The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile in adolescents from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) cross-sectional study (2006-7), and to assess the role of body fat-related variables in these associations. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol, TAG, apoB and apoA1 were measured in 454 adolescents (44 % boys) aged 12·5-17·5 years. Macronutrient intake (g/4180 kJ per d (1000 kcal per d)) was assessed using two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Associations were evaluated by multi-level analysis and adjusted for sex, age, maternal education, centre, sum of four skinfolds, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet quality index for adolescents. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with HDL-C (? = - 0·189, P< 0·001). An inverse association was found between fat intake and TAG (? = - 0·319, P< 0·001). Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipids varied according to adiposity levels, i.e. an inverse association between carbohydrate intake and HDL-C was only observed in those adolescents with a higher waist:height ratio. As serum lipids and excess body fat are the major markers of CVD, these findings should be considered when developing strategies to prevent the risk of CVD among adolescents.
The most widely used method for estimating dietary zinc requirements is the factorial approach, in which it is assumed, in adults, that the physiological zinc requirement is the lowest intake that replaces endogenous zinc losses. Presented here are the results of two reviews: a narrative review of zinc losses from the human body and a systematic review of factors affecting zinc bioavailability in adult and elderly populations. The narrative review presents data on losses from integumental and excretory routes, obtained from 29 papers published up to April 2013. The systematic review includes a total of 87 publications describing dietary factors that impact zinc bioavailability, 30 of which examined phytate. A meta-analysis revealed an overall lowering of fractional zinc absorption by 0.14 (45% of control values) when the phytate : zinc molar ratio of the test meal or diet was greater than15. These reviews provide a comprehensive resource for use in the setting of human dietary zinc requirements and emphasize the need for more high-quality data to improve estimates of zinc losses and gains.
Zinc was selected as a priority micronutrient for EURRECA, because there is significant heterogeneity in the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) across Europe. In addition, the prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes was thought to be high among all population groups worldwide, and the public health concern is considerable. In accordance with the EURRECA consortium principles and protocols, a series of literature reviews were undertaken in order to develop best practice guidelines for assessing dietary zinc intake and zinc status. These were incorporated into subsequent literature search strategies and protocols for studies investigating the relationships between zinc intake, status and health, as well as studies relating to the factorial approach (including bioavailability) for setting dietary recommendations. EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane Library CENTRAL, and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases were searched for studies published up to February 2010 and collated into a series of Endnote databases that are available for the use of future DRV panels. Meta-analyses of data extracted from these publications were performed where possible in order to address specific questions relating to factors affecting dietary recommendations. This review has highlighted the need for more high quality studies to address gaps in current knowledge, in particular the continued search for a reliable biomarker of zinc status and the influence of genetic polymorphisms on individual dietary requirements. In addition, there is a need to further develop models of the effect of dietary inhibitors of zinc absorption and their impact on population dietary zinc requirements.
Nutrition, physical activity and behavior-modifying techniques are widely applied components of interventions treating obesity. Our aim was to review available information on the short and long term effects of intervention treatment on body fat composition of overweight and obese children and adolescents and, to obtain a further understanding on how different body composition techniques detect longitudinal changes. In total, thirteen papers were included; seven included a multidisciplinary intervention component, five applied a combined dietary and physical activity intervention and one a physical activity intervention. Body composition techniques used included anthropometric indices, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Percentage of fat mass change was calculated in when possible. Findings suggested, no changes were observed in fat free mass after 16 weeks of nutritional intervention and the lowest decrease on fat mass percentage was obtained. However, the highest fat mass percentage with parallel increase in fat free mass, both assess by DXA was observed in a multi-component intervention applied for 20 weeks. In conclusion, more studies are needed to determine the best field body composition method to monitor changes during overweight treatment in children and adolescents.
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity continues to be unacceptably high and of public health concern in Europe. During childhood and adolescence, environmental factors are the main drivers of obesity development. Obesity is caused by a chronic energy imbalance involving both dietary intake and physical activity patterns. Several risk factors are influencing obesity development, even starting in the prenatal period. From birth, along life, mainly diet and physical activity/inactivity are the most important drivers on top of genetic susceptibility. The first years of life can therefore be crucial to start preventive interventions that can have an impact on lifestyle and on later overweight and obesity. Schools are an attractive and popular setting for implementing interventions for children. Interventions including a community component are considered to be the most effective. Obesity control will require policy interventions to improve the environments that promote poor dietary intake and physical inactivity rather than individually focused interventions. More solid institutional and health policies are needed together with more effective interventions to obtain evident changes for the prevention of excess adiposity among children.
OBJECTIVE: To compare, specifically by age group, proxy-reported food group estimates obtained from the food frequency section of the Childrens Eating Habits questionnaire (CEHQ-FFQ) against the estimates of two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR). DESIGN: Estimates of food group intakes assessed via the forty-three-food-group CEHQ-FFQ were compared with those obtained by a computerized 24-HDR. Agreement on frequencies of intakes (equal to the number of portions per recall period) between the two instruments was examined using crude and de-attenuated Pearsons correlation coefficients, cross-classification analyses, weighted kappa statistics (? w) and Bland-Altman analysis. SETTING: Kindergartens/schools from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) Study cross-sectional survey (2007-2008). SUBJECTS: Children aged 2-9 years (n 2508, 50·4 % boys). RESULTS: The CEHQ-FFQ provided higher intake estimates for most of the food groups than the 24-HDR. De-attenuated Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0·01 (sweetened fruit) to 0·48 (sweetened milk) in children aged 2-<6 years (mean = 0·25) and from 0·01 (milled cereal) to 0·44 (water) in children aged 6-9 years (mean = 0·23). An average of 32 % and 31 % of food group intakes were assigned to the same quartile in younger and older children, respectively, and classification into extreme opposite quartiles was ?12 % for all food groups in both age groups. Mean ? w was 0·20 for 2-<6-year-olds and 0·17 for 6-9-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of association estimates assessed by the CEHQ-FFQ and the 24-HDR varied by food group and by age group. Observed level of agreement and CEHQ-FFQ ability to rank children according to intakes of food groups were considered to be low.
This paper provides an overview of the current knowledge relating to the nutritional requirements and corresponding recommended nutrient intake values of children and adolescents for micronutrients and specificities related to these requirements in the course of childhood and adolescence in Europe. Aspects that can influence micronutrient requirements, such as physiological requirements and bioavailability of the nutrients in the organism, are discussed. The methodology used to obtain the data and also the main knowledge gaps regarding these concepts are emphasized. Methodological critical points in achieving the data and physiological aspects of children and adolescents are important in order to standardize the reference values for micronutrients among Europe for these stages of life.
This paper presents a review of the current knowledge regarding the macro- and micronutrient requirements of infants and discusses issues related to these requirements during the first year of life. The paper also reviews the current reference values used in European countries and the methodological approaches used to derive them by a sample of seven European and international authoritative committees from which background scientific reports are available. Throughout the paper, the main issues contributing to disparities in micronutrient reference values for infants are highlighted. The identification of these issues in relation to the specific physiological aspects of infants is important for informing future initiatives aimed at providing standardized approaches to overcome variability of micronutrient reference values across Europe for this age group.
Literature has repeatedly shown a relationship between hair minerals and metabolic health, although studies in children are currently lacking. This study aims to investigate hair levels of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), phosphorus (P), and zinc (Zn) and their association with (1) overweight/obesity and (2) metabolic health in Flemish elementary school girls between 5 and 10 years old. Two hundred eighteen girls participated in this study as part of the baseline ChiBS project. Children were subjected to physical examinations, blood and hair sampling. Hair minerals were quantitatively determined via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion. Body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) were studied as anthropometric parameters, and a metabolic score (including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin resistance and non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol as parameters) was calculated, with higher scores indicating a more unhealthy metabolic profile. Hair Ca, Ca/Mg, and Ca/P positively correlated with the anthropometric parameters. An inverse correlation was observed between Ca, Mg, and Ca/P in hair and the metabolic score. Inverse correlations were also observed for individual metabolic parameters (i.e., diastolic blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, non-HDL cholesterol). In particular, girls with a total number of three or more metabolic parameters above the age-specific 75th percentile showed significantly reduced hair Ca, Mg, and Ca/P concentrations. This study showed reduced hair mineral concentrations in young girls with a more unhealthy metabolic profile. Positive associations were observed between some minerals and BMI and BF%.
Measurement errors in dietary data lead to attenuated estimates of associations between dietary exposures and health outcomes. The present study aimed to compare and evaluate different approaches of handling implausible reports by exemplary analysis of the association between dietary intakes (total energy, soft drinks, fruits/vegetables) and overweight/obesity in children.
To review evidence on the associations between vitamin B12 intake and its biomarkers, vitamin B12 intake and its functional health outcomes, and vitamin B12 biomarkers and functional health outcomes.
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