The mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) has recently been identified as a key RIP3 (receptor interacting protein 3) downstream component of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necroptosis. MLKL is phosphorylated by RIP3 and is recruited to the necrosome through its interaction with RIP3. However, it is still unknown how MLKL mediates TNF-induced necroptosis. Here, we report that MLKL forms a homotrimer through its amino-terminal coiled-coil domain and locates to the cell plasma membrane during TNF-induced necroptosis. By generating different MLKL mutants, we demonstrated that the plasma membrane localization of trimerized MLKL is critical for mediating necroptosis. Importantly, we found that the membrane localization of MLKL is essential for Ca(2+) influx, which is an early event of TNF-induced necroptosis. Furthermore, we identified that TRPM7 (transient receptor potential melastatin related 7) is a MLKL downstream target for the mediation of Ca(2+) influx and TNF-induced necroptosis. Hence, our study reveals a crucial mechanism of MLKL-mediated TNF-induced necroptosis.
The regulation of apoptosis is critical for controlling tissue homeostasis and preventing tumor formation and growth. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation plays a key role in such regulation. Here, we describe a HIF-1 target, Vasn/ATIA (anti-TNF?-induced apoptosis), which protects cells against TNF?- and hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Through the generation of ATIA knockout mice, we show that ATIA protects cells from apoptosis through regulating the function of the mitochondrial antioxidant, thioredoxin-2, and ROS generation. ATIA is highly expressed in human glioblastoma, and ATIA knockdown in glioblastoma cells renders them sensitive to hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Therefore, ATIA is not only a HIF-1 target that regulates mitochondrial redox pathways but also a potentially diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in human glioblastoma.
N(alpha)-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethylketone (TPCK) has been widely used to investigate signal transduction pathways that are involved in gene expression and cell survival/cell death. However, contradictory effects of TPCK on apoptosis have been reported, and the underlying signaling events leading to TPCK-induced promotion or prevention of apoptosis are not fully understood. Here, we show that TPCK induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed human B cell lines with release of pro-apoptotic proteins from mitochondria. TPCK treatment also results in down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins, cIAP1, cIAP2, and HAX-1, and caspase-dependent cleavage of the anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and XIAP. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that the TPCK-induced down-regulation of HAX-1 occurred at the transcriptional level, and experiments using the specific pharmacological inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, suggested that HAX-1 expression is subject to regulation by the transcription factor, NF-kappaB. B cell lines derived from patients with homozygous HAX1 mutations were more sensitive to TPCK-induced apoptosis when compared with normal donor cell lines. Furthermore, N-acetylcysteine effectively blocked TPCK-induced apoptosis in EBV-transformed B cell lines and prevented the down-regulation or cleavage of anti-apoptotic proteins. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that TPCK induces apoptosis in human B cell lines and exerts multiple effects on pro- and anti-apoptotic factors.
Resolution of inflammation requires clearance of activated neutrophils by macrophages in a manner that prevents injury to adjacent tissues. Surface changes, including phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, may target neutrophils for phagocytosis. In this study, we show that externalization of PS is defective in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-activated neutrophils obtained from chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients with mutations in components of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Moreover, activated neutrophils from CGD patients failed to undergo clearance upon cocultivation with macrophages from normal donors. In line with these results, treatment of donor neutrophils with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, blocked PMA-induced PS oxidation and externalization and prevented their engulfment by macrophages. Furthermore, primary macrophages from CGD patients or human gp91(phox)-deficient PLB-985 cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells were defective for engulfment of apoptotic target cells. Pretreatment of normal macrophages with DPI also suppressed the subsequent ingestion of PS-positive target cells. Together, these data demonstrate that NADPH oxidase plays an important role in the process of macrophage disposal of target cells (programmed cell clearance). Thus we speculate that the lack of a functional NADPH oxidase results in impaired neutrophil clearance and the exaggerated inflammation that is characteristic for CGD.
Macrophage recognition and disposal of neutrophils are important steps in the resolution of inflammation. Externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the cell surface serves as a common recognition signal for macrophages and is associated with the apoptosis program in neutrophils. Here, we report that macrophage-differentiated PLB-985 cells induce rapid, caspase-independent PS externalization in human neutrophils. A similar degree of PS externalization was seen when neutrophils were cocultured with gp91(phox)-deficient PLB-985 macrophages, thus demonstrating that macrophage-induced PS externalization was NADPH oxidase-independent. Macrophage-induced PS externalization required cell-to-cell contact and kinase activation and was shown to correlate with neutrophil degranulation. Of note, the degree of engulfment of such PS-positive neutrophils by activated human monocyte-derived macrophages was considerably lower than for neutrophils undergoing constitutive apoptosis, indicating that PS externalization alone is not sufficient for macrophage disposal of neutrophils. However, addition of recombinant milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8, a PS-binding protein, restored engulfment of the macrophage-cocultured target cells. Finally, neutrophils undergoing spontaneous apoptosis but not macrophage-cocultured neutrophils displayed surface expression and release of annexin I, and the addition of N-t-Boc-Phe-D-Leu-Phe-D-Leu-Phe (Boc1), a formyl peptide receptor/lipoxin receptor antagonist, suppressed clearance of apoptotic neutrophils. Conditioned medium from apoptotic neutrophils also promoted the engulfment of macrophage-cocultured neutrophils, and Boc1 blocked this process. Taken together, these studies highlight a novel pathway of PS externalization in primary human neutrophils and also provide evidence for an auxiliary function of annexin I in macrophage clearance of neutrophils.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an important inflammatory cytokine and induces many cellular responses, including inflammation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis. It is known that receptor interacting protein (RIP) kinases, RIP1 and RIP3, are key effectors of TNF-induced necrosis, but little is known about how these two RIP kinases mediate this process, although reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and JNK activation have been suggested to be two downstream events of RIP kinases. Here we report the identification of mixed lineage kinase domain-like, MLKL, as a key RIP3 downstream component of TNF-induced necrosis. Through screening a kinase/phosphatase shRNA library in human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells, we found that knockdown of MLKL blocked TNF-induced necrosis. Our data suggest that MLKL functions downstream of RIP1 and RIP3 and is recruited to the necrosome through its interaction with RIP3. Finally, we found that MLKL is required for the generation of ROS and the late-phase activation of JNK during TNF-induced necrosis. However, because these two events are not involved in TNF-induced necrosis in HT-29 cells, the target of MLKL during TNF-induced necrosis remains elusive. Taken together, our study suggests that MLKL is a key RIP3 downstream component of TNF-induced necrotic cell death.
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