A definitive diagnostic test for multiple sclerosis (MS) does not exist; instead physicians use a combination of medical history, magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF). Significant effort has been employed to identify biomarkers from CSF to facilitate MS diagnosis; however, none of the proposed biomarkers have been successful to date. Urine is a proven source of metabolite biomarkers and has the potential to be a rapid, noninvasive, inexpensive, and efficient diagnostic tool for various human diseases. Nevertheless, urinary metabolites have not been extensively explored as a source of biomarkers for MS. We demonstrate that urinary metabolites have significant promise for monitoring disease-progression, and response to treatment in MS patients. NMR analysis of urine permitted the identification of metabolites that differentiate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-mice (prototypic disease model for MS) from healthy and MS drug-treated EAE mice.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in macrophages is critical for microbial killing, but they also take part in inflammation and antigen presentation functions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous regulators of gene expression, and they can control immune responses. To dissect the complex nature of ROS-mediated effects in macrophages, we sought to characterize miRNAs that are responsive to oxidative stress-induced with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in the mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. We have identified a set of unique miRNAs that are differentially expressed in response to H(2)O(2). These include miR-27a*, miR-27b*, miR-29b*, miR-24-2*, and miR-21*, all of which were downregulated except for miR-21*. By using luciferase reporter vector containing nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) response elements, we demonstrate that overexpression of miR-27b* suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-kB in RAW 264.7 cells. Our data suggest that macrophage functions can be regulated by oxidative stress-responsive miRNAs by modulating the NF-kB pathway.
Development of multiple sclerosis (MS) is more prevalent in females than in males, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Microbial infections have been suspected as triggers of MS and it is not known whether gender differences in reactivity to environmental antigens contribute to the disease pathogenesis. We demonstrated that ACA 83-95, a mimicry epitope from Acanthamoeba castellanii for proteolipid protein (PLP) 139-151, induces clinical signs of encephalomyelitis in both male and female SJL mice. Conversely ACA 83-95-induced effector cells from males fail to induce disease in female mice. Although we found no gender differences in the frequencies of antigen-specific cells including cytokine production, PLP-specific cells induced with ACA 83-95 differed in T cell receptor v? usage from those induced with PLP 139-151. The data suggest that cross-reactive T cell expansion occurs similarly in both males and females, but their disease-inducing ability is influenced by gender.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.