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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
An fMRI-study on semantic priming of panic-related information in depression without comorbid anxiety.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Depression often involves anxiety symptoms and shows a strong comorbidity with panic disorder. However, the neural basis is unclear. The aim of the current study was to use semantic priming to investigate the neural correlates of panic and anxiety-related information processing in depression. In a lexical decision task, panic/agoraphobia-disorder-related and neutral word-pairs were presented during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants comprised 19 patients with major depression but without comorbid anxiety and 19 demographically matched controls. On a behavioral level, comparable significant priming effects were found for the neutral condition, while only patients showed a significant inhibition effect (slower reaction time for panic-related stimuli) for the panic condition. On a neural level, significant group differences emerged in left fronto-parietal (enhanced activation for patients) and left temporo-occipital regions (reduced activation for patients). The results showed that depressed patients recruit not only areas related to the interaction of emotion and semantic processing but also regions that are related to fear circuitry to process panic-related information. Hence, in the context of depression, there seems to be a pathological processing of panic-related information that could play an important role during the disorder and should be considered.
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The relation of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression to suicidal ideation and suicidal desire.
Suicide Life Threat Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The differential relations between the emotion regulation strategies "cognitive reappraisal" and "expressive suppression" and suicidality in a mixed inpatient sample (N = 232, 69.4% female) of a German psychotherapeutic hospital were examined. Patients filled in the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and items on suicidal ideation and desire. A structural equation model fitted the data (RMSEA = .044; CFI = .96) and revealed that "expressive suppression" significantly predicted increased suicidal ideation. Moderation analysis showed that results were independent from a current depressive episode. Potential implications for psychotherapeutic treatment of suicidality are discussed.
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Neural correlates of procedural variants in cognitive-behavioral therapy: a randomized, controlled multicenter FMRI study.
Psychother Psychosom
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG). It is unknown, how variants of CBT differentially modulate brain networks involved in PD/AG. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of therapist-guided (T+) versus self-guided (T-) exposure on the neural correlates of fear conditioning in PD/AG.
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Does cognitive behavior therapy alter emotion regulation in inpatients with a depressive disorder?
Psychol Res Behav Manag
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Emotion regulation plays an important role in the development and treatment of depression. The present study investigated whether the emotion regulation strategies, expressive suppression (ES) and cognitive reappraisal (CR) change in the course of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) of depressive inpatients. Furthermore, it also examined whether changes in CR and ES correlated with positive treatment outcomes.
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Timing Matters: Change Depends on the Stage of Treatment in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia.
J Consult Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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Objective: The mechanisms of action underlying treatment are inadequately understood. This study examined 5 variables implicated in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG): catastrophic agoraphobic cognitions, anxiety about bodily sensations, agoraphobic avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, and psychological flexibility. The relative importance of these process variables was examined across treatment phases: (a) psychoeducation/interoceptive exposure, (b) in situ exposure, and (c) generalization/follow-up. Method: Data came from a randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for PD/AG (n = 301). Outcomes were the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (Bandelow, 1995) and functioning as measured in the Clinical Global Impression scale (Guy, 1976). The effect of process variables on subsequent change in outcome variables was calculated using bivariate latent difference score modeling. Results: Change in panic symptomatology was preceded by catastrophic appraisal and agoraphobic avoidance across all phases of treatment, by anxiety sensitivity during generalization/follow-up, and by psychological flexibility during exposure in situ. Change in functioning was preceded by agoraphobic avoidance and psychological flexibility across all phases of treatment, by fear of bodily symptoms during generalization/follow-up, and by anxiety sensitivity during exposure. Conclusions: The effects of process variables on outcomes differ across treatment phases and outcomes (i.e., symptomatology vs. functioning). Agoraphobic avoidance and psychological flexibility should be investigated and therapeutically targeted in addition to cognitive variables. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Measuring decentering in self-reports: Psychometric properties of the Experiences Questionnaire in a German sample.
Psychother Res
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Abstract Decentering is described as referring to ones current mental experiences from an objective perspective. This study presents a psychometric evaluation of a German version of the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ-D), a self-report instrument designed to measure decentering. Confirmatory factor analysis on a sample of 506 university students indicates acceptable-to-good model fit (? (2)=58.3; TLI=.92; CFI=.95; RMSEA=.067) for a second-order factor Overall Decentering comprising the two first-order factors Accepting Self-Perception and Distanced Perspective. Preliminary evidence for the validity of the EQ-D was demonstrated via negative correlations with measures of depression and depressive rumination. The present results stress the multidimensional nature of decentering and provide important suggestions for future research on how to investigate and operationalize the decentering construct.
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Metacognitive monitoring of attention performance and its influencing factors.
Psychol Res
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Metacognitive monitoring is a central element of metacognitive processing exerting widespread influences on information processing. Albeit being subject to numerous empirical investigations referring to memory performance, there is little research investigating metacognitive monitoring in other cognitive domains. The present study investigated in 45 healthy students whether factors that are known to influence monitoring of memory performance, i.e. task difficulty, time of assessment, and practice, also exhibit a significant impact on monitoring of attention performance. A multivariate analysis of variance with three within-subject repeated measures factors on two dependent variables (monitoring of (a) time, and (b) errors in an attention task) was conducted. Results showed that monitoring ability significantly decreased with increasing task difficulty, was significantly better for post than for pre-assessment, and significantly increased with practice. Therefore, results suggest that the examined factors influenced monitoring of attention performance equivalent to the influence of these factors found in metamemory research.
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The Positive Illusory Bias in Children and Adolescents With ADHD: Further Evidence.
J Atten Disord
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Objective: This study aimed to examine the accuracy of self-reports of children and adolescents with ADHD in evaluating activity limitations. Method: Self-reports of children/adolescents with ADHD (n = 89) were compared with those of nonreferred children (n = 94), relative to parent reports about childrens competence. Competence was measured with a 34-item rating scale. Behavioral disorders were documented with the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Children/adolescents with ADHD were much more likely than controls to overestimate their competence in certain daily activities relative to parent reports, demonstrating a positive illusory bias. Positive illusory bias was found to be pronounced in activities, which were expected to be affected by symptoms of ADHD. Overestimations of competencies were more likely to be accompanied with externalizing problems. Conclusion: Results support the presence of the positive illusory bias also in the domain of everyday life activities. Improvement of self-evaluation of competencies should become a focus of treatment. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX).
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Adaptive screening for depression--recalibration of an item bank for the assessment of depression in persons with mental and somatic diseases and evaluation in a simulated computer-adaptive test environment.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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This study conducted a simulation study for computer-adaptive testing based on the Aachen Depression Item Bank (ADIB), which was developed for the assessment of depression in persons with somatic diseases. Prior to computer-adaptive test simulation, the ADIB was newly calibrated.
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Cross-sectional validation of the Rasch-based Depression Screening (DESC) in a mixed sample of patients with mental and somatic diseases.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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The study aimed to cross-validate the psychometric properties of the two parallel versions of the "Rasch-based Depression Screening (DESC)" in a mixed clinical sample of patients with mental disorders and somatic diseases. Additionally, it was intended to confirm the initially proposed cut-off scores.
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The role of 5-HT in response inhibition and re-engagement.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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In animal and human research, the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in inhibitory control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study investigated the acute effects of pharmacological modulation of the serotonergic system on brain activation during response inhibition and re-engagement in healthy human volunteers. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design 14 men received either a single oral dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram (10mg) or a placebo. At the time of the expected plasma peak concentration, participants performed a stop-change task during fMRI. Escitalopram did not affect behavioural performance, since the main effect did not reveal significant differences between reaction times of go-, stop- or change-trials. During successful response inhibition, escitalopram, however, was associated with enhanced brain activation in right prefrontal cortex, right supplementary/pre-motor and bilateral cingulate cortex, and subcortical regions. During inhibition failures, escitalopram also modulated a broad network of brain regions, including anterior cingulate, right parietal cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, and areas in right temporal cortex and subcortical regions. During response re-engagement escitalopram increased brain activation in right inferior frontal gyrus and precuneus as well as in left middle temporal gyrus. The results implicate the involvement of 5-HT in neural regulation of response inhibition and re-engagement. This study also provides evidence that 5-HT affects both action restraint and action cancellation through modulation of activation of brain areas. The results support the view for a fronto-striatal circuitry for response inhibition in conjunction with serotonin.
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Dimensional assessment of depressive severity in the elderly general population: psychometric evaluation of the PHQ-9 using Rasch Analysis.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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The depression module of the Patient Health questionnaire (PHQ-9) is a wide-spread self-report instrument for the assessment of depression with compelling psychometric characteristics when relying on classical test theory assumptions. This study aimed at evaluating whether the PHQ-9 may be interpreted as a dimensional scale measuring depression severity in the elderly general population using Rasch analysis with special emphasis on its unidimensional structure and differential item functioning (DIF) due to gender, age, and the presence of somatic multimorbidity.
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The negative affect repair questionnaire: factor analysis and psychometric evaluation in three samples.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Negative affect and difficulties in its regulation have been connected to several adverse psychological consequences. While several questionnaires exist, it would be important to have a theory-based measure that includes clinically relevant items and shows good psychometric properties in healthy and patient samples. This study aims at developing such a questionnaire, combining the two Gross [1] scales Reappraisal and Suppression with an additional response-focused scale called Externalizing Behavioral Strategies covering clinically relevant items.
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Do subjective measures of attention and memory predict actual performance? Metacognition in older couples.
Psychol Aging
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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Older individuals who recognize their cognitive difficulties are more likely to adjust their everyday life to their actual cognitive functioning, particularly when they are able to estimate their abilities accurately. We assessed self- and spouse-ratings of memory and attention difficulties in everyday life of healthy, older individuals and compared them with the respective test performance. Eighty-four older individuals (womens age, M = 67.4 years, SD = 5.2; mens age, M = 68.5 years, SD = 4.9) completed both the self and the spouse versions of the Attention Deficit Questionnaire and the Everyday Memory Questionnaire and completed two neuropsychological tests. Using the residual score approach, subjective metacognitive measures of memory and attention were created and compared with actual test performance. Significant associations between subjective and objective scores were found only for men and only for episodic memory measures. Men who underreported memory difficulties performed more poorly; men who overreported memory difficulties performed better. Mens recognition performance was best predicted by subjective measures (R² = .25), followed by delayed recall (R² = .14) and forgetting rate (R² = .13). The results indicate gender-specific differences in metacognitive accuracy and predictive validity of subjective ratings.
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Prevalence and psychopathological characteristics of depression in consecutive otorhinolaryngologic inpatients.
BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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High prevalence of depression has been reported in otorhinolaryngologic patients (ORL). However, studies using a semi-structured interview to determine the prevalence of depression in ORL are lacking. Therefore the present study sought to determine the depression prevalence in ORL applying a semi-structured diagnostic interview and to further characterize the pathopsychological and demographic characteristics of depression in these patients.
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The influence of emotional associations on the neural correlates of semantic priming.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Emotions influence our everyday life in several ways. With the present study, we wanted to examine the impact of emotional information on neural correlates of semantic priming, a well-established technique to investigate semantic processing. Stimuli were presented with a short SOA of 200 ms as subjects performed a lexical decision task during fMRI measurement. Seven experimental conditions were compared: positive/negative/neutral related, positive/negative/neutral unrelated, nonwords (all words were nouns). Behavioral data revealed a valence specific semantic priming effect (i.e., unrelated > related) only for neutral and positive related word pairs. On a neural level, the comparison of emotional over neutral relations showed activation in left anterior medial frontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, and posterior cingulate. Interactions for the different relations were located in left anterior part of the medial frontal cortex, cingulate regions, and right hippocampus (positive > neutral + negative) and left posterior part of medial frontal cortex (negative > neutral + positive). The results showed that emotional information have an influence on semantic association processes. While positive and neutral information seem to share a semantic network, negative relations might induce compensatory mechanisms that inhibit the spread of activation between related concepts. The neural correlates highlighted a distributed neural network, primarily involving attention, memory and emotion related processing areas in medial fronto-parietal cortices. The differentiation between anterior (positive) and posterior part (negative) of the medial frontal cortex was linked to the type of affective manipulation with more cognitive demands being involved in the automatic processing of negative information.
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The Clinical Global Impression Scale and the influence of patient or staff perspective on outcome.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Since its first publication, the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) has become one of the most widely used assessment instruments in psychiatry. Although some conflicting data has been presented, studies investigating the CGIs validity have only rarely been conducted so far. It is unclear whether the improvement index CGI-I or a difference score of the severity index CGI-S (dif) is more valid in depicting clinical change. The current study examined the validity of these two measures and investigated whether therapists CGI ratings correspond to the view the patients themselves have on their condition.
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Neuropsychiatric complications of efavirenz therapy: suggestions for a new research paradigm.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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This review gives an up-to-date account of the current state of research on neuropsychiatric complications associated with efavirenz therapy and critiques the methods used in previous studies. The authors suggest an extension of current research strategies using psychophysiological concepts and including behavioral regulation models. From a practical perspective, these may contribute to better screening methods for the identification of those at risk for neuropsychiatric complications and the improvement of neuropsychiatric monitoring during efavirenz treatment. From a theoretical viewpoint, the suggested research paradigms may help to move beyond the current state of descriptive approaches and thus improve our limited understanding of underlying mechanisms.
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Serotonergic modulation of response inhibition and re-engagement? Results of a study in healthy human volunteers.
Hum Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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Cognitive functions dependent on the prefrontal cortex, such as the ability to suppress behavior (response inhibition) and initiate a new one (response re-engagement) is important in the activities of daily life. Central serotonin (5-HT) function is thought to be a critical component of these cognitive functions. In recent studies, 5-HT failed to affect stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), a fundamental process in behavioral inhibition. We were interested if response inhibition and re-engagement are influenced through central 5-HT activity as mediated via the 5-HT transporter.
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Effects of alcohol cue exposure on response inhibition in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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There is evidence that exerting self-control during alcohol craving can diminish performance on subsequent tasks that require self-control. Based on the resource depletion model (Muraven and Baumeister, 2000), we examined the influence of alcohol cue exposure on detoxified alcohol-dependent patients ability to inhibit ongoing responses.
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Validation of the Rasch-based Depression Screening in a large scale German general population sample.
Health Qual Life Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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The study aimed at presenting normative data for both parallel forms of the "Rasch-based Depression Screening (DESC)", to examine its Rasch model conformity and convergent and divergent validity based on a representative sample of the German general population.
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Psychometric evaluation of the Rasch-based depression screening in patients with neurologic disorders.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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To provide a first evaluation of the Rasch-Based Depression Screening (DESC) in consecutive patients with neurologic disorders.
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Does clinical experience or professional training have an impact on what symptoms are thought to be important features of depression?
Int J Soc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Concerning diagnostics of mental disorders, increasing time and cost pressure in the clinical practice often requires an ad hoc and intuitive holistic examination of the patients clinical presentation instead of the application of standardized diagnostic instruments. This study examined whether attributes of mental healthcare professionals (professional training, clinical experience, socio-demographic variables) affect their implicit weighing of symptoms they encounter in such unstandardized diagnostic situations.
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Development of an item bank for the assessment of depression in persons with mental illnesses and physical diseases using Rasch analysis.
Rehabil Psychol
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2009
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The calibration of item banks provides the basis for computerized adaptive testing that ensures high diagnostic precision and minimizes participants test burden. The present study aimed at developing a new item bank that allows for assessing depression in persons with mental and persons with somatic diseases.
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Sensitivity and specificity of the Beck Depression Inventory in cardiologic inpatients: how useful is the conventional cut-off score?
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2009
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The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is widely used for depression screening in various patient populations. However, there are still insufficient data about its sensitivity and specificity in nonpsychiatric patients. Furthermore, some research suggests that somatic BDI items heighten its sum score artificially in physically ill patients. The aim of the present study was to validate the conventional BDI cut-off score by examination of its sensitivity and specificity in a mixed sample of cardiac inpatients and compare it to a modified "cognitive-emotional" BDI (BDI(c/e)) after exclusion of somatic items.
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Development and validation of the Rasch-based Depression Screening (DESC) using Rasch analysis and structural equation modelling.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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Questionnaires for the assessment of depression benefit from modern test construction like item-response-modelling. We developed two parallel 10 item depression questionnaires, the Rasch-based Depression Screening version 1 (DESC-I) and 2 (DESC-II), by combining Rasch analysis and structural equation modelling on patient samples suffering primarily from a mental disorder or from somatic diseases. Both scales base upon a Rasch homogeneous item bank and proved unidimensionality and good model fit. Cut-off scores with good sensitivity and specificity were developed using ROC analyses. Results suggest that DESC may be appropriately used to screen for depression and may be beneficial for repeated measurements.
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Differential effects of escitalopram on attention: a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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The role of serotonin (5-HT) in attention is not fully understood yet.
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The influence of positive and negative emotional associations on semantic processing in depression: An fMRI study.
Hum Brain Mapp
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In depression, patients suffer from emotional and cognitive deficits, among others in semantic processing. If these semantic deficits are cognitive or interact with emotional dysfunctions, is still an open question. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of emotional valence on the neural correlates of semantic priming in major depression. In a lexical decision task, positive, negative, and neutral word pairs were presented during fMRI measurement. Nineteen inpatients and 19 demographically matched controls were recruited. Behaviorally, positive and neutral valence induced a priming effect whereas negative valence induced no effect (controls) or even inhibition (slower RT for related stimuli) in patients. At the neural level, the semantic relation effect revealed similar neural activation in right middle frontal regions for patients and controls. Group differences emerged in the right fusiform gyrus and the ACC. Activity associated with positive valence differed at the DLPFC and amygdala and for negative valence at putamen and cerebellum. The activation of amygdala and DLPFC correlated negatively with the severity of depression. To conclude, semantic processing deficits in depression are modulated by emotional valence of the stimulus on the behavioral as well as on neural level in right-lateralized prefrontal areas and the amygdala. The results highlighted an influence of depression severity on emotion information processing as the severity of symptoms correlated negatively with neural responses to positively and negatively valenced information. Hence, the dysfunctional emotion processing may further enhance the cognitive deficits in depression. Hum Brain Mapp 35:471-482, 2014. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Stop or stop-change--does it make any difference for the inhibition process?
Int J Psychophysiol
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In the course of daily living altering environmental conditions or changing internal states often cause us to abandon obsolete planned or initiated actions and force us to update our behavior. The stop-change paradigm, an extension of the very popular stop-signal paradigm, allows the investigation of response inhibition and response re-engagement in a laboratory setting. This is very important as everyday life rarely calls for the complete suppression of actions without subsequent behavioral adjustment. The present review first gives a short overview on stop-signal inhibition and its behavioral and neural models before summarizing the findings in the stop-change domain. In doing so, this review shall contribute to a better understanding of the functional and neural architecture of response inhibition and re-engagement. Moreover, the question is raised whether the same or different inhibition process(es) are involved in stop-signal- and stop-change inhibition.
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Influence of cue exposure on inhibitory control and brain activation in patients with alcohol dependence.
Front Hum Neurosci
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Alcohol dependence is a serious condition characterized by persistent desires to drink and unsuccessful efforts to control alcohol consumption despite the knowledge of dysfunction through the usage. The study at hand examined the influence of an alcohol exposure on inhibitory processes. Research provides evidence that trying to resist the temptation to drink exerts self-control, a limited resource which is used during all acts of inhibition. In line with this, studies demonstrate an impaired ability to regulate an already initiated response in alcohol-dependent and healthy subjects when confronted with alcohol-related stimuli. The related neuronal correlates in alcohol-dependent patients remain to be elucidated. The inhibition performance of 11 male alcohol-dependent patients during an alcohol exposure was compared with the task performance during a control condition. Behavioral data and neural brain activation during task performance were acquired by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. The alcohol cue exposure led to subjectively stronger urges to drink which was accompanied by differential neural activation in amygdala and hippocampus. Moreover, the results revealed typical neural activation during inhibition performance across both conditions. Anyhow, we could not detect any behavioral deficits and only subtle neural differences between induction conditions during the performance of the inhibition task within the inferior frontal cortex. The results suggest that although the sample reports a subjectively stronger urge to drink after the alcohol cue exposure this effect was not strong enough to significantly impair task performance. Coherently, we discover only subtle differential brain activation between conditions during the inhibition task. In opposition to findings in literature our data do not reveal that an exposure to alcohol-related cues and thereby elicited cue reactivity results in impaired inhibition abilities.
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Prevalence of suicidal ideation and related risk factors in the German general population.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
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The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation in a representative sample of the German general population and examined its relation to potential risk factors. The study sample consisted of 2509 persons. Mean age was 49.4 years (SD, 18.2 years; 55.8% women). Participants filled in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and two items from the Rasch-based Depression Screening measuring suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation was reported by 8.0% (n = 211) of all participants. People reporting suicidal ideation were less likely to be married or living together with a partner and to have children aged 6 to 13 years and were more likely to be divorced. They reported significantly higher levels of a depressive syndrome (t = 17.78; p < 0.001) and an anxiety syndrome (t = 18.43; p < 0.001). The study showed high point prevalence for suicidal ideation in the general German population. In concordance with results from similar studies in other countries, living alone and reporting anxious and depressive syndromes was associated with suicidal ideation.
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Can executive control be influenced by performance feedback? Two experimental studies with younger and older adults.
Front Hum Neurosci
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Executive control describes a wide range of cognitive processes which are critical for the goal-directed regulation of stimulus processing and action regulation. Previous studies have shown that executive control performance declines with age but yet, it is still not clear whether different internal and external factors-as performance feedback and age-influence these cognitive processes and how they might interact with each other. Therefore, we investigated feedback effects in the flanker task in young as well as in older adults in two experiments. Performance feedback significantly improved executive performance in younger adults at the expense of errors. In older adults, feedback also led to higher error rates, but had no significant effect on executive performance which might be due to stronger interference. Results indicate that executive functions can be positively influenced by performance feedback in younger adults, but not necessarily in older adults.
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Monitoring the mind: the neurocognitive correlates of metamemory.
PLoS ONE
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Memory performance in everyday life is often far from perfect and therefore needs to be monitored and controlled by metamemory evaluations, such as judgments of learning (JOLs). JOLs support monitoring for goal-directed modification of learning. Behavioral studies suggested retrieval processes as providing a basis for JOLs. Previous functional imaging research on JOLs found a dissociation between processes underlying memory prediction, located in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and actual encoding success, located in the medial temporal lobe. However, JOL-specific neural correlates could not be identified unequivocally, since JOLs were given simultaneously with encoding. Here, we aimed to identify the neurocognitive basis of JOLs, i.e., the cognitive processes and neural correlates of JOL, separate from initial encoding. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we implemented a face-name paired associative design. In general, we found that actual memory success was associated with increased brain activation of the hippocampi bilaterally, whereas predicted memory success was accompanied by increased activation in mPFC, orbital frontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Masking brain activation during predicted memory success with activation during retrieval success revealed BOLD increases of the mPFC. Our findings indicate that JOLs actually incorporate retrieval processes.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.