Increased levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF, ?2?2) may reduce sickle cell anemia severity due to its ability to inhibit HbS polymerization and also reduce the mean corpuscular HbS concentration. We have investigated the influence of three known major loci on the HbF trait (HBG2, rs748214; BCL11A, rs4671393; and HBS1L-MYB, rs28384513, rs489544 and rs9399137) and HbF levels in SCA patients from the State of Pará, Northern Brazil. Our results showed that high levels of HbF were primarily influenced by alleles of BCL11A (rs4671393) and HMIP (rs4895441) loci, and to a lesser extent by rs748214 G?-globin (HBG2) gene promoter. The SNPs rs4671393 and rs4895441 explained 10% and 9.2%, respectively, of the variation in HbF levels, while 4.1% of trait variation was explained by rs748214. The results can be considered as in accordance with the pattern of ancestry displayed by the SCA patients: 39.6% European, 29.6% African and 30.8% Native American, and reinforce the suggestion that studies of association between genetic modifiers and clinical and laboratory manifestations in Brazil must be controlled by ancestry.
The N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene is a marker for the study of interindividual susceptibility to developing neoplasias. The purpose of this study was to verify a possible association between single nucleotide polymomorphisms (SNPs) of NAT2 and the susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC) and breast cancer (BC) in patients from the North region of Brazil.
Hearing impairment affects about 1 in 1000 newborns. Mutations in the connexin 26 (GJB2) gene rank among the most frequent causes of non-syndromic deafness in different populations, while delGJB6-D13S1830 mutation located in the DFNB30 locus is known to cause sensorineural hearing loss. Despite the many studies on the involvement of GJB2 mutations in hearing impairment in different populations, there is little information on genetic deafness in Brazil, especially in the Amazon region.
Alleles at the TPOX STR locus have 6-14 different numbers of a four-nucleotide (AATG) repeat motif arranged in tandem. Although tri-allelic genotypes are generally rare, the TPOX tri-allelic pattern has a higher frequency, varying widely among populations. Despite this, there are few accurate reports to disclose the nature of the TPOX third allele. In this work we present data obtained from 45 individuals belonging to the same pedigree, in which there are cases of tri-allelic TPOX genotypes. The subjects were apparently healthy with a normal biological development. We noticed six tri-allelic cases in this family, and all of them were women. Karyotype analysis showed no occurrence of partial 2p trisomy. All the tri-allelic cases had the genotype 8-10-11, probably due to three copies of the TPOX STR sequence in all cells (Type 2 tri-allelic pattern). Based on previous data we assumed the allele 10 as the TPOX third allele. The pedigree analyses show evidences that the TPOX extra-allele was the allele10, it is placed far from the main TPOX locus, and that there is a potential linkage of the TPOX extra-allele-10 with Xq. This was the first study that included a large pedigree analysis in order to understand the nature TPOX tri-allelic pattern.
Soroprevalence for Hepatitis C virus is reported as 2.12% in Northern Brazil, with about 50% of the patients exhibiting a sustained virological response (SVR). Aiming to associate polymorphisms in Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) with chronic hepatitis C and therapy responses we investigated 125 chronic patients and 345 controls. Additionally, 48 ancestry markers were genotyped to control for population stratification. The frequency of the KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL2+HLA-C(Asp80) gene and ligand was higher in chronic infected patients than in controls (p < 0.0009, OR = 3.4; p = 0.001, OR = 3.45). In fact, KIR2DL3 is a weaker inhibitor of NK activity than KIR2DL2, which could explain the association of KIR2DL2 with chronic infection. Moreover, KIR2DS2 and KIR2DS2+HLA-C(Asp80) (p < 0.0001, OR = 2.51; p = 0.0084, OR = 2.62) and KIR2DS3 (p < 0.0001; OR = 2.57) were associated with chronic infection, independently from KIR2DL2. No differences in ancestry composition were observed between control and patients, even with respect to therapy response groups. The allelic profile KIR2DL2/KIR2DS2/KIR2DS3 was associated with the chronic hepatitis C (p < 0.0001; OR = 3). Furthermore, the patients also showed a higher mean number of activating genes and a lower frequency of the homozygous AA profile, which is likely secondary to the association with non-AA and/or activating genes. In addition, the KIR2DS5 allele was associated with SVR (p = 0.0261; OR = 0.184).The ancestry analysis of samples ruled out any effects of population substructuring and did not evidence interethnic differences in therapy response, as suggested in previous studies.
Our study investigated the relationship between MYC alterations and clinicopathological features in gastric cancers. We evaluated the effect of MYC mRNA expression and its protein immunoreactivity, as well as copy number variation, promoter DNA methylation, and point mutations, in 125 gastric adenocarcinoma and 67 paried non-neoplastic tissues. We observed that 77% of the tumors presented MYC immunoreactivity which was significantly associated with increased mRNA expression (p<0.05). These observations were associated with deeper tumor extension and the presence of metastasis (p<0.05). MYC protein expression was also more frequently observed in intestinal-type than in diffuse-type tumors (p<0.001). Additionally, MYC mRNA and protein expression were significantly associated with its copy number (p<0.05). The gain of MYC copies was associated with late-onset, intestinal-type, advanced tumor stage, and the presence of distant metastasis (p<0.05). A hypomethylated MYC promoter was detected in 86.4% of tumor samples. MYC hypomethylation was associated with diffuse-type, advanced tumor stage, deeper tumor extension, and the presence of lymph node metastasis (p<0.05). Moreover, eighteen tumor samples presented at least one known mutation. The presence of MYC mutations was associated with diffuse-type tumor (p<0.001). Our results showed that MYC deregulation was mainly associated with poor prognostic features and also reinforced the presence of different pathways involved in intestinal-type and diffuse-type gastric carcinogenesis. Thus, our findings suggest that MYC may be a useful marker for clinical stratification and prognosis.
The allelic and haplotype frequencies of 17 Y-STR loci most commonly used in forensic testing were estimated in a sample of 138 unrelated healthy males from Macapá, in the northern Amazon region of Brazil. The average gene diversity was 0.6554 ± 0.3315. 134 haplotypes of the 17 loci were observed, 130 of them unique and four present in two individuals each. The haplotype diversity index was 0.9996 + 0.0009, with the most frequent haplogroups being R1b (52.2%), E1b1b (11.6%), J2 (10.1%) and Q (7.2%). Most haplogroups of this population belonged to European male lineages (89.2%), followed by Amerindian (7.2%) and African (3.6%) lineages.
Insertion-deletion (INDEL) markers are very frequent in the human genome and present several advantages for population and forensic studies, such as low mutation rates, easy interpretation, small amplicons, easy genotyping, and the possibility of using multiplex PCR. The great adaptability of INDELs for amplification of low copy number or degraded DNA allows its using as an interesting platform of genetic identity by DNA in forensic cases. In the present study, we tested the ability of 48 diallelic INDEL markers on genotyping forensic samples collected from different biological samples related to criminal cases. Moreover, we evaluated the lowest DNA concentration with which there was amplification of all markers from each one of three indel-plex panels. When comparing the performances obtained by the indel-plex panels described in this study with results obtained using Identifiler® kit (Applied Biosystems) related to forensic samples, as well as to control samples with different concentrations of DNA, we observed superior efficiency on samples with low copy number or in the presence of inhibitors.
The allelic frequencies of 12 short tandem repeat loci were obtained from a sample of 307 unrelated individuals living in Macapá, a city in the northern Amazon region, Brazil. These loci are the most commonly used in forensics and paternity testing. Based on the allele frequency obtained for the population of Macapá, we estimated an interethnic admixture for the three parental groups (European, Native American and African) of, respectively, 46%, 35% and 19%. Comparing these allele frequencies with those of other Brazilian populations and of the Iberian Peninsula population, no significant distances were observed. The interpopulation genetic distances (F(ST) coefficients) to the present database ranged from F(ST) = 0.0016 between Macapá and Belém to F(ST) = 0.0036 between Macapá and the Iberian Peninsula.
Allelic frequencies of 48 informative insert-delete (INDEL) loci were obtained from a sample set of 130 unrelated individuals living in Macapá, a city located in the northern Amazon region, in Brazil. The values of heterozygosity (H), polymorphic information content (PIC), power of discrimination (PD), power of exclusion (PE), matching probability (MP) and typical paternity index (TPI) were calculated and showed the forensic efficiency of these genetic markers. Based on the allele frequency obtained for the population of Macapá, we estimated an interethnic admixture for the three parental groups (European, Native American and African) of, respectively, 50%, 21% and 29%. Comparing these allele frequencies with those of other Brazilian populations and the parental populations, statistically significant distances were found. The interpopulation genetic distance (F(ST) coefficients) to the present database ranged from F(ST)=0.0431 (p<0.00001) between Macapá and Belém to F(ST)=0.266 (p<0.00001) between Macapá and the Native American group.
The allele and haplotype frequencies of nine Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385 I/II) were determined in a sample of six native tribes from the Brazilian Amazon (Tiriyó, Awa-Guajá, Waiãpi, Urubu-Kaapor, Zoé and Parakanã). Forty-eight different haplotypes were identified, 28 of which unique. Five haplotypes are very frequent and were shared by over 10 individuals. The estimated haplotype diversity (0.9114) was very low compared to other geographic groups, including Africans, Europeans and Asians.
In this study, a PCR multiplex was optimized, allowing the simultaneous analysis of 13 X-chromosome Insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs). Genetic variation observed in Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans reveals high inter-population variability. The estimated proportions of X-chromosomes in an admixed population from the Brazilian Amazon region show a predominant Amerindian contribution (approximately 41%), followed by European (approximately 32%) and African (approximately 27%) contributions. The proportion of Amerindian contribution based on X-linked data is similar to the expected value based on mtDNA and Y-chromosome information. The accuracy for assessing interethnic admixture, and the high differentiation between African, European, and Native American populations, demonstrates the suitability of this INDEL set to measure ancestry proportions in three-hybrid populations, as it is the case of Latin American populations.
A new polymorphic INDEL was detected at the X-STR GATA172D05 flanking region, which corresponds to an 18-bp deletion, 141 bp upstream the TAGA repeat motif. This INDEL was found to be polymorphic in different population samples from Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans as well as in an admixed population from the Amazonia (Belém). Gene diversities varied between 37.5% in Native Americans and 49.9% in Africans. Comparison between human and chimpanzee sequences showed that the ancestral state corresponds to the presence of two copies of 18 bp, detected in both species; and the mutated allele has lost one of these two copies. The simultaneous analysis of the short tandem repeat (STR) and INDEL variation showed an association between the INDEL ancestral allele with the shorter STR alleles. High diversities were found in all population groups when combining the information provided by the INDEL and STR variation. Gene diversities varied between 76.7% in Native Americans and 80.6% in both Portugal and Belém.
In the last years, several works have been published on the variability of X-markers; however, few were on Asian populations. In this work, we present the genetic data of 12 X-STRs (DXS9895, DXS7132, DXS6800, DXS9898, DXS6789, DXS7133, GATA172D05, DXS7130, HPRTB, GATA31E08, DXS7423, DXS10011) obtained from a sample of 232 individuals of Japanese origin residing in Brazil. Most markers investigated present a high genetic diversity, with the exception of DXS6800. No deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed, with the exception of DXS7133 locus. Linkage disequilibrium analysis did not reveal consistent evidence of association between the X-STRs used. The comparison of the Japanese immigrant population with other Asian populations (Japanese, Chinese, and Korean) demonstrates the inexistence of significant allelic frequency differences between these populations in most systems investigated.
Ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) show high allele frequency divergence between different ancestral or geographically distant populations. These genetic markers are especially useful in inferring the likely ancestral origin of an individual or estimating the apportionment of ancestry components in admixed individuals or populations. The study of AIMs is of great interest in clinical genetics research, particularly to detect and correct for population substructure effects in case-control association studies, but also in population and forensic genetics studies. This work presents a set of 46 ancestry-informative insertion deletion polymorphisms selected to efficiently measure population admixture proportions of four different origins (African, European, East Asian and Native American). All markers are analyzed in short fragments (under 230 basepairs) through a single PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) allowing a very simple one tube PCR-to-CE approach. HGDP-CEPH diversity panel samples from the four groups, together with Oceanians, were genotyped to evaluate the efficiency of the assay in clustering populations from different continental origins and to establish reference databases. In addition, other populations from diverse geographic origins were tested using the HGDP-CEPH samples as reference data. The results revealed that the AIM-INDEL set developed is highly efficient at inferring the ancestry of individuals and provides good estimates of ancestry proportions at the population level. In conclusion, we have optimized the multiplexed genotyping of 46 AIM-INDELs in a simple and informative assay, enabling a more straightforward alternative to the commonly available AIM-SNP typing methods dependent on complex, multi-step protocols or implementation of large-scale genotyping technologies.
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