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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Etiologic heterogeneity among non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) comprises biologically and clinically heterogeneous subtypes. Previously, study size has limited the ability to compare and contrast the risk factor profiles among these heterogeneous subtypes.
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Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for sporadic Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia: the Interlymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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The etiologic role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is unknown, but epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that risk factors may vary by age.
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Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for marginal zone lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), comprised of nodal, extranodal, and splenic subtypes, accounts for 5%-10% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. A detailed evaluation of the independent effects of risk factors for MZL and its subtypes has not been conducted.
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Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are two subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A number of studies have evaluated associations between risk factors and CLL/SLL risk. However, these associations remain inconsistent or lacked confirmation. This may be due, in part, to the inadequate sample size of CLL/SLL cases.
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Rationale and Design of the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the most common hematologic malignancy, consists of numerous subtypes. The etiology of NHL is incompletely understood, and increasing evidence suggests that risk factors may vary by NHL subtype. However, small numbers of cases have made investigation of subtype-specific risks challenging. The International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium therefore undertook the NHL Subtypes Project, an international collaborative effort to investigate the etiologies of NHL subtypes. This article describes in detail the project rationale and design.
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Evaluation of p16(INK4a) overexpression in a large series of cervical carcinomas: concordance with SPF10-LiPA25 PCR.
Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The aims of this study were to assess the overexpression of p16 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical carcinoma tissue blocks and to determine its concordance with the human papillomavirus (HPV) status using the SPF10-LiPA25 polymerase chain reaction System and its correlation with the histologic type of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and individual HPV genotypes. A total of 205 retrospectively collected ICC cases were analyzed by p16 immunohistochemistry. HPV detection was performed by polymerase chain reaction using SPF10 broad-spectrum primers, followed by deoxyribonucleic acid enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by reverse hybridization line probe assay (LiPA25). Of 205, 188 analyzed (91.7%) ICC cases showed p16 overexpression, whereas 181 (83.3%) cases were HPV positive using HPV LiPA testing. One hundred and seventy four (84.9%) cases were both p16 and HPV LiPA positive, indicating a positive concordance of 89.9% between both techniques (? index agreement of 0.43; P<0.001), and no statistically significant difference (McNemar test, P>0.05). Squamous cell carcinomas were strongly positive compared with the adenocarcinomas (93.6% vs. 75% of the cases, respectively). When performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissue specimens, the higher positivity rate of p16 immunohistochemistry as compared with HPV DNA testing may allow identifying HPV-related ICC cases in which HPV testing was negative.
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Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancer in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Countries of the former Yugoslavia bear some of the highest cervical cancer burden in Europe. In Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), data on human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution among cervical cancer cases is scarce. This baseline information is critical in order to evaluate the impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines. This study aims to provide specific information for B&H.
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Protecting the underscreened women in developed countries: the value of HPV test.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Poor attendance to cervical cancer (CC) screening is a major risk factor for CC. Efforts to capture underscreened women are considerable and once women agree to participate, the provision of longitudinal validity of the screening test is of paramount relevance. We evaluate the addition of high risk HPV test (HPV) to cervical cytology as a primary screening test among underscreened women in the longitudinal prediction of intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or worse (CIN2+).
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Reproductive factors and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A systematic review.
Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Considerable efforts have been made to elucidate non-Hodgkin lymphoma's (NHL) etiology during the last decades. Some evidence points to an association with reproductive factors, as incidence rates for most NHL subtypes are usually higher in men than in women, and several subtypes express hormonal receptors. Although the evidence is not compelling, some studies show an inverse association with gravidity. Associations with postmenopausal hormone therapy are usually derived from unopposed estrogen use, rather than for the combination of estrogen with progestin, but these findings vary by study design. Inconsistencies in the results are likely due to the complex relationship between reproductive, biological, and sociodemographic factors, as well as to study limitations. Elucidating the role of hormonal factors should provide clues for therapeutic options and public health decisions. We provide an overview of the available evidence on reproductive factors in NHL etiology, underscoring potential sources of discrepancies and bias.
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Genome-wide association study identifies five susceptibility loci for follicular lymphoma outside the HLA region.
Christine F Skibola, Sonja I Berndt, Joseph Vijai, Lucia Conde, Zhaoming Wang, Meredith Yeager, Paul I W de Bakker, Brenda M Birmann, Claire M Vajdic, Jia-Nee Foo, Paige M Bracci, Roel C H Vermeulen, Susan L Slager, Silvia de Sanjosé, Sophia S Wang, Martha S Linet, Gilles Salles, Qing Lan, Gianluca Severi, Henrik Hjalgrim, Tracy Lightfoot, Mads Melbye, Jian Gu, Hervé Ghesquières, Brian K Link, Lindsay M Morton, Elizabeth A Holly, Alex Smith, Lesley F Tinker, Lauren R Teras, Anne Kricker, Nikolaus Becker, Mark P Purdue, John J Spinelli, Yawei Zhang, Graham G Giles, Paolo Vineis, Alain Monnereau, Kimberly A Bertrand, Demetrius Albanes, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Attilio Gabbas, Charles C Chung, Laurie Burdett, Amy Hutchinson, Charles Lawrence, Rebecca Montalvan, Liming Liang, Jinyan Huang, Baoshan Ma, Jianjun Liu, Hans-Olov Adami, Bengt Glimelius, Yuanqing Ye, Grzegorz S Nowakowski, Ahmet Dogan, Carrie A Thompson, Thomas M Habermann, Anne J Novak, Mark Liebow, Thomas E Witzig, George J Weiner, Maryjean Schenk, Patricia Hartge, Anneclaire J De Roos, Wendy Cozen, Degui Zhi, Nicholas K Akers, Jacques Riby, Martyn T Smith, Mortimer Lacher, Danylo J Villano, Ann Maria, Eve Roman, Eleanor Kane, Rebecca D Jackson, Kari E North, W Ryan Diver, Jenny Turner, Bruce K Armstrong, Yolanda Benavente, Paolo Boffetta, Paul Brennan, Lenka Foretova, Marc Maynadié, Anthony Staines, James McKay, Angela R Brooks-Wilson, Tongzhang Zheng, Theodore R Holford, Saioa Chamosa, Rudolph Kaaks, Rachel S Kelly, Bodil Ohlsson, Ruth C Travis, Elisabete Weiderpass, Jacqueline Clavel, Edward Giovannucci, Peter Kraft, Jarmo Virtamo, Patrizio Mazza, Pierluigi Cocco, Maria Grazia Ennas, Brian C H Chiu, Joseph F Fraumeni, Alexandra Nieters, Kenneth Offit, Xifeng Wu, James R Cerhan, Karin E Smedby, Stephen J Chanock, Nathaniel Rothman.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of follicular lymphoma (FL) have previously identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene variants. To identify additional FL susceptibility loci, we conducted a large-scale two-stage GWAS in 4,523 case subjects and 13,344 control subjects of European ancestry. Five non-HLA loci were associated with FL risk: 11q23.3 (rs4938573, p = 5.79 × 10(-20)) near CXCR5; 11q24.3 (rs4937362, p = 6.76 × 10(-11)) near ETS1; 3q28 (rs6444305, p = 1.10 × 10(-10)) in LPP; 18q21.33 (rs17749561, p = 8.28 × 10(-10)) near BCL2; and 8q24.21 (rs13254990, p = 1.06 × 10(-8)) near PVT1. In an analysis of the HLA region, we identified four linked HLA-DR?1 multiallelic amino acids at positions 11, 13, 28, and 30 that were associated with FL risk (pomnibus = 4.20 × 10(-67) to 2.67 × 10(-70)). Additional independent signals included rs17203612 in HLA class II (odds ratio [OR(per-allele)] = 1.44; p = 4.59 × 10(-16)) and rs3130437 in HLA class I (OR(per-allele) = 1.23; p = 8.23 × 10(-9)). Our findings further expand the number of loci associated with FL and provide evidence that multiple common variants outside the HLA region make a significant contribution to FL risk.
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0426?Occupation and leukaemia in Spain 2007-2012.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Established risk factors for leukaemia do not explain the majority of leukaemia. Previous studies have suggested the importance of occupation in leukaemogenesis. To evaluate associations between job title and leukaemia in the population the MCC-Spain We studied occupational variation of the risk of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
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Analysis of three strategies to increase screening coverage for cervical cancer in the general population of women aged 60 to 70 years: the CRICERVA study.
BMC Womens Health
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Cervical cancer is a frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Despite having easy preventive and therapeutic approaches, it is an important cause of mortality among women.
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Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
James R Cerhan, Sonja I Berndt, Joseph Vijai, Hervé Ghesquières, James McKay, Sophia S Wang, Zhaoming Wang, Meredith Yeager, Lucia Conde, Paul I W de Bakker, Alexandra Nieters, David Cox, Laurie Burdett, Alain Monnereau, Christopher R Flowers, Anneclaire J De Roos, Angela R Brooks-Wilson, Qing Lan, Gianluca Severi, Mads Melbye, Jian Gu, Rebecca D Jackson, Eleanor Kane, Lauren R Teras, Mark P Purdue, Claire M Vajdic, John J Spinelli, Graham G Giles, Demetrius Albanes, Rachel S Kelly, Mariagrazia Zucca, Kimberly A Bertrand, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Charles Lawrence, Amy Hutchinson, Degui Zhi, Thomas M Habermann, Brian K Link, Anne J Novak, Ahmet Dogan, Yan W Asmann, Mark Liebow, Carrie A Thompson, Stephen M Ansell, Thomas E Witzig, George J Weiner, Amelie S Veron, Diana Zelenika, Hervé Tilly, Corinne Haioun, Thierry Jo Molina, Henrik Hjalgrim, Bengt Glimelius, Hans-Olov Adami, Paige M Bracci, Jacques Riby, Martyn T Smith, Elizabeth A Holly, Wendy Cozen, Patricia Hartge, Lindsay M Morton, Richard K Severson, Lesley F Tinker, Kari E North, Nikolaus Becker, Yolanda Benavente, Paolo Boffetta, Paul Brennan, Lenka Foretova, Marc Maynadié, Anthony Staines, Tracy Lightfoot, Simon Crouch, Alex Smith, Eve Roman, W Ryan Diver, Kenneth Offit, Andrew Zelenetz, Robert J Klein, Danylo J Villano, Tongzhang Zheng, Yawei Zhang, Theodore R Holford, Anne Kricker, Jenny Turner, Melissa C Southey, Jacqueline Clavel, Jarmo Virtamo, Stephanie Weinstein, Elio Riboli, Paolo Vineis, Rudolph Kaaks, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Roel C H Vermeulen, Heiner Boeing, Anne Tjonneland, Emanuele Angelucci, Simonetta Di Lollo, Marco Rais, Brenda M Birmann, Francine Laden, Edward Giovannucci, Peter Kraft, Jinyan Huang, Baoshan Ma, Yuanqing Ye, Brian C H Chiu, Joshua Sampson, Liming Liang, Ju-Hyun Park, Charles C Chung, Dennis D Weisenburger, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Joseph F Fraumeni, Susan L Slager, Xifeng Wu, Silvia de Sanjosé, Karin E Smedby, Gilles Salles, Christine F Skibola, Nathaniel Rothman, Stephen J Chanock.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma subtype and is clinically aggressive. To identify genetic susceptibility loci for DLBCL, we conducted a meta-analysis of 3 new genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 1 previous scan, totaling 3,857 cases and 7,666 controls of European ancestry, with additional genotyping of 9 promising SNPs in 1,359 cases and 4,557 controls. In our multi-stage analysis, five independent SNPs in four loci achieved genome-wide significance marked by rs116446171 at 6p25.3 (EXOC2; P = 2.33 × 10(-21)), rs2523607 at 6p21.33 (HLA-B; P = 2.40 × 10(-10)), rs79480871 at 2p23.3 (NCOA1; P = 4.23 × 10(-8)) and two independent SNPs, rs13255292 and rs4733601, at 8q24.21 (PVT1; P = 9.98 × 10(-13) and 3.63 × 10(-11), respectively). These data provide substantial new evidence for genetic susceptibility to this B cell malignancy and point to pathways involved in immune recognition and immune function in the pathogenesis of DLBCL.
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Epstein-Barr virus and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the cancer prevention study-II and a meta-analysis of serologic studies.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes rare, malignant lymphomas. The role of EBV in other non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) remains unclear, but mildly reduced immune function could lead to reactivation of EBV and subsequent NHL. We examined the association between prospectively-collected plasma EBV antibodies and NHL risk in the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort and conducted a meta-analysis of our and published results. The CPS-II study included 225 NHL cases and 2:1 matched controls. No associations were observed between EBV serostatus or antibody levels and risk of NHL overall. However, when including only the three most common types of NHL (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma), high compared to low early antigen (EA-D) diffuse and BZLF1-encoded replication activator antibodies were associated with approximately 60% higher risk of NHL. Odds ratios (ORs) for EBV nuclear antigen-1 and viral capsid antigen (VCA)-p18 were elevated but not statistically significant. In the meta-analysis, both EA (summary OR?=?1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-2.00) and VCA (summary OR?=?1.20, 95% CI: 1.00-1.44) were positively associated with NHL risk. These results suggest EBV may be associated with a wider spectrum of NHL subtypes, but further study is needed to confirm and fully understand these associations.
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Human papillomavirus DNA prevalence and type distribution in anal carcinomas worldwide.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Knowledge about human papillomaviruses (HPV) types involved in anal cancers in some world regions is scanty. Here, we describe the HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in a series of invasive anal cancers and anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN) grades 2/3 from 24 countries. We analyzed 43 AIN 2/3 cases and 496 anal cancers diagnosed from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 116 cancers was further tested for p16(INK4a) expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV-associated transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance in the anal cancer data set. HPV DNA was detected in 88.3% of anal cancers (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85.1-91.0%) and in 95.3% of AIN 2/3 (95% CI: 84.2-99.4%). Among cancers, the highest prevalence was observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, in younger patients and in North American geographical region. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence by gender. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both cancers (80.7%) and AIN 2/3 lesions (75.4%). HPV18 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.6%). p16(INK4a) overexpression was found in 95% of HPV DNA-positive anal cancers. In view of the results of HPV DNA and high proportion of p16(INK4a) overexpression, infection by HPV is most likely to be a necessary cause for anal cancers in both men and women. The large contribution of HPV16 reinforces the potential impact of HPV vaccines in the prevention of these lesions.
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Prevalence of human papillomavirus in adolescent girls before reported sexual debut.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are recommended for girls prior to sexual debut because they are most effective if administered before girls acquire HPV. Little research has been done on HPV prevalence in girls who report not having passed sexual debut in high HPV-prevalence countries.
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Pathogenic role of the eight probably/possibly carcinogenic HPV types 26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82 in cervical cancer.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Eight HPV types (HPV26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82) that are phylogenetically closely related to 12 WHO-defined high-risk (HR) HPV have been rarely but consistently identified as single HPV infections in about 3% of cervical cancer (CxCa) tissues. Due to lack of biological data, these types are referred to as probable/possible (p) HR-HPV. To analyse their biological activity in direct comparison to HR-HPV types, we selected 55 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) CxCa tissues harbouring single pHR-HPV infections (2-13 cases per type) and 266 tissues harbouring single HR-HPV (7-40 cases per type) from a worldwide, retrospective, cross-sectional study. Single HPV infection was verified by two genotyping methods. Presence of type-specific spliced E6*I mRNA transcripts and expression of cellular proteins indicative of HPV transformation were assessed in all cases. In 55 CxCa tissues with pHR-HPV, E6*I mRNA expression was 100%; high p16(INK4a) , 98%; low pRb, 96%; low CyD1, 93%; and low p53, 84%. Compared to HPV16 tissues as a reference, individual frequencies of these five markers did not differ significantly, either for any of the eight pHR-HPV and the 11 other HR types individually or for the groups of pHR and HR types without HPV16. We conclude that the eight pHR-HPV types, when present as a single infection in CxCa, are biologically active and affect the same cellular pathways as any of the fully recognized carcinogenic HR-HPV types. Therefore we have provided molecular evidence of carcinogenicity for types currently classified as probably/possibly carcinogenic. Although this evidence is crucial for HPV-type carcinogenicity classification, per se it is not sufficient for inclusion of these HPV types into population-wide primary and secondary prevention programmes. Such decisions have to include careful estimation of effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Potential impact of a 9-valent HPV vaccine in HPV-related cervical disease in 4 emerging countries (Brazil, Mexico, India and China).
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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We estimated the potential impact of an investigational 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (HPVs 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) in HPV-related cervical disease in Brazil, Mexico, India and China, to help to formulate recommendations on cervical cancer prevention and control.
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HPV prevalence and genotypes in different histological subtypes of cervical adenocarcinoma, a worldwide analysis of 760 cases.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The goal of our study was to provide comprehensive data on the worldwide human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in patients with invasive cervical adenocarcinoma in correlation with histologic tumor subtypes, geographical location, patients' age, and duration of sample storage. Paraffin-embedded samples of 760 cervical adenocarcinoma cases were collected worldwide. A three-level pathology review of cases was performed to obtain consensus histologic diagnoses and 682 cases were determined to be eligible for further analysis. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). Classic cervical adenocarcinoma accounted for 83.1% of cases, while rare histological variants accounted for a few percent of cases individually. HPV positivity varied significantly between the different histologic tumor subtypes. Classic cervical adenocarcinoma showed high HPV positivity (71.8%), while other adenocarcinoma types had significantly lower HPV prevalence (endometrioid 27.3%, serous 25%, clear cell 20%, not otherwise specified 13.9%, and minimal deviation 8.3%). In all, 91.8% of HPV-positive tumors showed the presence of a single viral type and in 7% of cases multiple viral types were detected. Three HPV genotypes, HPV 16, 18, and 45, dominated in all adenocarcinomas and together accounted for 94.1% of HPV-positive tumors. HPV16 was the most common and found in 50.9% of HPV-positive cases, followed by HPV18 (31.6%) and HPV45 (11.6%). HPV prevalence varied depending on geographical region, patient age, and sample storage time. Tumors from older patients and tumor samples with longer storage time showed lower HPV prevalence. Our results indicate that HPV vaccines may prevent up to 82.5% (HPV16/18) and up to 95.3% (9-valent vaccine) of HPV-positive cervical adenocarcinomas, mostly the classic type. HPV testing and vaccination will not provide full coverage for a very small subset of classical adenocarcinomas and most of the rare tumor variants such as clear cell, serous, endometrioid, and minimal deviation.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 25 April 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.55.
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Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of existing screening programs using HPV-based technology, 3) extension of adapted screening programs to developing populations, and 4) consideration of the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination in women, as well as in men. Despite the huge advances already achieved, there must be ongoing efforts including international advocacy to achieve widespread-optimally universal-implementation of HPV prevention strategies in both developed and developing countries. This article summarizes information from the chapters presented in a special ICO Monograph Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Additional details on each subtopic and full information regarding the supporting literature references may be found in the original chapters.
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Trials and projects on cervical cancer and human papillomavirus prevention in sub-saharan Africa.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), accounting for about 50,000 deaths annually. Until recently, cytology was the gold standard for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. This method of screening has not been successful in SSA due to a lack of human, financial and material resources and poor health care infrastructure. It is estimated that less than 5% of at risk women have ever being screened. In the past two decades alternative approaches to cytology for cervical cancer screening have been evaluated in low- and medium-income countries. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and/or Lugols iodine (VILI) have been shown to have adequate sensitivity, although low specificity, in a number of cross-sectional research and demonstration projects. Visual inspection methods require minimal resources, are technologically accessible, and are feasible for screening for precancerous lesions. Linking screening with VIA/VILI to treatment with cryotherapy may enable screening and treatment to take place in one visit, but this is likely to result in large numbers of women being subjected to unnecessary treatment. A number of studies have shown that cryotherapy is not associated with significant side effects or complications and is well tolerated. Creating the infrastructure for screening of older women is considered desirable, despite the limitations of visual inspection methods as screening tests. Understanding the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the etiology of cervical cancer and the discovery of HPV rapid test kits, as well as the development of vaccines against the HPV oncogenic types, have created new opportunities for prevention of cervical cancer. Trials and projects have established (and are still ongoing) the feasibility of using these molecular tests for screening. The ultimate in prevention method is primary prevention, offered by the advent of prophylactic vaccines against the most important oncogenic types, namely HPV16 and 18. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Sub-Saharan Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 5, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.
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Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of existing screening programs using HPV-based technology, 3) extension of adapted screening programs to developing populations, and 4) consideration of the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination in women, as well as in men. Despite the huge advances already achieved, there must be ongoing efforts including international advocacy to achieve widespread-optimally universal-implementation of HPV prevention strategies in both developed and developing countries. This article summarizes information from the chapters presented in a special ICO Monograph Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Additional details on each subtopic and full information regarding the supporting literature references may be found in the original chapters.
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Genetic susceptibility to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Semin. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia in the West and is an incurable malignancy. No firmly established evidence exists for environmental risk factors in the etiology of CLL. However, CLL is estimated to have one of the highest familial risks for a hematologic malignancy; this along with other evidence strongly supports an inherited genetic component. In the past 5 years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided the foundation for new avenues in the investigation of pathogenesis of this disease with 22 susceptibility loci currently identified. We review here the advances made in identifying these loci, the potential to translate these findings into clinical practice, and future directions needed to advance our understanding of the genetic susceptibility of CLL.
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Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of existing screening programs using HPV-based technology, 3) extension of adapted screening programs to developing populations, and 4) consideration of the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination in women, as well as in men. Despite the huge advances already achieved, there must be ongoing efforts including international advocacy to achieve widespread-optimally universal-implementation of HPV prevention strategies in both developed and developing countries. This article summarizes information from the chapters presented in a special ICO Monograph Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Additional details on each subtopic and full information regarding the supporting literature references may be found in the original chapters.
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The occasional role of low-risk human papillomaviruses 6, 11, 42, 44, and 70 in anogenital carcinoma defined by laser capture microdissection/PCR methodology: results from a global study.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Low-risk human papillomaviruses (LR-HPVs) have been associated occasionally with clinically and pathologically unusual anogenital malignancies. The relation between clinicopathologic features and any pathogenetic role of LR-HPV remains unclear. From a global study of 13,328 anogenital carcinomas, we identified 57 cases in which whole-tissue polymerase chain reaction using SPF10-LiPA25 showed single LR-HPV infection. In 43/46 (93.5%) available carcinomas, multiple polymerase chain reaction assays confirmed single detection of HPV6, 11, 42, 44, or 70 DNA. In 75% (n=32) of these, LR-HPV DNA was confirmed in tumor cells by laser capture microdissection. In 2 cases, including 1 adenocarcinoma, viral DNA was only found outside the tumor. All anogenital tumors with confirmed HPV6/11 showed a distinctive range of papillary, warty or warty-basaloid, squamous, or transitional histology with patchy or negative p16 expression. HPV6-associated cervical tumors occurred at a low median age. HPV42/70 was associated with typical squamous cell carcinoma showing diffuse p16 staining like high-risk HPV-related malignancies. HPV44 was found in malignant cells in 1 case. Viral taxonomy and theoretical analysis show that HPV6/11 belong to a different genus from HPV42/70 with E6/E7 gene products that would not bind pRb or p53, whereas HPV42/70 could bind pRb. Our data support the causal involvement of LR-HPVs in the carcinogenesis of <2% of anogenital malignancies of 2 distinct clinicopathologic patterns related to the genetic structure of the HPV types 6/11 and 70/42. HPV42/70 was associated with typical squamous carcinomas. Importantly all carcinomas associated with HPV6/11 globally showed verruco-papillary, well-differentiated, squamous, or transitional histology without p16 expression.
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Exposure to UV radiation and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma: a pooled analysis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure has been inversely associated with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) risk, but only inconsistently, only in a few studies, and without attention to HL heterogeneity. We conducted a pooled analysis of HL risk focusing on type and timing of UVR exposure and on disease subtypes by age, histology, and tumor-cell Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. Four case-control studies contributed 1320 HL cases and 6381 controls. We estimated lifetime, adulthood, and childhood UVR exposure and history of sunburn and sunlamp use. We used 2-stage estimation with mixed-effects models and weighted pooled effect estimates by inverse marginal variances. We observed statistically significant inverse associations with HL risk for UVR exposures during childhood and adulthood, sunburn history, and sunlamp use, but we found no significant dose-response relationships. Risks were significant only for EBV-positive HL (pooled odds ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.35 to 0.91 for the highest overall UVR exposure category), with a significant linear trend for overall exposure (P = .03). Pooled relative risk estimates were not heterogeneous across studies. Increased UVR exposure may protect against HL, particularly EBV-positive HL. Plausible mechanisms involving UVR induction of regulatory T cells or the cellular DNA damage response suggest opportunities for new prevention targets.
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Methylation of human papillomavirus Type 16 CpG sites at E2-binding site 1 (E2BS1), E2BS2, and the Sp1-binding site in cervical cancer samples as determined by high-resolution melting analysis-PCR.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated carcinogenesis is driven mainly by the overexpression of E7 and E6 oncoproteins following viral DNA integration and the concomitant loss of the E2 open reading frame (ORF). However, the integration of HR-HPV DNA is not systematically observed in cervical cancers. The E2 protein acts as a transcription factor that governs viral oncogene expression. The methylation of CpGs in the E2-binding sites (E2BSs) in the viral long control region abrogates E2 binding, thus impairing the E2-mediated regulation of E7/E6 transcription. Here, high-resolution melting (HRM)-PCR was developed to quantitatively analyze the methylation statuses of E2BS1, E2BS2, and the specificity protein 1 (Sp1)-binding site in 119 HPV16-positive cervical smears. This is a rapid assay that is suitable for the analysis of cervical samples. The proportion of cancer samples with methylated E2BS1, E2BS2, and Sp1-binding site CpGs was 47%, whereas the vast majority of samples diagnosed as being within normal limits, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) harbored unmethylated CpGs. Methylation levels varied widely, since some cancer samples harbored up to 60% of methylated HPV16 genomes. A pyrosequencing approach was used as a confirmation test and highlighted that quantitative measurement of methylation can be achieved by HRM-PCR. Its prognostic value deserves to be investigated alone or in association with other biomarkers. The reliability of this single-tube assay offers great opportunities for the investigation of HPV16 methylation in other HPV-related cancers, such as head and neck cancers, which are a major public health burden.
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Time trends of human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancer, from 1940 to 2007.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Contribution over time of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in human cancers has been poorly documented. Such data is fundamental to measure current HPV vaccines impact in the years to come. We estimated the HPV type-specific distribution in a large international series of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) over 70 years prior to vaccination. Paraffin embedded ICC cases diagnosed between 1940 and 2007 were retrieved from eleven countries in Central-South America, Asia and Europe. Included countries reported to have low-medium cervical cancer screening uptake. Information on age at and year of diagnosis was collected from medical records. After histological confirmation, HPV DNA detection was performed by SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 (version1). Logistic regression models were used for estimating the adjusted relative contributions (RC) of HPV16 and of HPV18 over time. Among 4,771 HPV DNA positive ICC cases, HPV16 and HPV18 were the two most common HPVs in all the decades with no statistically significant variations of their adjusted-RC from 1940-59 to 2000-07 (HPV16-from 61.5 to 62.1%, and HPV18-from 6.9 to 7.2%). As well, the RC of other HPV types did not varied over time. In the stratified analysis by histology, HPV16 adjusted-RC significantly increased across decades in adenocarcinomas. Regarding age, cases associated to either HPV16, 18 or 45 were younger than those with other HPV types in all the evaluated decades. The observed stability on the HPV type distribution predicts a high and stable impact of HPV vaccination in reducing the cervical cancer burden in future vaccinated generations.
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Genome-wide association study identifies multiple risk loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Sonja I Berndt, Christine F Skibola, Vijai Joseph, Nicola J Camp, Alexandra Nieters, Zhaoming Wang, Wendy Cozen, Alain Monnereau, Sophia S Wang, Rachel S Kelly, Qing Lan, Lauren R Teras, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Charles C Chung, Meredith Yeager, Angela R Brooks-Wilson, Patricia Hartge, Mark P Purdue, Brenda M Birmann, Bruce K Armstrong, Pierluigi Cocco, Yawei Zhang, Gianluca Severi, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Charles Lawrence, Laurie Burdette, Jeffrey Yuenger, Amy Hutchinson, Kevin B Jacobs, Timothy G Call, Tait D Shanafelt, Anne J Novak, Neil E Kay, Mark Liebow, Alice H Wang, Karin E Smedby, Hans-Olov Adami, Mads Melbye, Bengt Glimelius, Ellen T Chang, Martha Glenn, Karen Curtin, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, Brandt Jones, W Ryan Diver, Brian K Link, George J Weiner, Lucia Conde, Paige M Bracci, Jacques Riby, Elizabeth A Holly, Martyn T Smith, Rebecca D Jackson, Lesley F Tinker, Yolanda Benavente, Nikolaus Becker, Paolo Boffetta, Paul Brennan, Lenka Foretova, Marc Maynadié, James McKay, Anthony Staines, Kari G Rabe, Sara J Achenbach, Celine M Vachon, Lynn R Goldin, Sara S Strom, Mark C Lanasa, Logan G Spector, Jose F Leis, Julie M Cunningham, J Brice Weinberg, Vicki A Morrison, Neil E Caporaso, Aaron D Norman, Martha S Linet, Anneclaire J De Roos, Lindsay M Morton, Richard K Severson, Elio Riboli, Paolo Vineis, Rudolph Kaaks, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Giovanna Masala, Elisabete Weiderpass, Maria-Dolores Chirlaque, Roel C H Vermeulen, Ruth C Travis, Graham G Giles, Demetrius Albanes, Jarmo Virtamo, Stephanie Weinstein, Jacqueline Clavel, Tongzhang Zheng, Theodore R Holford, Kenneth Offit, Andrew Zelenetz, Robert J Klein, John J Spinelli, Kimberly A Bertrand, Francine Laden, Edward Giovannucci, Peter Kraft, Anne Kricker, Jenny Turner, Claire M Vajdic, Maria Grazia Ennas, Giovanni M Ferri, Lucia Miligi, Liming Liang, Joshua Sampson, Simon Crouch, Ju-Hyun Park, Kari E North, Angela Cox, John A Snowden, Josh Wright, Angel Carracedo, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Sílvia Beà, Itziar Salaverria, David Martín-Garcia, Elias Campo, Joseph F Fraumeni, Silvia de Sanjosé, Henrik Hjalgrim, James R Cerhan, Stephen J Chanock, Nathaniel Rothman, Susan L Slager.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have previously identified 13 loci associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL). To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted the largest meta-analysis for CLL thus far, including four GWAS with a total of 3,100 individuals with CLL (cases) and 7,667 controls. In the meta-analysis, we identified ten independent associated SNPs in nine new loci at 10q23.31 (ACTA2 or FAS (ACTA2/FAS), P=1.22×10(-14)), 18q21.33 (BCL2, P=7.76×10(-11)), 11p15.5 (C11orf21, P=2.15×10(-10)), 4q25 (LEF1, P=4.24×10(-10)), 2q33.1 (CASP10 or CASP8 (CASP10/CASP8), P=2.50×10(-9)), 9p21.3 (CDKN2B-AS1, P=1.27×10(-8)), 18q21.32 (PMAIP1, P=2.51×10(-8)), 15q15.1 (BMF, P=2.71×10(-10)) and 2p22.2 (QPCT, P=1.68×10(-8)), as well as an independent signal at an established locus (2q13, ACOXL, P=2.08×10(-18)). We also found evidence for two additional promising loci below genome-wide significance at 8q22.3 (ODF1, P=5.40×10(-8)) and 5p15.33 (TERT, P=1.92×10(-7)). Although further studies are required, the proximity of several of these loci to genes involved in apoptosis suggests a plausible underlying biological mechanism.
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Age-specific occurrence of HPV16- and HPV18-related cervical cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The age-specific occurrence of cervical cancer related to human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes HPV16 and HPV18, the two targeted by current HPV vaccines, is not well described. We therefore used data from two large, tissue-based HPV genotyping studies of cervical cancer, one conducted in New Mexico (n = 744) and an International study restricted to cancers (n = 1,729) from Europe, North America, and Australia to represent those regions with widely available cervical cancer screening facilities. HPV results were categorized as HPV16- or HPV18-positive (HPV16/18) versus other HPV genotype. We observed a decreasing proportion of HPV16/18-positive cancers with increasing age in the International study (Ptrend < 0.001) and New Mexico study (Ptrend < 0.001). There was no heterogeneity in the relationship between age of diagnosis and the proportion of HPV16/18-positive cancers between studies (P = 0.8). Combining results from the two studies (n = 2,473), the percentages of HPV16/18-positive cases were 77.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 75.1%-78.9%] for women less than 65 years old and 62.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 58.4%-66.9%] for women aged 65 and older (P < 0.001). In women who are under the age of 25 and have been vaccinated before becoming sexually active, the cervical cancer incidence is expected to be approximately 3.5 per million by 2020. HPV vaccination against HPV16/18 may have a greater impact on cervical cancers in women under 65 than in women aged 65 and older. These data will inform the age-specific impact of HPV vaccination and its integration with cervical cancer screening activities.
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The role of human papillomavirus in head and neck cancer in Senegal.
Infect. Agents Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Exploring the presence and role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in head and neck cancer (HNC) is a necessary step to evaluate the potential impact of HPV prophylactic vaccines.
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Laser capture microdissection shows HPV11 as both a causal and a coincidental infection in cervical cancer specimens with multiple HPV types.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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To identify, by laser capture microdissection (LCM), the cellular localization of HPV11 when present with carcinogenic HPV in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) specimens, and to relate this to p16(INK) (4a) expression.
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High prevalence and incidence of human papillomavirus in a cohort of healthy young African female subjects.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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We measured the prevalence and incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in young female subjects recruited for a safety and immunogenicity trial of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in Tanzania.
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[Coverage of cervical cancer screening in Catalonia, Spain (2008-2011).]
Gac Sanit
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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To estimate cervical cytology coverage for the period 2008-2011 by age groups and health regions from data recorded in the medical records of women attending centers within the Catalan national health system.
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Bladder cancer and seroreactivity to BK, JC and Merkel cell polyomaviruses: the Spanish bladder cancer study.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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An infectious etiology for bladder cancer has long been suspected. Merkel cell virus (MCV), BKV and JCV polyomaviruses are possible causative agents but data remain scarce. Therefore, we evaluated the seroresponse to these three polyomaviruses in association with bladder cancer risk. 1,135 incident bladder cancer subjects from five Spanish regions and 982 hospital controls matched by sex, age and region were included. 99% of cases were urothelial-cell carcinomas. Antibody response against MCV, BKV and JCV was measured by enzyme immunoassay using Virus-Like-Particles. Our results show a similar seroprevalence in cases and controls: 64/60% for BKV, 83/82% for MCV and 87/83% for JCV. However, among seropositive subjects, higher median seroreactivities were observed in cases compared to controls for BKV (0.84 vs. 0.70, p-value = 0.009) and MCV (1.81 vs. 0.65, p-value < 0.001). Increased bladder cancer risk was observed for BKV (OR = 1.4, 95%CI 1.04-1.8) and for MCV (OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.2-1.9), when comparing highest to lowest seroreactivity tertiles. The associations of BKV and MCV with bladder cancer were independent of each other and neither smoking status nor disease stage and grade modified them. Furthermore, no association was observed between seroresponse to JCV and bladder cancer. Therefore, we conclude that BKV and MCV polyomavirus infection could be related to an increased bladder cancer risk.
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Occupational exposure to immunologically active agents and risk for lymphoma: the European Epilymph case-control study.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Allergies and asthma may be protective for the development of lymphoma. We evaluated whether occupational allergens that provoke immune reactivity and asthma through an IgE-mediated pathway are protective for lymphoma.
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Poor prognosis associated with human papillomavirus ?7 genotypes in cervical carcinoma cannot be explained by intrinsic radiosensitivity.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype and outcome after radiation therapy and intrinsic radiosensitivity.
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Performance of the digene LQ, RH and PS HPVs genotyping systems on clinical samples and comparison with HC2 and PCR-based Linear Array.
Infect. Agents Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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Certain Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the infectious agents involved in cervical cancer development. Detection of HPVs DNA is part of the cervical cancer screening protocols and HPVs genotyping has been proposed for its inclusion in these preventive programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate three novel genotyping tests, namely Qiagen LQ, RH and PS, in clinical samples with and without abnormalities. For this, 305 cervical samples were processed and the results of the evaluated techniques were compared with those obtained in the HPVs diagnostic process in our lab, by using HC2 and Linear Array (LA) technologies.
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Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in cervical cancer cases in Spain. Implications for prevention.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is critical to guide the introduction and to assess the impact of HPV prophylactic vaccines. This study aims to provide specific information for Spain.
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Intrauterine device use, cervical infection with human papillomavirus, and risk of cervical cancer: a pooled analysis of 26 epidemiological studies.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
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Intrauterine device (IUD) use has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer, but little is known about its association with cervical cancer risk. We assessed whether IUD use affects cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the risk of developing cervical cancer.
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The prospects of HPV vaccination in cervical cancer prevention: results of a new independent trial.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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Herrero and colleagues show that in a phase III randomized trial in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, the use of a human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and HPV18 ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix) resulted in complete efficacy against 12-month persistent HPV16 and HPV18 infections and partial protection against HPV31, 33, and 45 in HPV-naïve young women ages 18 to 25.
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Epidemiologic profile, sexual history, pathologic features, and human papillomavirus status of 103 patients with penile carcinoma.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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The incidence of penile cancer is four times higher in Paraguay than in the United States or Europe. There are no adequate scientific explanations for this geographical variation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the interplay among risk factors, morphology of the primary tumor, and HPV status.
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[Risk of multiple myeloma and agricultural exposures].
G Ital Med Lav Ergon
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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We analyzed risk associated with exposure to pesticides and contact with livestock in 277 multiple myeloma (MM) cases and 2434 controls who participated in the multicentre European EPILYMPH study. Ever exposure to organic pesticides or contact with any species of livestock was not associated with an increase in risk of MM. However, risk associated with ever exposure to pesticides was elevated after adjusting for contact with sheep (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.3). The finding of an excess risk associated with ever exposure to any pesticides after adjusting for contact with breeding animals is most likely due to chance.
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[Occupational risk of multiple myeloma: results from the EPILYMPH study].
G Ital Med Lav Ergon
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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European case-control study evaluates occupational risk of multiple myeloma (MM) in 277MM cases and 1108 matched controls, using logistic regression analysis and adjusting by age, gender, study centre and education. An increase in MM risk was observed for general farmers, cleaners, telephone and radio operators, and printers. Pesticide exposure lasting ten years or more, but not exposure to solvents, was also associated with an elevated MM risk (OR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.01-2.58). Our results confirm an association of multiple myeloma with farm work, and particularly with prolonged exposure to pesticides.
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Reproductive factors and lymphoid neoplasms in Europe: findings from the EpiLymph case-control study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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The study of lymphomagenesis has rarely focused on hormonal factors. Higher incidence rates are observed for many lymphoma subtypes in men compared with women suggesting an underlying association. Our goal was to investigate the association between reproductive factors and lymphomas.
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Smoking and passive smoking in cervical cancer risk: pooled analysis of couples from the IARC multicentric case-control studies.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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The independent role of tobacco smoking in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) has been established. We evaluated the potential impact of passive smoking (PS).
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Whole-genome sequencing identifies recurrent mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), the most frequent leukaemia in adults in Western countries, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical presentation and evolution. Two major molecular subtypes can be distinguished, characterized respectively by a high or low number of somatic hypermutations in the variable region of immunoglobulin genes. The molecular changes leading to the pathogenesis of the disease are still poorly understood. Here we performed whole-genome sequencing of four cases of CLL and identified 46 somatic mutations that potentially affect gene function. Further analysis of these mutations in 363 patients with CLL identified four genes that are recurrently mutated: notch 1 (NOTCH1), exportin 1 (XPO1), myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88) and kelch-like 6 (KLHL6). Mutations in MYD88 and KLHL6 are predominant in cases of CLL with mutated immunoglobulin genes, whereas NOTCH1 and XPO1 mutations are mainly detected in patients with unmutated immunoglobulins. The patterns of somatic mutation, supported by functional and clinical analyses, strongly indicate that the recurrent NOTCH1, MYD88 and XPO1 mutations are oncogenic changes that contribute to the clinical evolution of the disease. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of CLL combining whole-genome sequencing with clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes. It highlights the usefulness of this approach for the identification of clinically relevant mutations in cancer.
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Clinical evaluation of polymerase chain reaction reverse hybridization assay for detection and identification of human papillomavirus type 16 variants.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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Isolates of HPV16 comprise six variants: European (Eu), Asian (As), Asian-American (AA), North American (NA), African-1 (AF1), and African-2 (AF2) with different carcinogenic potentials. Highly reliable automatable techniques for HPV variant genotyping would be helpful to confirm the role of variants in cervical cancer in large epidemiological studies.
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Association of JAK-STAT pathway related genes with lymphoma risk: results of a European case-control study (EpiLymph).
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Previous studies have suggested an important role for the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signalling pathway in tumour development. Therefore, we explored genetic variants in JAK-STAT pathway associated genes with lymphoma risk. In samples of the EpiLymph case-control study we genotyped 1536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using GoldenGate BeadArray™ Technology (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). Here, we report the associations between selected SNPs and haplotypes of the JAK-STAT pathway and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) and most frequent B-NHL subtypes. Among 210 relevant JAK-STAT pathway-related SNPs, polymorphisms in nine genes (BMF, IFNG, IL12A, SOCS1, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5A, STAT6, TP63) were significantly associated with lymphoma risk. At a study-wise significance level, we obtained a risk reduction of 28% among carriers of the heterozygous genotype of the STAT3 variant (rs1053023) for B-NHL. For six other variants within the STAT3 gene we observed an inverse association with different lymphoma subtypes. A reduced risk for HL was observed for the heterozygous genotype of the STAT6 SNP (rs324011). This is an explorative investigation to examine associations between JAK-STAT signalling related genes and lymphoma risk. The results implicate a relevant role of certain pathway-related genes in lymphomagenesis, but still need to be approved by independent studies.
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A comprehensive study of polymorphisms in the ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2, NR1I2 genes and lymphoma risk.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Owing to their role in controlling the efflux of toxic compounds, transporters are central players in the process of detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics, which in turn is related to cancer risk. Among these transporters, ATP-binding cassette B1/multidrug resistance 1 (ABCB1/MDR1), ABCC2/multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) and ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) affect susceptibility to many hematopoietic malignancies. The maintenance of regulated expression of these transporters is governed through the activation of intracellular "xenosensors" like the nuclear receptor 1I2/pregnane X receptor (NR1I2/PXR). SNPs in genes encoding these regulators have also been implicated in the risk of several cancers. Using a tagging approach, we tested the hypothesis that common polymorphisms in the transporter genes ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2 and the regulator gene NR1I2 could be implicated in lymphoma risk. We selected 68 SNPs in the four genes, and we genotyped them in 1,481 lymphoma cases and 1,491 controls of the European case-control study (EpiLymph) using the Illumina GoldenGate™ assay technology. Carriers of the SNP rs6857600 minor allele in ABCG2 was associated with a decrease in risk of B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL) overall (p < 0.001). Furthermore, a decreased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was associated with the ABCG2 rs2231142 variant (p = 0.0004), which could be replicated in an independent population. These results suggest a role for this gene in B-NHL susceptibility, especially for CLL.
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Value of p16(INK)?(a) in the pathology of invasive penile squamous cell carcinomas: A report of 202 cases.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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One third to one half of penile squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Viral detection is usually carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or other molecular methods. In this study, we evaluated p16(INK)?(a) immunohistochemical expression, which is simpler and less costly, as a potential marker of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection in penile SCC.
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NT-proBNP: a cardiac biomarker to assess prognosis in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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NT-proBNP provides diagnostic and prognostic information in heart syndromes but its role in cancer has not yet been established. The prognostic value of NT-proBNP was prospectively studied in 104 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients treated with chemotherapy. Echocardiography and NT-proBNP were determined prior to treatment. In multivariate analysis, NT-proBNP ? 900 pg/ml was the variable with higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio 11.1; 95% CI 3.8-32.9; P<0.001). The C statistic for NT-proBNP ? 900 pg/ml was significantly better than IPI score for prediction of survival. These findings suggest that NT-proBNP ? 900 pg/ml could be considered a useful marker for risk assessment in NHL patients treated with chemotherapy.
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Type-specific human papillomavirus distribution in invasive cervical cancer in Korea, 1958-2004.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2010
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To describe the HPV genotype distribution and to investigate the underlying secular trend in the relative contribution of HPV types 16-18 in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) over a period of 47 years (1958-2004) in South Korea.
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Cervical human papillomavirus prevalence in 5 continents: meta-analysis of 1 million women with normal cytological findings.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
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Baseline information on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type distribution is highly desirable to evaluate the impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines in the near future.
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and tumor protein 73 (TP73) interact with Epstein-Barr virus in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results from the European case-control study EpiLymph.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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Using EpiLymph case-control data, we found that chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients were more likely to have abnormal reactive serological patterns to Epstein Barr virus than controls. Here, we aimed to assess whether this association is modified by genetic variants. We examined 1,305 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms from 300 selected genes related to various pathways in 240 cases and 513 controls from five European centers. In a recessive model, patients positive to aberrant antibody pattern and homozygous for rare genotypes in rs8113877T>G or rs17576A>G of the MMP9 gene were at highest risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In a dominant model, TP73 showed the highest risk in patients positive to aberrant antibody pattern and homozygous for the wild-type genotype in rs1885859G>C or rs3765701A>T. All interactions were additive and no main effect was observed. The strong interactions observed may be indicative of a specific pathway in cancer genesis. Confirmation of these results is warranted.
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Human papillomavirus genotype attribution in invasive cervical cancer: a retrospective cross-sectional worldwide study.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2010
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Knowledge about the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in invasive cervical cancer is crucial to guide the introduction of prophylactic vaccines. We aimed to provide novel and comprehensive data about the worldwide genotype distribution in patients with invasive cervical cancer.
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Clinical management of abnormal cytology test results and costs associated with the prevention of cervical cancer in Spain.
J Low Genit Tract Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2010
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To evaluate the clinical management of women with abnormal cervical cytology results, the associated health care resource allocation, and costs in Spain.
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Occupational exposure to ethylene oxide and risk of lymphoma.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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Ethylene oxide, a high-volume commodity, is an established human carcinogen, although the relevant epidemiologic evidence is limited.
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Birth order and risk of non-hodgkin lymphoma--true association or bias?
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
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There is inconsistent evidence that increasing birth order may be associated with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The authors examined the association between birth order and related variables and NHL risk in a pooled analysis (1983-2005) of 13,535 cases and 16,427 controls from 18 case-control studies within the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). Overall, the authors found no significant association between increasing birth order and risk of NHL (P-trend = 0.082) and significant heterogeneity. However, a significant association was present for a number of B- and T-cell NHL subtypes. There was considerable variation in the study-specific risks which was partly explained by study design and participant characteristics. In particular, a significant positive association was present in population-based studies, which had lower response rates in cases and controls, but not in hospital-based studies. A significant positive association was present in higher-socioeconomic-status (SES) participants only. Results were very similar for the related variable of sibship size. The known correlation of high birth order with low SES suggests that selection bias related to SES may be responsible for the association between birth order and NHL.
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Comparison of human papillomavirus detection between freshly frozen tissue and paraffin embedded tissue of invasive cervical cancer.
Infect. Agents Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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Human Papillomavirus (HPV) detection results comparing paraffin embedded cervical tissue and other cervical specimens have been done with varying degrees of agreement. However, studies comparing freshly frozen specimens and paraffin embedded specimens of invasive cervical carcinomas are lacking. The aim of the study was to compare HPV detection using SPF10 broad-spectrum primers PCR followed by DEIA and genotyping by LiPA25 (version 1) between freshly frozen cervical tissue samples and paraffin embedded blocks of cervical tissue from the same patient. There were 171 pairs of paraffin embedded and freshly frozen samples analyzed from cervical carcinoma cases from Kampala, Uganda.
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Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-specific relative contribution in invasive cervical cancer specimens from Italy.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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Cervical cancer represents an important global public health problem. It is the 2nd most common cancer among women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is now well-established as a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) development. Only a few studies on HPV prevalence and type-specific distribution in ICC have been conducted in Italy.
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The clinical importance of understanding the evolution of papillomaviruses.
Trends Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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A significant fraction of human cancers is associated with infections by different papillomaviruses (PVs). In other vertebrates, the presence of specific PVs is also associated with different neoplasias. The popular view of PVs conceives them to be largely static and relies on generalized assumptions that have rarely been rigorously tested such as: virus-host codivergence, strict tissue tropism and host-specificity, their very low mutation rate and the absence of recombination. Here, we want to stress the need and the medical importance of understanding the evolutionary history and present-day dynamics of PVs. Understanding the way that PV genomes have evolved will clarify the link between a given genotype and the phenotypic and clinical outcome of the corresponding viral infection.
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Population-based incidence of childhood leukaemias and lymphomas in Spain (1993-2002).
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
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The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of leukaemias and lymphomas in children according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer third edition (ICCC-3) in the population covered by the Girona, Valencia, and Zaragoza population-based cancer registries and compare it with the incidence rates in other European countries. All haematological malignancies (HMs) registered between 1993 and 2002 in children below 15 years of age were included in the study. Pathological and haematological diagnoses were reviewed, recoded according to International Classification of Diseases for Oncology-3 and reclassified on the basis of ICCC-3. Sex and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated, using the world population as standard. Five hundred and seventy-one HMs were registered in the Girona, Valencia and Zaragoza Cancer Registries during the study period. According to ICCC-3, precursor cell leukaemias were the most frequent HMs in children and constituted 60% of all HMs (an age-adjusted incidence rate of 42.7 per million children-years). The second most frequent childhood HM was Hodgkin lymphoma (11.2% of all HMs), yielding an age-adjusted standardized incidence rate of 6.3 per million children-years. With regard to myeloid lineage, acute myeloid leukaemias were the most frequent with a rate of 7.9 per million children-years. The standardized incidence rates for lymphoid leukaemia (1.19) and Burkitt lymphoma (3.94) were statistically higher than the rates observed in Europe. Compared with European data, Spain has a high incidence of lymphoid leukaemias and lymphomas. In particular, a high incidence of Burkitt lymphoma was observed. The causes of this geographical variation are still unknown.
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International network of cancer genome projects.
, Thomas J Hudson, Warwick Anderson, Axel Artez, Anna D Barker, Cindy Bell, Rosa R Bernabé, M K Bhan, Fabien Calvo, Iiro Eerola, Daniela S Gerhard, Alan Guttmacher, Mark Guyer, Fiona M Hemsley, Jennifer L Jennings, David Kerr, Peter Klatt, Patrik Kolar, Jun Kusada, David P Lane, Frank Laplace, Lu Youyong, Gerd Nettekoven, Brad Ozenberger, Jane Peterson, T S Rao, Jacques Remacle, Alan J Schafer, Tatsuhiro Shibata, Michael R Stratton, Joseph G Vockley, Koichi Watanabe, Huanming Yang, Matthew M F Yuen, Bartha M Knoppers, Martin Bobrow, Anne Cambon-Thomsen, Lynn G Dressler, Stephanie O M Dyke, Yann Joly, Kazuto Kato, Karen L Kennedy, Pilar Nicolás, Michael J Parker, Emmanuelle Rial-Sebbag, Carlos M Romeo-Casabona, Kenna M Shaw, Susan Wallace, Georgia L Wiesner, Nikolajs Zeps, Peter Lichter, Andrew V Biankin, Christian Chabannon, Lynda Chin, Bruno Clément, Enrique De Alava, Françoise Degos, Martin L Ferguson, Peter Geary, D Neil Hayes, Amber L Johns, Arek Kasprzyk, Hidewaki Nakagawa, Robert Penny, Miguel A Piris, Rajiv Sarin, Aldo Scarpa, Marc van de Vijver, P Andrew Futreal, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Mònica Bayés, David D L Botwell, Peter J Campbell, Xavier Estivill, Sean M Grimmond, Ivo Gut, Martin Hirst, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Partha Majumder, Marco Marra, John D McPherson, Zemin Ning, Xose S Puente, Yijun Ruan, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Harold Swerdlow, Victor E Velculescu, Richard K Wilson, Hong H Xue, Liu Yang, Paul T Spellman, Gary D Bader, Paul C Boutros, Paul Flicek, Gad Getz, Roderic Guigo, Guangwu Guo, David Haussler, Simon Heath, Tim J Hubbard, Tao Jiang, Steven M Jones, Qibin Li, Nuria López-Bigas, Ruibang Luo, Lakshmi Muthuswamy, B F Francis Ouellette, John V Pearson, Víctor Quesada, Benjamin J Raphael, Chris Sander, Terence P Speed, Lincoln D Stein, Joshua M Stuart, Jon W Teague, Yasushi Totoki, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Alfonso Valencia, David A Wheeler, Honglong Wu, Shancen Zhao, Guangyu Zhou, Mark Lathrop, Gilles Thomas, Teruhiko Yoshida, Myles Axton, Chris Gunter, Linda J Miller, Junjun Zhang, Syed A Haider, Jianxin Wang, Christina K Yung, Anthony Cros, Anthony Cross, Yong Liang, Saravanamuttu Gnaneshan, Jonathan Guberman, Jack Hsu, Don R C Chalmers, Karl W Hasel, Terry S H Kaan, William W Lowrance, Tohru Masui, Laura Lyman Rodriguez, Catherine Vergely, David D L Bowtell, Nicole Cloonan, Anna deFazio, James R Eshleman, Dariush Etemadmoghadam, Brooke B Gardiner, Brooke A Gardiner, James G Kench, Robert L Sutherland, Margaret A Tempero, Nicola J Waddell, Peter J Wilson, Steve Gallinger, Ming-Sound Tsao, Patricia A Shaw, Gloria M Petersen, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, Ronald A DePinho, Sarah Thayer, Kamran Shazand, Timothy Beck, Michelle Sam, Lee Timms, Vanessa Ballin, Youyong Lu, Jiafu Ji, Xiuqing Zhang, Feng Chen, Xueda Hu, Qi Yang, Geng Tian, Lianhai Zhang, Xiaofang Xing, Xianghong Li, Zhenggang Zhu, Yingyan Yu, Jun Yu, Jörg Tost, Paul Brennan, Ivana Holcatova, David Zaridze, Alvis Brazma, Lars Egevard, Egor Prokhortchouk, Rosamonde Elizabeth Banks, Mathias Uhlén, Juris Viksna, Fredrik Ponten, Konstantin Skryabin, Ewan Birney, Ake Borg, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Carlos Caldas, John A Foekens, Sancha Martin, Jorge S Reis-Filho, Andrea L Richardson, Christos Sotiriou, Giles Thoms, Laura van't Veer, Daniel Birnbaum, Hélène Blanché, Pascal Boucher, Sandrine Boyault, Jocelyne D Masson-Jacquemier, Iris Pauporté, Xavier Pivot, Anne Vincent-Salomon, Eric Tabone, Charles Theillet, Isabelle Treilleux, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Thomas Decaens, Dominique Franco, Marta Gut, Didier Samuel, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Roland Eils, Benedikt Brors, Jan O Korbel, Andrey Korshunov, Pablo Landgraf, Hans Lehrach, Stefan Pfister, Bernhard Radlwimmer, Guido Reifenberger, Michael D Taylor, Christof von Kalle, Partha P Majumder, Paolo Pederzoli, Rita A Lawlor, Massimo Delledonne, Alberto Bardelli, Thomas Gress, David Klimstra, Giuseppe Zamboni, Yusuke Nakamura, Satoru Miyano, Akihiro Fujimoto, Elias Campo, Silvia de Sanjosé, Emili Montserrat, Marcos Gonzalez-Díaz, Pedro Jares, Heinz Himmelbauer, Heinz Himmelbaue, Sílvia Beà, Samuel Aparicio, Douglas F Easton, Francis S Collins, Carolyn C Compton, Eric S Lander, Wylie Burke, Anthony R Green, Stanley R Hamilton, Olli P Kallioniemi, Timothy J Ley, Edison T Liu, Brandon J Wainwright.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.