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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Phlegmonous gastritis associated with group a streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Phlegmonous gastritis (PG) is a rare, acute, severe infectious disease of the gastric wall that is often fatal due to Streptococcus spp. A 77-year-old man with diabetes and a gastric ulcer was urgently admitted due to prolonged nausea and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed widespread diffuse thickening of the gastric wall, and PG was suspected. The patient expired less than 9 hours after admission despite intensive treatments. Later, an analysis of the blood and gastric juice revealed group A streptococcus (GAS) and virulence factors associated with toxic shock syndrome (TSS). We herein diagnosed a patient with an extremely aggressive course of PG caused by GAS TSS.
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Sequence type 33 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O91 causes only mild symptoms?
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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The pattern of symptoms caused by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O91 in Japan differs from that in European countries.…
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Pathogenicity of border disease virus FNK2012-1 strain isolated from a pig in the natural host, sheep.
J. Vet. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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A first isolation of border disease virus (BDV) in Japan was from a pig on a farm without keeping any ruminants. Our previous study showed that this BDV, termed the FNK2012-1 strain, replicated inefficiently in swine-derived cells compared with those of ruminant origin. Pigs inoculated with this virus showed neither clinical symptoms nor viremia. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of the FNK2012-1 strain in sheep, its natural host. The inoculated sheep showed clinical symptoms and transient viremia. Seroconversion was observed in the inoculated sheep. These results suggest that the FNK2012-1 strain was introduced from sheep and has not yet adapted to swine. Therefore, surveillance of border disease in Japan is necessary among both the swine and ruminant populations.
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Improvement of gamete quality and its short-term storage: an approach for biotechnology in laboratory fish.
Animal
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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In fish, in vitro fertilization is an important reproductive tool used as first step for application of others biotechniques as chromosome and embryo manipulation. In this study, we aimed to optimize gamete quality and their short-term storage from the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae, for future application in laboratory studies. Working with sperm, we evaluated the effects of spawning inducers (carp pituitary gland and Ovopel® [(D-Ala6, Pro9-NEt) - mGnRH+metoclopramide]) and the presence of female on sperm motility. Additionally, we developed new procedures for short-term storage of sperm and oocytes. Briefly, sperm motility was higher when male fish were treated with carp pituitary gland (73.1±4.0%) or Ovopel® (79.5±5.5%) when compared with the control group treated with 0.9% NaCl (55.6±27.2%; P=0.1598). Maintenance of male fish with an ovulating female fish also improved sperm motility (74.4±7.4%) when compared with untreated male fish (42.1±26.1%; P=0.0018). Storage of sperm was optimized in modified Ringer solution, in which the sperm was kept motile for 18 days at 2.5°C. The addition of antibiotics or oxygen decreased sperm motility, but partial change of supernatant and the combination of those conditions improve storage ability of sperm. Fertilization ability of oocytes decreased significantly after storage for 30, 60 90 and 120 min at 5, 10, 15 and 20°C when compared with fresh oocytes (P=0.0471), but considering only the stored samples, the optimum temperature was 15°C. Those data describe new approaches to improve semen quality and gametes short-term storage in yellowtail tetra A. altiparanae and open new possibilities in vitro fertilization.
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Genetic variants within obesity-related genes are associated with tumor recurrence in patients with stages II/III colon cancer.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Obesity is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and it is also linked to CRC recurrence and survival. Polymorphisms located in obesity-related genes are associated with an increased risk of developing several cancer types including CRC. We evaluated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms in obesity-related genes may predict tumor recurrence in colon cancer patients.
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Correction of rotational distortion for catheter-based en face OCT and OCT angiography.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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We demonstrate a computationally efficient method for correcting the nonuniform rotational distortion (NURD) in catheter-based imaging systems to improve endoscopic en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography. The method performs nonrigid registration using fiducial markers on the catheter to correct rotational speed variations. Algorithm performance is investigated with an ultrahigh-speed endoscopic OCT system and micromotor catheter. Scan nonuniformity is quantitatively characterized, and artifacts from rotational speed variations are significantly reduced. Furthermore, we present endoscopic en face OCT and OCT angiography images of human gastrointestinal tract in vivo to demonstrate the image quality improvement using the correction algorithm.
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Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Rapid intraoperative assessment of breast excision specimens is clinically important because up to 40% of patients undergoing breast-conserving cancer surgery require reexcision for positive or close margins. We demonstrate nonlinear microscopy (NLM) for the assessment of benign and malignant breast pathologies in fresh surgical specimens. A total of 179 specimens from 50 patients was imaged with NLM using rapid extrinsic nuclear staining with acridine orange and intrinsic second harmonic contrast generation from collagen. Imaging was performed on fresh, intact specimens without the need for fixation, embedding, and sectioning required for conventional histopathology. A visualization method to aid pathological interpretation is presented that maps NLM contrast from two-photon fluorescence and second harmonic signals to features closely resembling histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Mosaicking is used to overcome trade-offs between resolution and field of view, enabling imaging of subcellular features over square-centimeter specimens. After NLM examination, specimens were processed for standard paraffin-embedded histology using a protocol that coregistered histological sections to NLM images for paired assessment. Blinded NLM reading by three pathologists achieved 95.4% sensitivity and 93.3% specificity, compared with paraffin-embedded histology, for identifying invasive cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ versus benign breast tissue. Interobserver agreement was ? = 0.88 for NLM and ? = 0.89 for histology. These results show that NLM achieves high diagnostic accuracy, can be rapidly performed on unfixed specimens, and is a promising method for intraoperative margin assessment.
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Hepatic CREB3L3 Controls Whole-Body Energy Homeostasis and Improves Obesity and Diabetes.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes in the liver is the key to maintaining systemic energy homeostasis during starvation. The membrane-bound transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3 (CREB3L3) has been reported to be activated during fasting and to regulate triglyceride metabolism. Here, we show that CREB3L3 confers a wide spectrum of metabolic responses to starvation in vivo. Adenoviral and transgenic overexpression of nuclear CREB3L3 induced systemic lipolysis, hepatic ketogenesis, and insulin sensitivity with increased energy expenditure, leading to marked reduction in body weight, plasma lipid levels, and glucose levels. CREB3L3 overexpression activated gene expression levels and plasma levels of antidiabetic hormones, including fibroblast growth factor 21 and IGF-binding protein 2. Amelioration of diabetes by hepatic activation of CREB3L3 was also observed in several types of diabetic obese mice. Nuclear CREB3L3 mutually activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? promoter in an autoloop fashion and is crucial for the ligand transactivation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? by interacting with its transcriptional regulator, PGC-1?. CREB3L3 directly and indirectly controls fibroblast growth factor 21 expression and its plasma level, which contributes at least partially to the catabolic effects of CREB3L3 on systemic energy homeostasis in the entire body. Therefore, CREB3L3 is a therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes.
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Endothelial Shear Stress and Coronary Plaque Characteristics in Humans: Combined Frequency-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Computational Fluid Dynamics Study.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Despite the exposure of the entire vasculature to the atherogenic effects of systemic risk factors, atherosclerotic plaques preferentially develop at sites with disturbed flow. This study aimed at exploring in vivo the relationship between local endothelial shear stress (ESS) and coronary plaque characteristics in humans using computational fluid dynamics and frequency-domain optical coherence tomography.
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Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a functional extension of conventional OCT and can assess depth-resolved tissue birefringence in addition to intensity. Most existing PS-OCT systems are relatively complex and their clinical translation remains difficult. We present a simple and robust all-fiber PS-OCT system based on swept source technology and polarization depth-encoding. Polarization multiplexing was achieved using a polarization maintaining fiber. Polarization sensitive signals were detected using fiber based polarization beam splitters and polarization controllers were used to remove the polarization ambiguity. A simplified post-processing algorithm was proposed for speckle noise reduction relaxing the demand for phase stability. We demonstrated systems design for both ophthalmic and catheter-based PS-OCT. For ophthalmic imaging, we used an optical clock frequency doubling method to extend the imaging range of a commercially available short cavity light source to improve polarization depth-encoding. For catheter based imaging, we demonstrated 200 kHz PS-OCT imaging using a MEMS-tunable vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and a high speed micromotor imaging catheter. The system was demonstrated in human retina, finger and lip imaging, as well as ex vivo swine esophagus and cardiovascular imaging. The all-fiber PS-OCT is easier to implement and maintain compared to previous PS-OCT systems and can be more easily translated to clinical applications due to its robust design.
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Miniopen oblique lateral L5-s1 interbody fusion: a report of 2 cases.
Case Rep Orthop
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has been widely used for minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), but an approach to L5-S1 is difficult because of the iliac crest. In the current study, we present 2 cases using minimally invasive oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) of L5-S1. The patients showed foraminal stenosis between L5 and S1 and severe low back and leg pain. The patients were placed in a lateral decubitus position and underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) without posterior decompression. Posterior screws were used in the patients. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. OLIF surgery was minimally invasive and produced good surgical results without complications.
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Needlescopic surgery for left-sided colorectal cancer.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Laparoscopic surgery has become the standard for colorectal cancers, but more minimally invasive surgery is continuously pursued. In June 2011, our institution started needlescopic surgery (NS). The aims of this study are to describe this technique and to investigate its feasibility for left-sided colorectal cancer surgery.
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Choroid, Haller's, and Sattler's layer thickness in intermediate age-related macular degeneration with and without fellow neovascular eyes.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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To analyze choroidal, Sattler's, and Haller's layer thickness maps in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients having eyes with bilateral large drusen and pigment changes (intermediate AMD), in patients having intermediate AMD eyes with neovascular fellow eyes (nAMD), and in healthy subjects using three-dimensional (3D) 1060-nm optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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Senning operation for very low birth weight infant with transposition of the great arteries: one of the smallest cases in the world.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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We report a case of a Senning operation for very low birth weight infant weighing 1,168 g with transposition of the great arteries. The patient underwent a Senning operation on 62 days, 1,700 g after the first palliation. In this case, the orifice of the left anterior descending artery was located in sinus 1 (left posterior facing sinus), but we could not find orifices of both right coronary artery and left circumflex artery before the Senning operation. The surgical procedure of the Senning operation is typical one, but we used flesh autopericardial patch to cover the roof of the new pulmonary vein chamber to get an enough size. The patient recovered with no cardiac events after the repair.
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Computer-aided image analysis algorithm to enhance in vivo diagnosis of plaque erosion by intravascular optical coherence tomography.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Recent reports show that plaque erosion can be diagnosed in vivo using optical coherence tomography in patients with acute coronary syndrome. However, quantitative optical coherence tomographic image criteria for computer-aided diagnosis of plaque erosion have not been established.
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Quantitative 3D-OCT motion correction with tilt and illumination correction, robust similarity measure and regularization.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Variability in illumination, signal quality, tilt and the amount of motion pose challenges for post-processing based 3D-OCT motion correction algorithms. We present an advanced 3D-OCT motion correction algorithm using image registration and orthogonal raster scan patterns aimed at addressing these challenges. An intensity similarity measure using the pseudo Huber norm and a regularization scheme based on a pseudo L0.5 norm are introduced. A two-stage registration approach was developed. In the first stage, only axial motion and axial tilt are coarsely corrected. This result is then used as the starting point for a second stage full optimization. In preprocessing, a bias field estimation based approach to correct illumination differences in the input volumes is employed. Quantitative evaluation was performed using a large set of data acquired from 73 healthy and glaucomatous eyes using SD-OCT systems. OCT volumes of both the optic nerve head and the macula region acquired with three independent orthogonal volume pairs for each location were used to assess reproducibility. The advanced motion correction algorithm using the techniques presented in this paper was compared to a basic algorithm corresponding to an earlier version and to performing no motion correction. Errors in segmentation-based measures such as layer positions, retinal and nerve fiber thickness, as well as the blood vessel pattern were evaluated. The quantitative results consistently show that reproducibility is improved considerably by using the advanced algorithm, which also significantly outperforms the basic algorithm. The mean of the mean absolute retinal thickness difference over all data was 9.9 um without motion correction, 7.1 um using the basic algorithm and 5.0 um using the advanced algorithm. Similarly, the blood vessel likelihood map error is reduced to 69% of the uncorrected error for the basic and to 47% of the uncorrected error for the advanced algorithm. These results demonstrate that our advanced motion correction algorithm has the potential to improve the reliability of quantitative measurements derived from 3D-OCT data substantially.
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Feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale: a first pilot study.
J Anesth
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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The Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale (PQRS) is a multi-domain tracking scale to assess recovery after surgery. The PQRS is used in seven countries and five languages; however, the Japanese version of the PQRS (PQRSj) has not been established. We therefore translated the PQRS into Japanese, and examined the feasibility, reliability and validity of the PQRSj. The time taken to complete the test was measured to assess feasibility. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess reliability. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Japanese version of the Quality of Recovery Scale 40 (QoR-40 J) were performed for comparison with the PQRSj (validity). Fifty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The mean completion time was 3.9 min for baseline (feasibility). Cronbach's alpha was between 0.40 and 0.94 in each domain (reliability). A relationship was shown between cognitive domain and MMSE at baseline (r = 0.65, P < 0.01); however, no relationship was found between the other domains and the MMSE and QoR-40 J. Ceiling effects were observed in 78 % of the questions. These results indicate that the PQRSj can be used to assess recovery after surgery, although it may be better to revise some of the questions to improve the validity of the PQRSj.
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Laparoscopic local excision and rectoanal anastomosis for rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor: modified laparoscopic intersphincteric resection technique.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Rectal GI stromal tumor is uncommon. Local excision with free resection margins provides adequate treatment, but extended surgery such as abdominoperineal resection has been frequently performed because of technical difficulties in the confined pelvic space.
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Successful bortezomib/dexamethasone induction therapy with lenalidomide in an elderly patient with primary plasma cell leukemia complicated by renal failure and pulmonary hypertension.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Primary plasma cell leukemia (PPCL) is a rare disease that progresses rapidly. In such cases, it is difficult to achieve remission, and early intensive chemotherapy is recommended. We herein describe the case of a 76-year-old man with PPCL complicated by renal failure and pulmonary hypertension. Bortezomib/dexamethasone induction therapy with lenalidomide was administered in association with continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF). Complete remission was achieved after a single course of treatment, resulting in the cessation of CHDF. With the patient in remission, the administration of beraprost and bosentan resulted in improvements in the pulmonary hypertension. The results of this case report support the use of bortezomib/lenalidomide/dexamethasone combination therapy as an effective treatment for elderly PPCL patients with various complications.
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Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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To investigate swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in the optic nerve head (ONH) and parafoveal regions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
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Central extracorporeal membrane oxygenation requiring pulmonary arterial venting after near-drowning.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an effective respiratory and circulatory support in patients in refractory cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest. Peripheral ECMO sometimes requires left heart drainage; however, few reports state that pulmonary arterial (PA) venting is required during ECMO support. We present a case of a 14-year-old boy who required PA venting during ECMO support after resuscitation from near-drowning in freshwater. A biventricular assist device with an oxygenator implantation was intended on day 1; however, we were unable to proceed because of increasing of pulmonary vascular resistance from the acute lung injury. Central ECMO with PA venting was then performed. On day 13, central ECMO was converted to biventricular assist device with an oxygenator, which was removed on day 16. This case suggests that PA venting during ECMO support may be necessary in some cases of respiratory and circulatory failure with high pulmonary vascular resistance after near-drowning.
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Primary central pulmonary artery plasty for single ventricle with ductal-associated pulmonary artery coarctation.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Infants with a single ventricle who require a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt can have stenosis at the ductal insertion site on the pulmonary artery (PA). We hypothesized that primary PA plasty in the first palliation would limit PA stenosis and unbalanced pulmonary perfusion, and thereby facilitate safe accomplishment of the next operation.
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Spectral-Domain and Swept-Source OCT Imaging of Asteroid Hyalosis: A Case Report.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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A 72-year-old man with diabetes was referred to the retina clinic for diabetic retinopathy. Detailed funduscopic examination of the left eye was limited by prominent asteroid hyalosis. Spectral-domain (SD) and swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) were utilized to examine the vitreous, vitreoretinal interface, and the morphology of the retina. Asteroid hyalosis induced artifacts of the OCT images, which resolved when the appropriate imaging protocols were applied. SS-OCT may show superior diagnostic and preoperative capabilities when compared to SD-OCT in the settings of asteroid hyalosis-induced media opacity. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014;45:xxx-xxx.].
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The effect of respiratory-gated positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with pancreatic cancer.
Hell J Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Our aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively in patients with pancreatic cancer the effects of respiratory- gating during PET/CT acquisition on the determination of lesion volume and to measure tracer uptake. Our research included 36 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. They underwent conventional whole-body PET/CT and subsequently respiratory-gated PET/CT of the upper abdomen. Based on list-mode PET acquisition data, respiratory-gated and non-gated images were created. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and lesion volumes were compared between gated and non-gated images and also the rate of increase in SUVmax based on lesion size. Results showed that respiratory gating was successful in 34/36 patients. The median non-gated SUVmax was 6.2±2.1 and was 8.1±2.5 for respiratory- gated (P<0.01). Lesion volumes could be calculated in 27/34 patients. The median non-gated lesion volume was 5.82±5.57cm(3) and 4.31±4.56cm(3) for respiratory-gated (P<0.01). Furthermore, small lesions of ?2cm had a significantly higher proportion of increased SUVmax compared to large lesions of >2cm (P=0.016). In conclusion, respiratory-gated PET/CT for patients with pancreatic cancer reduced respiratory motion artifacts and allowed significantly higher SUVmax to be obtained. In addition, the rate of increase in SUVmax tended to be higher in patients with pancreatic cancers of less or equal to 2cm diameter.
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Compact piezoelectric transducer fiber scanning probe for optical coherence tomography.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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We developed a compact, optical fiber scanning piezoelectric transducer (PZT) probe for endoscopic and minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT). Compared with previous forward-mount fiber designs, we present a reverse-mount design that achieves a shorter rigid length. The fiber was mounted at the proximal end of a quadruple PZT tube and scanned inside the hollow PZT tube to reduce the probe length. The fiber resonant frequency was 338 Hz using a 17-mm-long fiber. A 0.9 mm fiber deflection was achieved with a driving amplitude of 35 V. Using a GRIN lens-based optical design with a 1.3× magnification, a ?6 ?m spot was scanned over a 1.2 mm diameter field. The probe was encased in a metal hypodermic tube with a ?25 mm rigid length and covered with a 3.2 mm outer diameter (OD) plastic sheath. Imaging was performed with a swept source OCT system based on a Fourier domain modelocked laser (FDML) light source at a 240 kHz axial scan rate and 8 ?m axial resolution (in air). En face OCT imaging of skin in vivo and human colon ex vivo was demonstrated.
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Choroidal analysis in healthy eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography compared to spectral domain optical coherence tomography.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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To compare analyses of choroidal thickness and volume in healthy eyes measured concurrently with prototype long-wavelength swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) and commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) with and without enhanced depth imaging (EDI).
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Easy washing of lysed cell plugs for bacterial typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using simple equipment.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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We designed and tested equipment to wash plugs following cell lysis in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Our system can wash 30 plugs simultaneously in 1h using 15L of Tris-EDTA buffer, which makes plug washing for PFGE less labor-intensive.
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Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To compare optic disc perfusion between normal subjects and subjects with glaucoma using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography and to detect optic disc perfusion changes in glaucoma.
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Analysis of short-term change in subfoveal choroidal thickness in eyes with age-related macular degeneration using optical coherence tomography.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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To measure the subfoveal choroidal thickness in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) over 6 months.
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Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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To detect and quantify choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography.
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A developmental basis for stochasticity in floral organ numbers.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Stochasticity ubiquitously inevitably appears at all levels from molecular traits to multicellular, morphological traits. Intrinsic stochasticity in biochemical reactions underlies the typical intercellular distributions of chemical concentrations, e.g., morphogen gradients, which can give rise to stochastic morphogenesis. While the universal statistics and mechanisms underlying the stochasticity at the biochemical level have been widely analyzed, those at the morphological level have not. Such morphological stochasticity is found in foral organ numbers. Although the floral organ number is a hallmark of floral species, it can distribute stochastically even within an individual plant. The probability distribution of the floral organ number within a population is usually asymmetric, i.e., it is more likely to increase rather than decrease from the modal value, or vice versa. We combined field observations, statistical analysis, and mathematical modeling to study the developmental basis of the variation in floral organ numbers among 50 species mainly from Ranunculaceae and several other families from core eudicots. We compared six hypothetical mechanisms and found that a modified error function reproduced much of the asymmetric variation found in eudicot floral organ numbers. The error function is derived from mathematical modeling of floral organ positioning, and its parameters represent measurable distances in the floral bud morphologies. The model predicts two developmental sources of the organ-number distributions: stochastic shifts in the expression boundaries of homeotic genes and a semi-concentric (whorled-type) organ arrangement. Other models species- or organ-specifically reproduced different types of distributions that reflect different developmental processes. The organ-number variation could be an indicator of stochasticity in organ fate determination and organ positioning.
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Application of ion torrent sequencing to the assessment of the effect of alkali ballast water treatment on microbial community diversity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The impact of NaOH as a ballast water treatment (BWT) on microbial community diversity was assessed using the 16S rRNA gene based Ion Torrent sequencing with its new 400 base chemistry. Ballast water samples from a Great Lakes ship were collected from the intake and discharge of both control and NaOH (pH 12) treated tanks and were analyzed in duplicates. One set of duplicates was treated with the membrane-impermeable DNA cross-linking reagent propidium mono-azide (PMA) prior to PCR amplification to differentiate between live and dead microorganisms. Ion Torrent sequencing generated nearly 580,000 reads for 31 bar-coded samples and revealed alterations of the microbial community structure in ballast water that had been treated with NaOH. Rarefaction analysis of the Ion Torrent sequencing data showed that BWT using NaOH significantly decreased microbial community diversity relative to control discharge (p<0.001). UniFrac distance based principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) plots and UPGMA tree analysis revealed that NaOH-treated ballast water microbial communities differed from both intake communities and control discharge communities. After NaOH treatment, bacteria from the genus Alishewanella became dominant in the NaOH-treated samples, accounting for <0.5% of the total reads in intake samples but more than 50% of the reads in the treated discharge samples. The only apparent difference in microbial community structure between PMA-processed and non-PMA samples occurred in intake water samples, which exhibited a significantly higher amount of PMA-sensitive cyanobacteria/chloroplast 16S rRNA than their corresponding non-PMA total DNA samples. The community assembly obtained using Ion Torrent sequencing was comparable to that obtained from a subset of samples that were also subjected to 454 pyrosequencing. This study showed the efficacy of alkali ballast water treatment in reducing ballast water microbial diversity and demonstrated the application of new Ion Torrent sequencing techniques to microbial community studies.
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Enhanced vitreous imaging in healthy eyes using swept source optical coherence tomography.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To describe enhanced vitreous imaging for visualization of anatomic features and microstructures within the posterior vitreous and vitreoretinal interface in healthy eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The study hypothesis was that long-wavelength, high-speed, volumetric SS-OCT with software registration motion correction and vitreous window display or high-dynamic-range (HDR) display improves detection sensitivity of posterior vitreous and vitreoretinal features compared to standard OCT logarithmic scale display.
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Choroidal Haller's and Sattler's layer thickness measurement using 3-dimensional 1060-nm optical coherence tomography.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To examine the feasibility of automatically segmented choroidal vessels in three-dimensional (3D) 1060-nmOCT by testing repeatability in healthy and AMD eyes and by mapping Haller's and Sattler's layer thickness in healthy eyes.
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Reproducibility of in-vivo OCT measured three-dimensional human lamina cribrosa microarchitecture.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To determine the reproducibility of automated segmentation of the three-dimensional (3D) lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture scanned in-vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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In vivo lamina cribrosa micro-architecture in healthy and glaucomatous eyes as assessed by optical coherence tomography.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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The lamina cribrosa (LC) is a prime location of glaucomatous damage. The purpose of this study was to compare LC 3-dimensional micro-architecture between healthy and glaucomatous eyes in vivo by using optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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Automated lamina cribrosa microstructural segmentation in optical coherence tomography scans of healthy and glaucomatous eyes.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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We demonstrate an automated segmentation method for in-vivo 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the lamina cribrosa (LC). Manual segmentations of coronal slices of the LC were used as a gold standard in parameter selection and evaluation of the automated technique. The method was validated using two prototype OCT devices; each had a subject cohort including both healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Automated segmentation of in-vivo 3D LC OCT microstructure performed comparably to manual segmentation and is useful for investigative research and in clinical quantification of the LC.
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Retrospective analysis of bevacizumab in combination with Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide in patients with second recurrence of glioblastoma.
Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Bevacizumab has been reported to be effective for recurrent glioblastoma. In our hospital, ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide (ICE) is the second-line chemotherapy for first recurrence of glioblastoma after temozolomide failure. In the present analysis, we retrospectively investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of bevacizumab combined with ICE in patients with glioblastoma at second relapse during ICE treatment. Between 2010 and 2012, tumor progressions were diagnosed in consecutive 8 patients who were treated with ICE for the first recurrence of glioblastoma. These patients were administered 3 cycles of 10 mg/kg bevacizumab every two weeks in combination with ICE treatment. The objective response rate of bevacizumab combination was 75% in Neuro-Oncology Working Group (RANO criteria), including complete response and partial response. Median progression free survival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS) after second relapse were 3.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5-18.5 months) and 6.0 months (95% CI, 3.2-19.7 months), respectively. The 6-month PFS rates were 25% (95% CI, 0-55.0%). The median OS after initial diagnosis was 23.3 months (95% CI, 16.2-55.8 months). The grade 2 or 3 hematologic adverse events were identified in 7 of 8 patients, most of which might be due to ICE chemotherapy. The results of our retrospective analysis suggest that combination treatment with bevacizumab and ICE may be safe and beneficial in patients with recurrent glioblastoma.
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Signal normalization reduces systematic measurement differences between spectral-domain optical coherence tomography devices.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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To test the effect of a novel signal normalization method for reducing systematic optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurement differences among multiple spectral-domain (SD) OCT devices.
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Bulky pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma treated with yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan.
Case Rep Hematol
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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An 84-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with nonproductive cough and dyspnea on exertion. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed extensive consolidation in the right lung. She was diagnosed with pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma using CT-guided lung biopsy. Her pulmonary images and respiratory symptoms did not improve two months after receiving 4 cycles of rituximab weekly; therefore, yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan was chosen as salvage therapy. The abnormal shadow on her pulmonary images was significantly reduced two months later, and she had no symptoms without nonhematological toxicities. She has had no progression for 18 months. Furthermore, radiation pneumonitis has not also been observed. We herein reported bulky pulmonary MALT lymphoma treated with yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan.
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Laparoscopic sphincter-preserving surgery (intersphincteric resection) after neoadjuvant imatinib treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the rectum.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the rectum are rarely found, and radical surgery such as abdominoperineal resection would be necessary for large rectal GIST. On the other hand, therapy for GIST has changed significantly with the use of imatinib. Neoadjuvant imatinib therapy may reduce tumor size and may potentially prevent extended surgery. Moreover, when sphincter-preserving surgery is carried out laparoscopically, it can be performed as minimally invasive surgery with preservation of the anus.
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Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a 1310 nm VCSEL light source.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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We demonstrate high speed, swept source optical coherence microscopy (OCM) using a MEMS tunable vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) light source. The light source had a sweep rate of 280 kHz, providing a bidirectional axial scan rate of 560 kHz. The sweep bandwidth was 117 nm centered at 1310 nm, corresponding to an axial resolution of 13.1 µm in air, corresponding to 8.1 µm (9.6 µm spectrally shaped) in tissue. Dispersion mismatch from different objectives was compensated numerically, enabling magnification and field of view to be easily changed. OCM images were acquired with transverse resolutions between 0.86 µm - 3.42 µm using interchangeable 40X, 20X and 10X objectives with ~600 µm x 600 µm, ~1 mm x 1 mm and ~2 mm x 2 mm field-of-view (FOV), respectively. Parasitic variations in path length with beam scanning were corrected numerically. These features enable swept source OCM to be integrated with a wide range of existing scanning microscopes. Large FOV mosaics were generated by serially acquiring adjacent overlapping microscopic fields and combining them in post-processing. Fresh human colon, thyroid and kidney specimens were imaged ex vivo and compared to matching histology sections, demonstrating the ability of OCM to image tissue specimens.
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Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw (BRONJ) in Japanese population: a case series of 13 patients at our clinic.
Bull. Tokyo Dent. Coll.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) affects quality of life and is an important problem for dentists. A Japanese position paper on BRONJ was published in 2010. The purpose of this study was to review clinical data on the treatment of BRONJ obtained at the Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba Hospital to further our understanding of this disease. A total of 13 patients (6 men and 7 women) were included. All the patients included in this study had received Bisphosphonate (BP) therapy and had BRONJ. Five of them (38.5%) had received oral BP therapy for osteoporosis, while the remaining 8 (61.5%) had received parenteral BP therapy for bone metastases from breast or prostate cancer. Osteoporosis patients were treated with risedronate or alendronate. Breast or prostate cancer patients were treated with zoledronate. Two patients with rheumatoid arthritis were treated with corticosteroid. Three patients had diabetes mellitus. Eleven patients were treated with antibiotics, while 5 underwent surgical treatment. Discontinuation of BP was recorded in 7 patients during dental treatment. Sequestration was observed in 6 patients during an 11-month follow-up. Eventually, healing and improvement of the oral mucosa were observed in 3 patients. The current standard treatment for BRONJ does not always provide good results. It is necessary to accumulate further clinical data to establish more effective treatment strategies for BRONJ.
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Ultrahigh speed spectral-domain optical coherence microscopy.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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We demonstrate a compact, ultrahigh speed spectral-domain optical coherence microscopy (SD-OCM) system for multiscale imaging of specimens at 840 nm. Using a high speed 512-pixel line scan camera, an imaging speed of 210,000 A-scans per second was demonstrated. Interchangeable water immersion objectives with magnifications of 10×, 20×, and 40× provided co-registered en face cellular-resolution imaging over several size scales. Volumetric OCM data sets and en face OCM images were demonstrated on both normal and pathological human colon and kidney specimens ex vivo with an axial resolution of ~4.2 µm, and transverse resolutions of ~2.9 µm (10×), ~1.7 µm (20×), and ~1.1 µm (40×) in tissue. In addition, en face OCM images acquired with high numerical aperture over an extended field-of-view (FOV) were demonstrated using image mosaicking. Comparison between en face OCM images among different transverse and axial resolutions was demonstrated, which promises to help the design and evaluation of imaging performance of Fourier domain OCM systems at different resolution regimes.
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TFE3 controls lipid metabolism in adipose tissue of male mice by suppressing lipolysis and thermogenesis.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Transcription factor E3 (TFE3) is a transcription factor that binds to E-box motifs and promotes energy metabolism-related genes. We previously reported that TFE3 directly binds to the insulin receptor substrate-2 promoter in the liver, resulting in increased insulin response. However, the role of TFE3 in other tissues remains unclear. In this study, we generated adipose-specific TFE3 transgenic (aP2-TFE3 Tg) mice. These mice had a higher weight of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue than wild-type (WT) mice under fasting conditions. Lipase activity in the WAT in these mice was lower than that in the WT mice. The mRNA level of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme for adipocyte lipolysis, was significantly decreased in aP2-TFE3 Tg mice. The expression of Foxo1, which directly activates ATGL expression, was also suppressed in transgenic mice. Promoter analysis confirmed that TFE3 suppressed promoter activities of the ATGL gene. In contrast, G0S2 and Perilipin1, which attenuate ATGL activity, were higher in transgenic mice than in WT mice. These results indicated that the decrease in lipase activity in adipose tissues was due to a decrease in ATGL expression and suppression of ATGL activity. We also showed that thermogenesis was suppressed in aP2-TFE3 Tg mice. The decrease in lipolysis in WAT of aP2-TFE3 Tg mice inhibited the supply of fatty acids to brown adipose tissue, resulting in the inhibition of the expression of thermogenesis-related genes such as UCP1. Our data provide new evidence that TFE3 regulates lipid metabolism by controlling the gene expression related to lipolysis and thermogenesis in adipose tissue.
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Fatal diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae O67 in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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A 71-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) receiving treatment with azacitidine developed extensive watery diarrhea for three consecutive days. As a result of high-grade dehydration, the patient was urgently admitted to the hospital and fluid replacement therapy was initiated. However, the patients diarrhea did not improve. Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 was detected in a fecal culture. On the fourth day, the patient died due to circulatory collapse. An autopsy revealed extensive necrosis of the intestinal mucosa. Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139-induced diarrheal disease often develops in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and has a serious clinical course. We herein report a fatal outcome of Vibrio cholerae O67 infection in an immunocompromised MDS patient.
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Optical coherence tomography– 15 years in cardiology.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Since its invention in the late 1990s, intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been rapidly adopted in clinical research and, more recently, in clinical practice. Given its unprecedented resolution and high image contrast, OCT has been used to visualize plaque characteristics and to evaluate the vascular response to percutaneous coronary intervention. In particular, OCT is becoming the standard modality to evaluate in vivo plaque vulnerability, including the presence of lipid content, thin fibrous cap, or macrophage accumulation. Furthermore, OCT findings after stent implantation, such as strut apposition, neointimal hyperplasia, strut coverage, and neoatherosclerosis, are used as surrogate markers of the vascular response. New applications for OCT are being explored, such as transplant vasculopathy or non-coronary vascular imaging. Although OCT has contributed to cardiovascular research by providing a better understanding of the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease, data linking the images and clinical outcomes are lacking. Prospective data are needed to prove that the use of OCT improves patient outcomes, which is the ultimate goal of any clinical diagnostic tool.
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En Face Enhanced-Depth Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Features of Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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To characterize en face features of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid in eyes with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) using a high-speed, enhanced-depth swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) prototype.
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Genomic constitution and atypical reproduction in polyploid and unisexual lineages of the Misgurnus loach, a teleost fish.
Cytogenet. Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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The loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) is an excellent animal model to elucidate biological origin and evolutionary significance of genome duplication and unisexual reproduction because artificially induced and naturally occurring polyploids and parthenogenetic (gynogenetic, androgenetic) animals can be compared. First, we summarize the chromosome manipulation techniques to induce triploids and tetraploids by inhibiting meiotic or mitotic divisions of inseminated eggs, respectively, as well as parthenogenetic animals, obtained after fertilization with genetically inactivated gametes. Then, we review the knowledge on natural polyploid and unisexual lineages found in Misgurnus loaches. A natural diploid-tetraploid complex occurs in wild populations in central China, and these diploid and tetraploid loaches reproduce bisexually. Chinese tetraploids are considered autotetraploid, which may have arisen by doubling of the entire genome of an ancestral diploid, based on cytogenetic results from FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) karyotypes and meiotic configurations. In contrast, gynogenetically reproducing clonal diploid lineages have been discovered in a few wild populations in Japan, although most wild-type individuals are bisexually reproducing diploids. Such clonal diploid loaches sometimes produce triploid progeny by accidental incorporation of a sperm nucleus into an unreduced diploid egg, and the resulting triploid generates haploid eggs by meiotic hybridogenesis. Unreduced diploid gametes of clonal loaches are generated by a cytological mechanism, premeiotic endomitosis, which likely occurs in the early (gonium stage) germ cells. Initiation of gynogenetic development is related to a failure of decondensation of the male (sperm) pronucleus in unreduced diploid eggs of a clonal loach. Clonal lineages may have arisen from a past hybrid event between genetically divergent groups, but their exact origins are unknown at present. See also the sister article focusing on plants by Hegarty et al. in this themed issue.
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Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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We developed a micromotor based miniature catheter with an outer diameter of 3.2 mm for ultrahigh speed endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) at a 1 MHz axial scan rate. The micromotor can rotate a micro-prism at several hundred frames per second with less than 5 V drive voltage to provide fast and stable scanning, which is not sensitive to the bending of the catheter. The side-viewing probe can be pulled back to acquire a three-dimensional (3D) data set covering a large area on the specimen. The VCSEL provides a high axial scan rate to support dense sampling under high frame rate operation. Using a high speed data acquisition system, in vivo 3D-OCT imaging in the rabbit GI tract and ex vivo imaging of a human colon specimen with 8 ?m axial resolution, 8 ?m lateral resolution and 1.2 mm depth range in tissue at a frame rate of 400 fps was demonstrated.
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Microbial community assembly and succession on lake sturgeon egg surfaces as a function of simulated spawning stream flow rate.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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We investigated microbial succession on lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) egg surfaces over the course of their incubation period as a function of simulated stream flow rate. The primary objective was to characterize the microbial community assembly during succession and to examine how simulated stream flow rate affect the successional process. Sturgeon eggs were reared under three flow regimes; high (0.55 m/s), low (0.18 m/s), and variable (0.35 and 0.11 m/s alternating 12 h intervals). Eggs were collected from each flow regime at different egg developmental stages. Microbial community DNA was extracted from egg surface and the communities were examined using 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and 454 pyrosequencing. Analysis of these datasets using principal component analysis revealed that microbial communities were clustered by egg developmental stages (early, middle, and late) regardless of flow regimes. 454 pyrosequencing data suggested that 90-98 % of the microbial communities were composed of the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes throughout succession. ?-Protebacteria was more dominant in the early stage, Bacteroidetes became more dominant in the middle stage, and ?-Proteobacteria became dominant in the late stage. A total of 360 genera and 5,826 OTUs at 97 % similarity cutoff were associated with the eggs. Midway through egg development, the egg-associated communities of the low flow regime had a higher diversity than those communities developed under high or variable flow regimes. Results show that microbial community turnover occurred during embryogenesis, and stream flow rate influenced the microbial succession processes on the sturgeon egg surfaces.
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A design principle of group-level decision making in cell populations.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Populations of cells often switch states as a group to cope with environmental changes such as nutrient availability and cell density. Although the gene circuits that underlie the switches are well understood at the level of single cells, the ways in which such circuits work in concert among many cells to support group-level switches are not fully explored. Experimental studies of microbial quorum sensing show that group-level changes in cellular states occur in either a graded or an all-or-none fashion. Here, we show through numerical simulations and mathematical analysis that these behaviors generally originate from two distinct forms of bistability. The choice of bistability is uniquely determined by a dimensionless parameter that compares the synthesis and the transport of the inducing molecules. The role of the parameter is universal, such that it not only applies to the autoinducing circuits typically found in bacteria but also to the more complex gene circuits involved in transmembrane receptor signaling. Furthermore, in gene circuits with negative feedback, the same dimensionless parameter determines the coherence of group-level transitions from quiescence to a rhythmic state. The set of biochemical parameters in bacterial quorum-sensing circuits appear to be tuned so that the cells can use either type of transition. The design principle identified here serves as the basis for the analysis and control of cellular collective decision making.
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Silencing of the Drosophila ortholog of SOX5 in heart leads to cardiac dysfunction as detected by optical coherence tomography.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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The SRY-related HMG-box 5 (SOX5) gene encodes a member of the SOX family of transcription factors. Recently, genome-wide association studies have implicated SOX5 as a candidate gene for susceptibility to four cardiac-related endophenotypes: higher resting heart rate (HR), the electrocardiographic PR interval, atrial fibrillation and left ventricular mass. We have determined that human SOX5 has a highly conserved Drosophila ortholog, Sox102F, and have employed transgenic Drosophila models to quantitatively measure cardiac function in adult flies. For this purpose, we have developed a high-speed and ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging system, which enables rapid cross-sectional imaging of the heart tube over various cardiac cycles for the measurement of cardiac structural and dynamical parameters such as HR, dimensions and areas of heart chambers, cardiac wall thickness and wall velocities. We have found that the silencing of Sox102F resulted in a significant decrease in HR, heart chamber size and cardiac wall velocities, and a significant increase in cardiac wall thickness that was accompanied by disrupted myofibril structure in adult flies. In addition, the silencing of Sox102F in the wing led to increased L2, L3 and wing marginal veins and increased and disorganized expression of wingless, the central component of the Wnt signaling pathway. Collectively, the silencing of Sox102F resulted in severe cardiac dysfunction and structural defects with disrupted Wnt signaling transduction in flies. This implicates an important functional role for SOX5 in heart and suggests that the alterations in SOX5 levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple cardiac diseases or traits.
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Involvement of autoimmunity to REG, a regeneration factor, in patients with primary Sjögrens syndrome.
Clin. Exp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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The regenerating gene (Reg) was isolated originally as a gene specifically over-expressed in regenerating pancreatic islets and constitute a growth factor family. Reg gene product (Reg) is important in the pathophysiology of various human inflammatory diseases. Recently, the possible involvement of human REG in the regeneration of salivary ductal epithelial cells of patients with primary Sjögrens syndrome (SS) was reported. However, the expression of the REG family genes in minor salivary glands (MSG) and the occurrence of anti-REG I? autoantibodies in SS patients were obscured. In this study, we examined the expression of REG family genes in the MSG of SS and screened anti-REG I? autoantibodies in SS. The mRNA levels of REG family genes in MSG were quantified using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and REG I? expression in the MSG was analysed by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA level of REG I? in the MSG of SS patients was significantly higher than that of control. REG I? protein was expressed highly in SS ductal epithelial cells. Anti-REG I? autoantibodies in the sera were found in 11% of SS. All the MSG in the anti-REG I? autoantibody-positive group showed REG I? expression, whereas only 40% showed REG I? expression in the anti-REG I? autoantibody-negative group. The anti-REG I? autoantibody-positive group showed significantly lower saliva secretion and a higher ratio of grade 4 (by Rubin-Holt) in sialography. These data suggest strongly that autoimmunity to REG I? might play a role in the degeneration of MSG ductal epithelial cells in primary SS.
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Exercise-induced acute changes in systolic blood pressure do not alter choroidal thickness as measured by a portable spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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To measure choroidal thickness in patients manifesting an acute change in systemic arterial blood pressure using a portable spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device (iVue).
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Epithelial expression of interleukin-37b in inflammatory bowel disease.
Clin. Exp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Interleukin (IL)-37 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family. We investigated IL-37b expression in the inflamed mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Furthermore, we analysed IL-37b expression in human colonic epithelial cells. The human colonic epithelial cell line T84 and human colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts (SEMFs) were used. IL-37b expression in the IBD mucosa was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. IL-37b mRNA and protein expression were determined by real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. IL-37b was not detected in the normal colonic mucosa. In the inflamed mucosa of IBD patients, epithelial IL-37b expression was increased markedly. In ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohns disease (CD) patients, IL-37b expression was enhanced in the affected mucosa. In the intestinal epithelial cell line T84, the expression of IL-37b mRNA and protein was enhanced by tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?. This IL-37b induction by TNF-? was mediated by nuclear factor (NF)-?B and activator protein (AP)-1 activation. Furthermore, IL-37b inhibited TNF-?-induced interferon-?-inducible protein (IP)-10 expression significantly in human colonic SEMFs. Epithelial IL-37b expression was increased in IBD patients, especially UC patients. IL-37b may be involved in the pathophysiology of IBD as an anti-inflammatory cytokine and an inhibitor of both innate and acquired immune responses.
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Laparoscopic total pelvic exenteration with en bloc lateral lymph node dissection after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for advanced primary rectal cancer.
Asian J Endosc Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Total pelvic exenteration (TPE) may be the only procedure that can cure T4 rectal cancer that directly invades the urinary bladder or prostate. Here, we describe our experience of laparoscopic TPE with en bloc lateral lymph node dissection for advanced primary rectal cancer. A 62-year-old man diagnosed with advanced lower rectal cancer (T4bN0M0) underwent laparoscopic TPE with en bloc lateral lymph node dissection after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Ligation of the dorsal vein complex was performed under direct visualization through the perineal approach, and the large perineal defect was reconstructed using bilateral V-Y advancement of the gluteus maximus musculocutaneous flaps. The ileal conduit was constructed extracorporeally through an extended umbilical port that was extended to 4?cm. The total operative time was 831?min and estimated blood loss was 600?mL. Laparoscopic TPE appears to be safe and feasible in selected patients.
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Reproducibility of a long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography ocular biometry system and comparison with clinical biometers.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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To demonstrate a novel swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) imaging device using a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) capable of imaging the full eye length and to introduce a method using this device for noncontact ocular biometry. To compare the measurements of intraocular distances using this SS-OCT instrument with commercially available optical and ultrasound biometers. To evaluate the intersession reproducibility of measurements of intraocular distances using SS-OCT.
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Regulation of eotaxin-3/CC chemokine ligand 26 expression by T helper type 2 cytokines in human colonic myofibroblasts.
Clin. Exp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Eotaxins induce the trafficking of eosinophils to the sites of inflammation via CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3). In this study, we investigated eotaxin-3/CC chemokine ligand 26 (CCL26) expression in the inflamed mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and characterized the molecular mechanisms responsible for eotaxin-3 expression in human colonic myofibroblasts. Eotaxin-3?mRNA and protein expression was evaluated by real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Eotaxin-3?mRNA expression was elevated significantly in the active lesions of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Significant elevations were also observed in the active lesions of Crohns disease (CD) patients, but this was significantly lower than that detected in the active UC lesions. There were no significant increases in the inactive lesions of UC or CD patients. Colonic myofibroblasts were identified as a major source of eotaxin-3 in the colonic mucosa, and interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 enhanced eotaxin-3?mRNA and protein expression significantly in these cells. There was a significant positive correlation between mucosal eotaxin-3 and IL-4?mRNA expression in the active lesions of IBD patients. The IL-4- and IL-13-induced eotaxin-3?mRNA expression was regulated by the signal transducer and activator of transcription-6 (STAT-6) and suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)1-mediated pathways. Interferon (IFN)-? acts as a negative regulator on the IL-4- and IL-13-induced eotaxin-3 expression via STAT-1 activation. Eotaxin-3 expression was elevated specifically in the active lesions of IBD, in particular UC. Eotaxin-3 derived from colonic myofibroblasts may play an important role in the pathophysiology of UC.
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High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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We demonstrate ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging using vertical cavity surface emitting laser technology. The ability to adjust laser parameters and high-speed acquisition enables imaging ranges from a few centimeters up to meters using the same instrument. We discuss the challenges of long-range OCT imaging. In vivo human-eye imaging and optical component characterization are presented. The precision and accuracy of OCT-based measurements are assessed and are important for ocular biometry and reproducible intraocular distance measurement before cataract surgery. Additionally, meter-range measurement of fiber length and multicentimeter-range imaging are reported. 3D visualization supports a class of industrial imaging applications of OCT.
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Phase-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human retina with a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser light source.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Despite the challenges in achieving high phase stability, Doppler swept-source/Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) has advantages of less fringe washout and faster imaging speeds compared to spectral/Fourier-domain detection. This Letter demonstrates swept-source OCT with a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser light source at 400 kHz sweep rate for phase-sensitive Doppler imaging, measuring pulsatile total retinal blood flow with high sensitivity and phase stability. A robust, simple, and computationally efficient phase stabilization approach for phase-sensitive swept-source imaging is also presented.
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Enhanced visualization of the choroido-scleral interface using swept-source OCT.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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An accurate analysis of the thickness and volume of choroid using optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires precise visualization of the choroido-scleral interface. Results of studies that use spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) to look at the percent visualization of the choroido-scleral interface for accurate analysis of choroidal thickness show varying success rates. This study assessed the visualization of choroido-scleral interface in 19 healthy participants (19 eyes) prospectively recruited for consecutive high-definition raster scanning with an SD-OCT system with and without enhanced depth imaging (EDI) and a prototype long-wavelength swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system. Choroido-scleral interface was visualized in all eyes imaged on SS-OCT, compared with 13 of 19 (68.4%) and 14 of 19 (73.6%) eyes imaged on SD-OCT without EDI (P = .009) and with EDI (P = .02), respectively. The prototype long-wavelength SS-OCT system, with its higher acquisition speed and deeper tissue penetration, may have better clinical utility in determining the involvement of choroid in various chorioretinal diseases.
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Robustness of self-organizing chemoattractant field arising from precise pulse induction of its breakdown enzyme: a single-cell level analysis of PDE expression in Dictyostelium.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The oscillation of chemoattractant cyclic AMP (cAMP) in Dictyostelium discoideum is a collective phenomenon that occurs when the basal level of extracellular cAMP exceeds a threshold and invokes cooperative mutual excitation of cAMP synthesis and secretion. For pulses to be relayed from cell to cell repetitively, secreted cAMP must be cleared and brought down to the subthreshold level. One of the main determinants of the oscillatory behavior is thus how much extracellular cAMP is degraded by extracellular phosphodiesterase (PDE). To date, the exact nature of PDE gene regulation remains elusive. Here, we performed live imaging analysis of mRNA transcripts for pdsA--the gene encoding extracellular PDE. Our analysis revealed that pdsA is upregulated during the rising phase of cAMP oscillations. Furthermore, by analyzing isolated cells, we show that expression of pdsA is strictly dependent on the presence of extracellular cAMP. pdsA is induced only at ?1 nM extracellular cAMP, which is almost identical to the threshold concentration for the cAMP relay response. The observed precise regulation of PDE expression together with degradation of extracellular cAMP by PDE form a dual positive and negative feedback circuit, and model analysis shows that this sets the cAMP level near the threshold concentration for the cAMP relay response for a wide range of adenylyl cyclase activity. The overlap of the thresholds could allow oscillations of chemoattractant cAMP to self-organize at various starving conditions, making its development robust to fluctuations in its environment.
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In vivo imaging of the rodent eye with swept source/Fourier domain OCT.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Swept source/Fourier domain OCT is demonstrated for in vivo imaging of the rodent eye. Using commercial swept laser technology, we developed a prototype OCT imaging system for small animal ocular imaging operating in the 1050 nm wavelength range at an axial scan rate of 100 kHz with ~6 µm axial resolution. The high imaging speed enables volumetric imaging with high axial scan densities, measuring high flow velocities in vessels, and repeated volumetric imaging over time. The 1050 nm wavelength light provides increased penetration into tissue compared to standard commercial OCT systems at 850 nm. The long imaging range enables multiple operating modes for imaging the retina, posterior eye, as well as anterior eye and full eye length. A registration algorithm using orthogonally scanned OCT volumetric data sets which can correct motion on a per A-scan basis is applied to compensate motion and merge motion corrected volumetric data for enhanced OCT image quality. Ultrahigh speed swept source OCT is a promising technique for imaging the rodent eye, proving comprehensive information on the cornea, anterior segment, lens, vitreous, posterior segment, retina and choroid.
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Analysis of choroidal morphologic features and vasculature in healthy eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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To analyze the morphologic features and vasculature of the choroid in healthy eyes using spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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Choriocapillaris and Choroidal Microvasculature Imaging with Ultrahigh Speed OCT Angiography.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We demonstrate in vivo choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging in normal human subjects using optical coherence tomography (OCT). An ultrahigh speed swept source OCT prototype at 1060 nm wavelengths with a 400 kHz A-scan rate is developed for three-dimensional ultrahigh speed imaging of the posterior eye. OCT angiography is used to image three-dimensional vascular structure without the need for exogenous fluorophores by detecting erythrocyte motion contrast between OCT intensity cross-sectional images acquired rapidly and repeatedly from the same location on the retina. En face OCT angiograms of the choriocapillaris and choroidal vasculature are visualized by acquiring cross-sectional OCT angiograms volumetrically via raster scanning and segmenting the three-dimensional angiographic data at multiple depths below the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Fine microvasculature of the choriocapillaris, as well as tightly packed networks of feeding arterioles and draining venules, can be visualized at different en face depths. Panoramic ultra-wide field stitched OCT angiograms of the choriocapillaris spanning ?32 mm on the retina show distinct vascular structures at different fundus locations. Isolated smaller fields at the central fovea and ?6 mm nasal to the fovea at the depths of the choriocapillaris and Sattlers layer show vasculature structures consistent with established architectural morphology from histological and electron micrograph corrosion casting studies. Choriocapillaris imaging was performed in eight healthy volunteers with OCT angiograms successfully acquired from all subjects. These results demonstrate the feasibility of ultrahigh speed OCT for in vivo dye-free choriocapillaris and choroidal vasculature imaging, in addition to conventional structural imaging.
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Parafoveal Retinal Vascular Response to Pattern Visual Stimulation Assessed with OCT Angiography.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We used optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography with a high-speed swept-source OCT system to investigate retinal blood flow changes induced by visual stimulation with a reversing checkerboard pattern. The split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm was used to quantify blood flow as measured with parafoveal flow index (PFI), which is proportional to the density of blood vessels and the velocity of blood flow in the parafoveal region of the macula. PFI measurements were taken in 15 second intervals during a 4 minute period consisting of 1 minute of baseline, 2 minutes with an 8 Hz reversing checkerboard pattern stimulation, and 1 minute without stimulation. PFI measurements increased 6.1±4.7% (p?=?.001) during the first minute of stimulation, with the most significant increase in PFI occurring 30 seconds into stimulation (p<0.001). These results suggest that pattern stimulation induces a change to retinal blood flow that can be reliably measured with OCT angiography.
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[A case of metastatic pulmonary cancer from urachal carcinoma that required differentiation from primary lung adenocarcinoma].
Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2011
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A 58-year-old man was given a diagnosis of urachal carcinoma and underwent a partial cystectomy with enbloc removal of the tumor and radical lymphadenectomy in 2006. In April 2009 he was admitted to our hospital because of hemoptysis and left chest pain. Chest CT showed a 4-cm mass shadow in the left S3 and nodular shadows in the right S1 and left S10. Flexible bronchoscopy demonstrated a tumorous lesion at the orifice of the left B3 bronchus. Although the cytological diagnosis suggested high-grade adenocarcinoma, the tumor was producing mucin and consisted of cells with anisonucleosis, which is not typical of primary lung adenocarcinoma. We then performed immunohistochemical and histological examination of a transbronchial lung biopsy specimen. The histological findings of the specimen were very similar to those of the previously resected urachal carcinoma. In addition, the tumor cells were negative for thyroid transcription factor-1 and surfactant precursor protein B, which are specific to primary lung adenocarcinoma. We therefore diagnosed metastatic pulmonary cancer from urachal carcinoma, which is a rare manifestation in bladder cancer. We report a rare case of metastatic pulmonary cancer from urachal carcinoma that required differentiation from primary lung adenocarcinoma in addition to a discussion of the literature.
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