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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Clinical development of demethylating agents in hematology.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The term epigenetics refers to the heritable changes in gene expression that are not associated with a change in the actual DNA sequence. Epigenetic dysregulation is linked to the pathogenesis of a number of malignancies and has been studied extensively in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia. DNA methylation is frequently altered in cancerous cells and likely results in transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Re-expression of these genes by inhibition of the DNA methyltransferases has been successful in the treatment of benign and malignant disease. In this Review, we discuss the clinical development of demethylating agents in hematology, with a focus on azacitidine and decitabine.
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Management of chemotherapy-induced neutropenic fever.
Hosp Pract (1995)
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Fever occurs at high rates in patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and is considered an oncologic emergency. Numerous algorithms have been developed to guide treatment decisions. Prompt care and the initiation of empiric antibiotic therapy are critically important universal aspects of these treatment-decision schemata. Fever may be the only sign of infection, as in patients with cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy, the immune response is attenuated. In the majority of cases, no etiology for neutropenic fever is uncovered; nonetheless, a thorough workup is essential. The workup allows practitioners to risk stratify patients as being at low or high risk for infectious complications so that appropriate care can be administered. Although it is important to note that there are management algorithms to follow, every patient may present and respond differently. We generally start with broad-spectrum monotherapy for Gram-negative bacteria and then consider whether Gram-positive or antifungal coverage is necessary based on the clinical picture, including factors such as duration and degree of neutropenia. It is important for all practitioners to understand how to care for patients with neutropenic fever because it is a common and treatable condition.
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Phase 1 study of intravenous rigosertib (ON 01910.Na), a novel benzyl styryl sulfone structure producing G2/M arrest and apoptosis, in adult patients with advanced cancer.
Am J Cancer Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Rigosertib (ON 01910.Na), a synthetic novel benzyl styryl sulfone, was administered to 28 patients with advanced cancer in a Phase I trial in order to characterize its pharmacokinetic profile, determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), define the recommended phase II dose (RPTD) and to document any antitumor activity. Patients with advanced malignant neoplasms refractory to standard therapy were given escalating doses of rigosertib (50, 100, 150, 250, 325, 400, 650, 850, 1,050, 1,375, 1,700 mg/m(2)/24h) as a 3-day continuous infusion (CI) every 2 weeks. An accelerated Fibonacci titration schedule with specified decreases for toxicities was used for escalation until grade ?2 toxicity occurred. Intrapatient dose escalation was allowed if toxicity was grade ?2 and the disease remained stable. Plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) and urinary PK assessments were studied in the 1st and 4th cycles. Twenty-nine patients (12 men and 17 women; age 36-87 y with a median of 63 y) were registered, but one died before study drug was given. Twenty-eight patients received a median of 3 cycles of therapy. Most common grade ?2 toxicities attributable to rigosertib included fatigue, anorexia, vomiting and constipation. DLTs included muscular weakness, hyponatremia, neutropenia, delirium and confusional state. Risk factors for severe toxicities include pre-existing neurological dysfunction or advanced gynecologic cancer after pelvic surgery. Rigosertib pharmacokinetics showed rapid plasma distribution phases and urinary excretion. Elevations in plasma Cmax and AUC due to decreases in plasma clearance were associated with acute grade ?3 toxicities. Of 22 evaluable patients, 9 (41%) achieved a best overall response of stable disease; all other patients (n=13; 59%) progressed. The median progression-free survival time was 50 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 37-80 days). Nine (41%) patients survived for over 1 y. In summary, prolonged IV infusions of rigosertib were generally well tolerated. Nine (41%) patients achieved stable disease and 9 (41%) patients survived for over 1 year. The RPTD appears to be 850 mg/m(2)/24hr CI x 3 days. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01538537).
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Therapeutic modalities for patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: current options and future directions.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2011
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The treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) involves a complex algorithm that depends on multiple factors, including symptoms, performance status, and severity of disease. Current therapies are aimed at promoting hematopoiesis, inhibiting apoptosis, and reducing the risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Although there is no cure for MDS outside of allogeneic stem cell transplantation, goals of treatment include improvement of peripheral blood cytopenias, reduction of transfusions, improvement of the quality of life, and prolongation of survival. Patients with lower-risk MDS are often asymptomatic and can be monitored for long periods without therapeutic intervention. Anemia, the most common symptomatic cytopenia, warrants treatment in an attempt to eliminate transfusion dependence. This article reviews current treatment strategies for lower-risk MDS and examines the data for selected novel agents that are available or are being developed for the treatment of this disease.
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Therapeutic options for patients with myelofibrosis in blast phase.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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Myelofibrosis (MF) is a clonal stem cell disorder with the potential to transform to acute leukemia, referred to as myelofibrosis in blast phase (MF-BP). The outcome of patients with MF-BP is grave with a median survival of only 2.7 months. MF-BP is largely refractory to conventional chemotherapy and intensive induction therapy fails to have a significant impact with a median survival of 3.9 months. Eleven consecutive patients were treated at our institution with MF-BP over a 2-year period. Eligible patients with an available donor received an allogeneic stem cell transplant (ASCT) and those that were not eligible or without a donor were treated with Decitabine (DEC). The median time for follow up for the entire group was 9 months (range 5-21 month). At 9 months (range 5-45 months), 67% of the patients treated with DEC were alive and at 20 months (range 9-23 months), 53% of patients treated with ASCT remain alive. Reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation (RIC-ASCT) is a viable option that offers the potential for prolonged survival and the possibility of cure for patients with MF-BP. DEC is a tolerable outpatient chemotherapeutic regimen for MF-BP patients ineligible for transplant and deserves further prospective study.
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A randomized trial of hypnosis for relief of pain and anxiety in adult cancer patients undergoing bone marrow procedures.
J Psychosoc Oncol
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Pain and anxiety are closely associated with bone marrow aspirates and biopsies. To determine whether hypnosis administered concurrently with the procedure can ameliorate these morbidities, the authors randomly assigned 80 cancer patients undergoing bone marrow aspirates and biopsies to either hypnosis or standard of care. The hypnosis intervention reduced the anxiety associated with procedure, but the difference in pain scores between the two groups was not statistically significant. The authors conclude that brief hypnosis concurrently administered reduces patient anxiety during bone marrow aspirates and biopsies but may not adequately control pain. The authors explain this latter finding as indicating that the sensory component of a patients pain experience may be of lesser importance than the affective component. The authors describe future studies to clarify their results and address the limitations of this study.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.