cardiac glycosides on apoptosis and the expression of orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 were examined in human NIH-H460 lung cancer cells. Several of the cardiac glycosides induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells, which was accompanied by induction of Nur77 protein expression. Treatment of cancer cells with the cardiac glycosides resulted in translocation of the Nur77 protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and subsequent targeting to mitochondria. The results show that the cardiac glycosides exert their apoptotic effect through the Nur77-dependent apoptotic pathway.
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Chemical constituents from Aphanamixis grandifolia.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Four new terpenoids, nemoralisins D-G (1-4), were isolated from the leaves and stems of Aphanamixis grandifolia, along with two known diterpenoids, nemoralisin C and nemoralisin. Among them, compound 1 is the first example of norsesquiterpenoid with ?-lactone moiety, and nemoralisins E-G (2-4), are a class of acyclic diterpenoids, which are structurally related nemoralisin C and nemoralisin. These structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by comparison of quantum chemical TDDFT calculated and experimental ECD spectra. Nemoralisins D-G (1-4) were tested for their cytotoxicities on HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480 human tumor cell lines (IC50>40?M), as well as the antimicrobial activities on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MRSA92(#) and MRSA98(#) (MIC>50?g/mL).
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Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), influences a murine WEHI-3 leukemia model in vivo through enhancing phagocytosis of macrophages and populations of T- and B-cells.
In Vivo
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol in green tea, and has been reported to have anticancer effects on many types of cancer cells. However, there is no report to show its effects on the immune response in a murine leukemia mouse model. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of EGCG on the immune responses of murine WEHI-3 leukemia cells in vivo. WEHI-3 cells were intraperitoneally injected into normal BALB/c mice to establish leukemic BALB/c mice, which were then oral-treated with or without EGCG at 5, 20 and 40 mg/kg for two weeks. The results indicated that EGCG did not change the weight of the animals, nor the liver or spleen when compared to vehicle (olive oil) -treated groups. Furthermore, EGCG increased the percentage of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) (T-cell), cluster of differentiation 19 (CD19) (B-cell) and Macrophage-3 antigen (Mac-3) (macrophage) but reduced the percentage of CD11b (monocyte) cell surface markers in EGCG-treated groups as compared with the untreated leukemia group. EGCG promoted the phagocytosis of macrophages from 5 mg/kg treatment and promoted natural killer cell activity at 40 mg/kg, increased T-cell proliferation at 40 mg/kg but promoted B-cell proliferation at all three doses. Based on these observations, it appears that EGCG might exhibit an immune response in the murine WEHI-3 cell line-induced leukemia in vivo.
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The protective role of Bax Inhibitor-1 against chronic mild stress through the inhibition of monoamine oxidase A.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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The anti-apoptotic protein Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a regulator of apoptosis linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. It has been hypothesized that BI-1 protects against neuron degenerative diseases. In this study, BI-1(-/-) mice showed increased vulnerability to chronic mild stress accompanied by alterations in the size and morphology of the hippocampi, enhanced ROS accumulation and an ER stress response compared with BI-1(+/+) mice. BI-1(-/-) mice exposed to chronic mild stress showed significant activation of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), but not MAO-B, compared with BI-1(+/+) mice. To examine the involvement of BI-1 in the Ca(2+)-sensitive MAO activity, thapsigargin-induced Ca(2+) release and MAO activity were analyzed in neuronal cells overexpressing BI-1. The in vitro study showed that BI-1 regulates Ca(2+) release and related MAO-A activity. This study indicates an endogenous protective role of BI-1 under conditions of chronic mild stress that is primarily mediated through Ca(2+)-associated MAO-A regulation.
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Rigenolide A, a new secoiridoid glucoside with a cyclobutane skeleton, and three new acylated secoiridoid glucosides from Gentiana rigescens Franch.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Rigenolide A (1), a new secoiridoid glucoside with a cyclobutane skeleton and three new acylated secoiridoid glucosides, 2-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-gentiopicroside (2), 2-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-swertiamarin (3), 3-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-sweroside (4), along with two noriridoids (7 and 8) and two known secoiridoid glucosides (5 and 6), were isolated from Gentiana rigescens Franch. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The isolated compounds were evaluated for DPPH free-radical scavenging activity.
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Concurrent Use of Hypnotic Drugs and Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Taiwanese Adults with Insomnia Symptoms: A Population-Based Study.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Background. The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. The purpose of our study is to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among Taiwanese insomnia patients taking hypnotic drugs. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed among 53,949 insomnia sufferers were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and a hypnotic drug. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of hip fracture between the two groups. Results. More than 1 of every 3 hypnotic users also used a CHP concurrently. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Augmented Rambling Powder) and Suan-Zao-Ren-Tang (Zizyphus Combination) were the 2 most commonly used CHPs that were coadministered with hypnotic drugs. The HR of hip fracture for hypnotic-drug users who used a CHP concurrently was 0.57-fold (95% CI = 0.47-0.69) that of hypnotic-drug users who did not use a CHP. Conclusion. Exploring potential CHP-drug interactions and integrating both healthcare approaches might be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of insomnia sufferers.
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Comparisons of prediction models of myofascial pain control after dry needling: a prospective study.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Background. This study purposed to validate the use of artificial neural network (ANN) models for predicting myofascial pain control after dry needling and to compare the predictive capability of ANNs with that of support vector machine (SVM) and multiple linear regression (MLR). Methods. Totally 400 patients who have received dry needling treatments completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) at baseline and at 1 year postoperatively. Results. Compared to the MLR and SVM models, the ANN model generally had smaller mean square error (MSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values in the training dataset and testing dataset. Most ANN models had MAPE values ranging from 3.4% to 4.6% and most had high prediction accuracy. The global sensitivity analysis also showed that pretreatment BPI score was the best parameter for predicting pain after dry needling. Conclusion. Compared with the MLR and SVM models, the ANN model in this study was more accurate in predicting patient-reported BPI scores and had higher overall performance indices. Further studies of this model may consider the effect of a more detailed database that includes complications and clinical examination findings as well as more detailed outcome data.
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Bioactive limonoid and triterpenoid constituents of Turraea pubescens.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Eleven new limonoids, turrapubins A-K (1-11), and three new triterpenoids (12-14), along with 14 known compounds, were isolated from the twigs of Turraea pubescens. The structures of 1-14 were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS analysis. Compounds 12, 16, 18, and 19 exhibited inhibitory activities against lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, compounds 2, 11, 18, and 26 exhibited inhibitory activities against brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) at 100 ppm with the corrected mortality ranging from 81.7% to 100%.
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Anti-HIV active daphnane diterpenoids from Trigonostemon thyrsoideum.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Sixteen daphnane diterpenoids, trigothysoids A-P, along with 15 known ones, were isolated from the methanol extract of the twigs and leaves of Trigonostemon thyrsoideum. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The anti-HIV-1 activity of the compounds was also evaluated in vitro, and five compounds demonstrated potent anti-HIV-1 activity, with EC50 values of 0.015-0.001nM and TI values of 1618-17,619.
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New steroids and sesquiterpene from Turraea pubescens.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Four new compounds, including three new steroids (1-3) and one new sesquiterpene (6), and two new natural products (4-5), as well as three known steroids (7-9) were isolated from the twigs of Turraea pubescens. Compounds 3-5 are C?? steroids isolated from the Meliaceae family for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR and MS analyses. Compound 1 exhibited inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells with an IC?? value of 11.5 ?M.
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Association Between Colonic Diverticular Disease and Colorectal Cancer: a Nationwide Population-Based Study.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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We investigated whether a diagnosis of colonic diverticular disease is associated with an increased risk for subsequent development of colorectal cancer (CRC) in a nationwide population-based retrospective study.
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Primary pericardial osteosarcoma on FDG PET/CT.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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We present the (18)F-FDG PET/CT images of a 38-year-old woman with primary pericardial osteosarcoma. Routine chest radiography showed an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Plain chest CT found an oval tumor with dense calcification adhered to the left back of the heart. A whole-body FDG PET/CT scan was performed to evaluate the patients condition. The images showed heterogeneous tracer uptake in the calcified tumor. There was no other evidence of active neoplastic disease. Histopathologic analysis of the pericardial tumor showed characteristic findings of primary pericardial osteosarcoma.
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Mechanism of the Inhibitory Effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Cortex Extracts (EUCE) in the CCl 4 -Induced Acute Liver Lipid Accumulation in Rats.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (EU) has been used for treatment of liver diseases. The protective effects of Eucommia Ulmoides Oliv. cortex extracts (EUCE) on the carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic lipid accumulation were examined in this study. Rats were orally treated with EUCE in different doses prior to an intraperitoneal injection of 1?mg/kg CCl4. Acute injection of CCl4 decreased plasma triglyceride but increased hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol as compared to control rats. On the other hand, the pretreatment with EUCE diminished these effects at a dose-dependent manner. CCl4 treatment decreased glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) accompanied by activated P450 2E1. The pretreatment with EUCE significantly improved these deleterious effects of CCl4. CCl4 treatment increased P450 2E1 activation and ApoB accumulation. Pretreatment with EUCE reversed these effects. ER stress response was significantly increased by CCl4, which was inhibited by EUCE. One of the possible ER stress regulatory mechanisms, lysosomal activity, was examined. CCl4 reduced lysosomal enzymes that were reversed with the EUCE. The results indicate that oral pretreatment with EUCE may protect liver against CCl4-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. ER stress and its related ROS regulation are suggested as a possible mechanism in the antidyslipidemic effect of EUCE.
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Different dosing regimens for propofol induction in obese patients.
Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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The aim of the study is to investigate the efficacy of different dosages of single bolus propofol administered on the basis of total body weight or corrected body weight for the intravenous induction of anesthesia in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery.
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Daphmacromines K-O, alkaloids from Daphniphyllum macropodum.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Five new yuzurimine-type Daphniphyllum alkaloids, daphmacromines K-O (1-5), were isolated from the leaves and stems of Daphniphyllum macropodum. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Daphmacromine O (5) showed moderate cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp.
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Janus-like role of fibroblast growth factor 2 in arteriosclerotic coronary artery disease: atherogenesis and angiogenesis.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Angiogenic stimulation is a promising new strategy for treating patients with arteriosclerotic coronary artery disease. This strategy aims to ameliorate cardiac function by improving myocardial perfusion and lowering the risk of myocardial infarction. However, angiogenesis may contribute to the growth of atherosclerotic lesions. Atherogenesis is also a potential side effect of angiogenic therapy. Early clinical trials were performed using fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) protein, which enhances the formation of new collateral vessels to reduce ischaemic symptoms. Conversely, angiogenic stimulation by FGF2 is a dilemma because it could cause negative angiogenic effects, such as atherosclerosis. Thus far, clinical trials in patients with recombinant FGF2 protein therapy have not yet yielded undisputable beneficial effects. Future trials should determine whether an improvement can be obtained in patients with coronary artery disease using a combination of FGF2 and other growth factors or a combination of the FGF2 gene and stem cell therapy. This review summarises the multiple roles of FGF2 in the progression of atherosclerosis, its effect on pro-angiogenesis and improvement of cardiac function in coronary artery disease, and the potentially unfavourable effect of angiogenesis on the prevention and treatment of atherogenesis.
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Daphnane diterpenoids from the stems of Trigonostemon lii and their anti-HIV-1 activity.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Thirteen highly oxygenated daphnane diterpenoids, including six known compounds, were isolated from the stems of Trigonostemon lii. The structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 2D NMR spectroscopy (HSQC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMBC, and ROESY) and mass spectrometry. The absolute stereochemistries of compounds were established on the basis of CD spectra. Four of the compounds showed modest anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50=2.04, 9.17, 11.42, and 9.05 ?g/ml, TI=26.49, >21.81, 9.32, and 9.56, respectively) in vitro.
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Evaluation of anti-HCV activity and SAR study of (+)-lycoricidine through targeting of host heat-stress cognate 70 (Hsc70).
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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The anti hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity of (+)-lycoricidine (1) was evaluated for the first time in this letter, yielding an EC50 value of 0.55 nmol/mL and an selection index (SI) value of 12.72. Further studies indicated that 1 induced this effect by down-regulating host heat-stress cognate 70 (Hsc70) expression. In addition, 20 derivatives were designed and synthesised to investigate the basic structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the title compound. Several of these derivatives exhibit a good inhibition of HCV, such as compound 3 (EC50=0.68 nmol/mL, SI=33.86), compound 2d (EC50=15 nmol/mL, SI=12) and compound 5 (EC50=33 nmol/mL, SI >10.91). Meanwhile, the experimental data suggest that the modification of certain groups of (+)-lycoricidine can reduce the cytotoxicity of the compounds.
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[Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in the treatment of neonatal intestinal atresia and stenosis].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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To summarize the experiences and advantages of laparoendoscopic single-site(LESS) surgery for neonatal intestinal atresia and stenosis.
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Trace analysis of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with antipsychotic drugs for Alzheimers disease by capillary electrophoresis with on column field-amplified sample injection.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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A simple and sensitive capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with UV detection (214 nm) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI), donepezil, and rivastigmine, with antipsychotic drugs in plasma. A sample pretreatment by liquid-liquid extraction and subsequent quantification by CZE with field-amplified sample injection (FASI) was used. The optimum separation for these analytes was achieved in <20 min at 25 °C with a fused-silica capillary column of 60.2 cm × 50 ?m I.D. (effective length 50 cm) and a run buffer containing 120 mM phosphate (pH 4.0) with 0.1 % ?-cyclodextrin, 40 % methanol (MeOH), and 0.02 % polyvinyl alcohol as a dynamic coating to reduce analytes interaction with the capillary wall. Using phenformin as an internal standard (40.0 ng/mL), the linear ranges of the proposed method for the simultaneous determination of donepezil, rivastigmine, aripiprazole, quetiapine, risperidone, clozapine, ziprasidone, and trazodone were over the range 4.0-80.0 ng/mL, and olanzapine was over the range 1.0-20.0 ng/mL. The method was applied for concentrations monitoring of AChEIs and antipsychotic drugs in ten Alzheimers disease patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia after oral administration of the commercial products.
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Gestational ingestion of oxidized frying oil by C57BL/6J mice differentially affects the susceptibility of the male and female offspring to diet-induced obesity in adulthood.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal ingestion of oxidized frying oil (OFO) during pregnancy influences the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) of the adult offspring. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control diet [10% fresh soybean oil (SO)] or an OFO-containing diet (10% OFO) throughout the entire gestational period. After parturition, all pups were nursed by SO-fed dams for 3 wk, weaned onto a nonpurified standard diet for 4 wk, and shifted to a high-fat diet (29% butter + 1% SO) for 5 wk. Consequently, 4 groups of offspring were obtained, consisting of the male (m) or female (f) offspring of dams fed the OFO diet (OFO-m and OFO-f) or the SO diet (SO-m and SO-f). At pregnancy d 18, higher amounts (P < 0.05) of mRNA for PPAR? target genes were found in the liver of the OFO-fed dams and their fetuses than in their SO controls. Although all pups were raised under the same conditions in postnatal life, a comparison based on the gender of pups from dams fed the different diets showed that adult OFO-f mice were prone to DIO, whereas adult OFO-m mice were resistant. The adult OFO-m mice also had higher expression of PPAR? target genes in the liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) and of thermogenic genes in the WAT than adult SO-m mice, whereas adult OFO-f and SO-f mice did not differ. We conclude that uterine PPAR? activation caused by maternal OFO ingestion affects hepatic PPAR? activity and adipose thermogenic capacity and contributes to the differential susceptibility to DIO in the male and female offspring in adulthood.
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Hydrogen sulfide, the next potent preventive and therapeutic agent in aging and age-associated diseases.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is the third endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. It is physiologically generated by cystathionine-?-lyase, cystathionine-?-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. H(2)S has been gaining increasing attention as an important endogenous signaling molecule because of its significant effects on the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Substantial evidence shows that H(2)S is involved in aging by inhibiting free-radical reactions, activating SIRT1, and probably interacting with the age-related gene Klotho. Moreover, H(2)S has been shown to have therapeutic potential in age-associated diseases. This article provides an overview of the physiological functions and effects of H(2)S in aging and age-associated diseases, and proposes the potential health and therapeutic benefits of H(2)S.
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Delftia litopenaei sp. nov., a poly-?-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating bacterium isolated from a freshwater shrimp culture pond.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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A Gram-negative, short-rod-shaped, motile, non-spore-forming and poly-?-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating bacterial strain, designated wsw-7(T), was isolated from a freshwater shrimp culture pond in Taiwan and was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the closest relatives of strain wsw-7(T) were Delftia lacustris 332(T), Delftia tsuruhatensis T7(T) and Delftia acidovorans ATCC 15668(T), with sequence similarities of 98.5, 98.4 and 97.9%, respectively. Phylogenetic trees obtained with 16S rRNA gene sequences or the polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC) gene sequences revealed that strain wsw-7(T) and these three closest relatives formed an independent phylogenetic clade within the order Burkholderiales. Strain wsw-7(T) contained summed feature 3 (comprising C(16:1)?7c and/or C(16:1)?6c), C(18:0) and C(18:1)?7c as predominant fatty acids. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8 and the DNA G+C content was 67.6 mol%. The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an uncharacterized aminolipid and several uncharacterized phospholipids. On the basis of the genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strain wsw-7(T) represents a novel species in the genus Delftia, for which the name Delftia litopenaei sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is wsw-7(T) (?=?BCRC 80212(T)?=?LMG 25724(T)).
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Spicachlorantins G-J, new lindenane sesquiterpenoid dimers from the roots of Chloranthus spicatus.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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Four new lindenane sesquiterpenoid dimers, spicachlorantins G-J (1-4), were isolated from the roots of Chloranthus spicatus together with seven known compounds, including chloramultilide A, shizukaol B, shizukaol D, shizukaol F, shizukaol P, chlorahololide D, and cycloshizukaol A. The planar structures of the new compounds were established by 1D-, 2D-NMR, and MS analyses. The absolute configurations of these compounds were determined by analyzing rotating Overhauser enhancement and exchange spectroscopy (ROESY) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra.
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Multiple artificial microRNAs targeting conserved motifs of the replicase gene confer robust transgenic resistance to negative-sense single-stranded RNA plant virus.
Mol. Plant Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the abundance of target mRNAs by guiding cleavage at sequence complementary regions. In this study, artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) targeting conserved motifs of the L (replicase) gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) were constructed using Arabidopsis pre-miRNA159a as the backbone. The constructs included six single amiRNAs targeting motifs A, B1, B2, C, D of E, and two triple amiRNAs targeting motifs AB1E or B2DC. Processing of pre-amiRNAs was confirmed by agro-infiltration, and transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing each amiRNA were generated. Single amiRNA transgenic lines expressing amiR-LB2 or amiR-LD showed resistance to WSMoV by delaying symptom development. Triple amiRNA lines expressing amiR-LB2, amiR-LD and amiR-LC provided complete resistance against WSMoV, with no indication of infection 28 days after inoculation. Resistance levels were positively correlated with amiRNA expression levels in these single and triple amiRNA lines. The triple amiR-LAB1E line did not provide resistance to WSMoV. Similarly, the poorly expressed amiR-LC and amiR-LE lines did not provide resistance to WSMoV. The amiR-LA- and amiR-LB1-expressing lines were susceptible to WSMoV, and their additional susceptibility to the heterologous Turnip mosaic virus harbouring individual target sequences indicated that these two amiRNAs have no effect in vivo. Transgenic lines expressing amiR-LB2 exhibited delayed symptoms after challenge with Peanut bud necrosis virus having a single mismatch in the target site. Overall, our results indicate that two amiRNAs, amiR-LB2 and amiR-LD, of the six designed amiRNAs confer moderate resistance against WSMoV, and the triple construct including the two amiRNAs provides complete resistance.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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