This study investigated the protective properties of garlic essential oil (GEO) and its major organosulfur component (diallyl disulfide, DADS) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal or high-fat diet (HFD) with/without GEO (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) or DADS (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. GEO and DADS dose-dependently exerted antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects by reducing HFD-induced body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, and serum biochemical parameters. Administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg GEO and 20 mg/kg DADS significantly decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, accompanied by elevated antioxidant capacity via inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 expression during NAFLD development. The anti-NAFLD effects of GEO and DADS were mediated through down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, as well as stimulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. These results demonstrate that GEO and DADS dose-dependently protected obese mice with long-term HFD-induced NAFLD from lipid accumulation, inflammation, and oxidative damage by ameliorating lipid metabolic disorders and oxidative stress. The dose of 20 mg/kg DADS was equally as effective in preventing NAFLD as 50 mg/kg GEO containing the same amount of DADS, which demonstrates that DADS may be the main bioactive component in GEO.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis of cancer cells. Many agents have been shown to inhibit the cancer cell migration and invasion by suppression of MMPs. 2-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-6,7-methylenedioxoquinolin-4-one (MMEQ) is a derivative compound synthesized from quinolin and the purpose of this study is to determine whether or not cell migration would be reduced in human bladder cancer TSGH8301 cells after MMEQ treatment. Wound healing assay and boyden chamber assay were used in cell migration and invasion determinations. Cell migration and invasion inhibited by MMEQ exerted an inhibitory effect on the sevenless homolog-1 (SOS-1), protein kinase c (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Rho A for causing the inhibitions of MMP-2 and -9, and then followed by the inhibitions of invasion and migration. MMEQ also affected FAK, PI3K or inhibited growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-?B), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) for cell proliferation inhibition. Therefore, MMEQ may serve as a drug in the prevention of tumor metastasis of bladder cancer in the future.
Antrodia camphorata has been recognized to be a traditional Chinese medicine for abdominal pain, diarrhea, and to protect against hepatitis virus infection. Several ingredients derived from A. camphorata possess various pharmacological and biological activities such as antioxidant and anticancer. In this study, its ability to promote immune responses and to exhibited antileukemia activity in WEHI-3 leukemia BALB/c mice were investigated. The results indicated A. camphorata significantly prolonged the survival rate and prevented the body weight loss in leukemia mice. Four mg/kg of A. camphorata treatment significantly decreased the weight of the spleen. Both doses (2 and 4 mg/kg) of A. camphorata did not affect Mac-3 marker in leukocytes. However, the 4 mg/kg of A. camphorata decreased the levels of CD11b and both doses of treatment increased CD3 and CD19. With lipopolysaccharide stimulation, the 4 mg/kg of A. camphorata promoted the significant proliferation of leukocytes; but with concanavalin A stimulation, both doses promoted the significant proliferation of leukocytes. YAC-1 target cells were killed by NK cells from the mice after treatment with A. camphorata at 4 mg/kg in target cells at a ratio of 50:1. The percentage of macrophages with phagocyted at A. camphorata treatment increased, and these effects were in dose-dependent manners.
Gallic acid is a polyhydroxyphenolic compound which can be found in various natural products. It is recognized to be an excellent free radical scavenger and has been shown to induce apoptosis in lung cancer and leukemia cells. No report has addressed whether gallic acid affects mouse leukemia cells in vivo. In this study, we examined the in vivo effects of gallic acid on leukemia WEHI-3 cells and on macrophage phagocytosis. Gallic acid caused a significant decrease in the weights of the spleens and livers from BALB/c mice. One of the major characteristic of WEHI-3 leukemia is the enlarged spleen in mice after i.p. injection of WEHI-3 cells. Gallic acid did not affect the percentages of CD3, CD11 and CD19 markers but decreased the percentage of Mac-3 in a high-dose (80 mg/kg) treatment while promoting Mac-3 levels in a low-dose (40 mg/kg) treatment. Gallic acid promoted the activity of macrophage phagocytosis in the white blood cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at 40 and 80 mg/kg treatment doses, but decreased the macrophage phagocytosis in isolated peritoneal cells at the 80 mg/kg dose.
Emodin was isolated from Rheum palmatum L. and exhibits an anticancer effect on human cancer cell lines, however, the molecular mechanisms of emodin-mediated apoptosis in human tongue cancer cells have not been fully investigated. In this study, treatment of human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells with various concentrations of emodin led to G2/M arrest through promoted p21 and Chk2 expression but inhibited cyclin B1 and cdc2; it also induced apoptosis through the pronounced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activations of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These events were accompanied by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi(m)) and a decrease in the ratio of mitochondrial Bcl-2 and Bax content; emodin also promoted the levels of GADD153 and GRP78. The free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine and caspase inhibitors markedly blocked emodin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that emodin mediated oxidative injury (DNA damage) based on ROS production and ER stress based on the levels of GADD153 and GRP78 that acts as an early and upstream change in the cell death cascade to caspase- and mitochondria-dependent signaling pathways, triggers mitochondrial dysfunction from Bcl-2 and Bax modulation, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase activation, consequently leading to apoptosis in SCC-4 cells.
Skin cancer is a serious concern whose incidence is increasing at an alarming rate. Allyl sulfides-i.e., sulfur metabolites in garlic oil-have been demonstrated to have anticancer activity against several cancer types, although the mechanisms underlying these effects remain enigmatic. Our previous study showed that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is more potent than mono- and disulfides against skin cancer. DATS inhibits cell growth of human melanoma A375 cells and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells by increasing the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage and by inducing G2/M arrest, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, including the caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. This short review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of garlic-derived allyl sulfides on skin cancer prevention.
Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), an active component of garlic oil, has attracted much attention because of its anticancer effect on several types of cancers. However, the mechanism of DATS-induced apoptosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not fully understood. In the present study, we revealed that DATS-mediated dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in BCC cells was associated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation and disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential. Western analysis demonstrated concordant expression of molecules involved in mitochondrial apoptosis, including DATS-associated increases in phospho-p53, proapoptotic Bax, and decreases in antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl in BCC cells. Moreover, DATS induced the release of cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and HtrA2/Omi into the cytoplasm, and activated factors downstream of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis, including nuclear translocation of apoptotic-inducing factor and endonuclease G and the caspase cascade. These results were confirmed by pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine and the caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk), the latter of which did not completely enhance the viability of DATS-treated BBC cells. Exposure to DATS additionally induced endogenous endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and intracellular Ca2? mobilization, upregulation of Bip/GRP78 and CHOP/GADD153, and activation of caspase-4. Our findings suggest that DATS exerts chemopreventive potential via ER stress and the mitochondrial pathway in BCC cells.
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