Hippocampal network hyperexcitability is considered an early indicator of Alzheimer's disease (AD) memory impairment. Some AD mouse models exhibit similar network phenotypes. In this study we focused on dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell spontaneous and evoked properties in 9-month-old Tg2576 mice that model AD amyloidosis and cognitive deficits. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that Tg2576 DG granule cells exhibited spontaneous EPSCs that were higher in frequency but not amplitude compared with wild-type mice, suggesting hyperactivity of DG granule cells via a presynaptic mechanism. Further support of a presynaptic mechanism was revealed by increased I-O relationships and probability of release in Tg2576 DG granule cells. Since we and others have shown that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) axis improves hippocampal cognition in mouse models for AD as well as benefitting memory performance in some humans with early AD, we investigated how PPAR? agonism affected synaptic activity in Tg2576 DG. We found that PPAR? agonism normalized the I-O relationship of evoked EPSCs, frequency of spontaneous EPSCs, and probability of release that, in turn, correlated with selective expression of DG proteins essential for presynaptic SNARE function that are altered in patients with AD. These findings provide evidence that DG principal cells may contribute to early AD hippocampal network hyperexcitability via a presynaptic mechanism, and that hippocampal cognitive enhancement via PPAR? activation occurs through regulation of presynaptic vesicular proteins critical for proper glutamatergic neurotransmitter release, synaptic transmission, and short-term plasticity.
Chronic hepatic disease damages the liver, and the resulting wound-healing process leads to liver fibrosis and the subsequent development of cirrhosis. The leading cause of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis is infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and of the patients with HCV-induced cirrhosis, 2% to 5% develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with a survival rate of 7%. HCC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, and the poor survival rate is largely due to late-stage diagnosis, which makes successful intervention difficult, if not impossible. The lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic tools and the urgent need for early-stage diagnosis prompted us to discover new candidate biomarkers for HCV and HCC. We used aptamer-based fractionation technology to reduce serum complexity, differentially labeled samples (six HCV and six HCC) with fluorescent dyes, and resolved proteins in pairwise two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. DeCyder software was used to identify differentially expressed proteins and spots picked, and MALDI-MS/MS was used to determine that ApoA1 was down-regulated by 22% (p < 0.004) in HCC relative to HCV. Differential expression quantified via two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis was confirmed by means of (18)O/(16)O stable isotope differential labeling with LC-MS/MS zoom scans. Technically independent confirmation was demonstrated by triple quadrupole LC-MS/MS selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assays with three peptides specific to human ApoA1 (DLATVYVDVLK, WQEEMELYR, and VSFLSALEEYTK) using (18)O/(16)O-labeled samples and further verified with AQUA peptides as internal standards for quantification. In 50 patient samples (24 HCV and 26 HCC), all three SRM assays yielded highly similar differential expression of ApoA1 in HCC and HCV patients. These results validated the SRM assays, which were independently confirmed by Western blotting. Thus, ApoA1 is a candidate member of an SRM biomarker panel for early diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of HCC. Future multiplexing of SRM assays for other candidate biomarkers is envisioned to develop a biomarker panel for subsequent verification and validation studies.
We describe a method for ratio estimations in (18)O-water labeling experiments acquired from low resolution isotopically resolved data. The method is implemented in a software package specifically designed for use in experiments making use of zoom-scan mode data acquisition. Zoom-scan mode data allow commonly used ion trap mass spectrometers to attain isotopic resolution, which makes them amenable to use in labeling schemes such as (18)O-water labeling, but algorithms and software developed for high resolution instruments may not be appropriate for the lower resolution data acquired in zoom-scan mode. The use of power spectrum analysis is proposed as a general approach that may be uniquely suited to these data types. The software implementation uses a power spectrum to remove high-frequency noise and band-filter contributions from coeluting species of differing charge states. From the elemental composition of a peptide sequence, we generate theoretical isotope envelopes of heavy-light peptide pairs in five different ratios; these theoretical envelopes are correlated with the filtered experimental zoom scans. To automate peptide quantification in high-throughput experiments, we have implemented our approach in a computer program, MassXplorer. We demonstrate the application of MassXplorer to two model mixtures of known proteins and to a complex mixture of mouse kidney cortical extract. Comparison with another algorithm for ratio estimations demonstrates the increased precision and automation of MassXplorer.
Numerous metabolic pathways have been implicated in diabetes-induced renal injury, yet few studies have utilized unbiased systems biology approaches for mapping the interconnectivity of diabetes-dysregulated proteins that are involved. We utilized a global, quantitative, differential proteomic approach to identify a novel retinoic acid hub in renal cortical protein networks dysregulated by type 2 diabetes.
We previously reported that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist rosiglitazone (RSG) improved hippocampus-dependent cognition in the Alzheimers disease (AD) mouse model, Tg2576. RSG had no effect on wild-type littermate cognitive performance. Since extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK MAPK) is required for many forms of learning and memory that are affected in AD, and since both PPAR? and ERK MAPK are key mediators of insulin signaling, the current study tested the hypothesis that RSG-mediated cognitive improvement induces a hippocampal PPAR? pattern of gene and protein expression that converges with the ERK MAPK signaling axis in Tg2576 AD mice. In the hippocampal PPAR? transcriptome, we found significant overlap between peroxisome proliferator response element-containing PPAR? target genes and ERK-regulated, cAMP response element-containing target genes. Within the Tg2576 dentate gyrus proteome, RSG induced proteins with structural, energy, biosynthesis and plasticity functions. Several of these proteins are known to be important for cognitive function and are also regulated by ERK MAPK. In addition, we found the RSG-mediated augmentation of PPAR? and ERK2 activity during Tg2576 cognitive enhancement was reversed when hippocampal PPAR? was pharmacologically antagonized, revealing a coordinate relationship between PPAR? transcriptional competency and phosphorylated ERK that is reciprocally affected in response to chronic activation, compared with acute inhibition, of PPAR?. We conclude that the hippocampal transcriptome and proteome induced by cognitive enhancement with RSG harnesses a dysregulated ERK MAPK signal transduction pathway to overcome AD-like cognitive deficits in Tg2576 mice. Thus, PPAR? represents a signaling system that is not crucial for normal cognition yet can intercede to restore neural networks compromised by AD.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex and common problem resulting in the loss of cognitive function. In order to build a comprehensive knowledge base of the proteins that underlie these cognitive deficits, we employed unbiased quantitative mass spectrometry, proteomics, and bioinformatics to identify and quantify dysregulated proteins in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus in the fluid percussion model of TBI in rats. Using stable isotope 18O-water differential labeling and multidimensional tandem liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS with high stringency statistical analyses and filtering, we identified and quantified 1002 common proteins, with 124 increased and 76 decreased. The ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) bioinformatics tool identified that TBI had profound effects on downregulating global energy metabolism, including glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation, as well as cellular structure and function. Widespread upregulation of actin-related cytoskeletal dynamics was also found. IPA indicated a common integrative signaling node, calcineurin B1 (CANB1, CaNB?, or PPP3R1), which was downregulated by TBI. Western blotting confirmed that the calcineurin regulatory subunit, CANB1, and its catalytic binding partner PP2BA, were decreased without changes in other calcineurin subunits. CANB1 plays a critical role in downregulated networks of calcium signaling and homeostasis through calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent kinase II to highly interconnected structural networks dominated by tubulins. This large-scale knowledge base lays the foundation for the identification of novel therapeutic targets for cognitive rescue in TBI.
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