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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ribosomal Protein S15A Augments Human Osteosarcoma Cell Proliferation In Vitro.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Abstract As a highly conserved housekeeping gene, the biological implications of ribosomal protein S15A (RPS15A) during various processes, including carcinogenesis, remain elusive. Herein, the authors reported that knockdown of RPS15A expression significantly inhibited human osteosarcoma U2OS cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro by using a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system. Moreover, an excess accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase was observed in U2OS cells transduced with lentivirus targeting RPS15A, suggesting that the growth inhibition mediated by RPS15A knockdown in osteosarcoma cells was probably due to the induction of cell cycle arrest. Taken together, this study highlights the crucial role of RPS15A in promoting osteosarcoma cell proliferation, and provides a foundation for further study into the clinical potential of inhibition of RPS15A for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
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Association of Geographic and Seasonal Variation With Diverticulitis Admissions.
JAMA Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The incidence of diverticulitis has been associated with geographic and seasonal variation. Low levels of circulating vitamin D are associated with diverticulitis. We investigated the association between UV light and diverticulitis.
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Intramuscular diclofenac for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis: a randomized trial.
Endoscopy
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Background and study aims: Rectal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been shown to reduce the incidence of postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP). The aim of this study was to determine whether intramuscular diclofenac reduces the risk of PEP. Patients and methods: Patients who underwent ERCP were randomized to receive either 90?mg of diclofenac or placebo by intramuscular injection immediately after the procedure. PEP was defined as elevated serum amylase levels (at least three times the upper limit of normal 24 hours after the procedure) associated with new or worsened upper abdominal, epigastric, or back pain. Results: In total, 380 patients were randomized, and 343 were eligible for analysis. The two groups were similar regarding clinical and demographic factors, as well as patient- and procedure-related risk factors for PEP. PEP developed in 20/170 patients (11.8?%) in the placebo group and in 22/173 patients (12.7?%) in the diclofenac group (P?=?0.87). Multivariate regression analysis failed to illustrate that intramuscular diclofenac prevented PEP (odds ratio 0.79; 95?% confidence interval 0.39?-?1.25; P?=?0.51). Conclusion: Prophylactic intramuscular diclofenac had no beneficial preventive effect on PEP.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01717599.
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Prognostic Significance of Volume-Based FDG PET/CT Parameters in Patients with Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Treated with Chemoradiation Therapy.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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We investigated the prognostic role of volume-based parameters measured on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) treated with chemoradiation therapy (CRT).
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Significant field enhancements in an individual silver nanoparticle near a substrate covered with a thin gain film.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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In this paper, we propose a method to significantly enhance the local-field of a gap plasmonic system by placing a metallic nanoparticle in close proximity to a substrate covered with a thin film using a gain material (?100 nm thickness). Compared with a conventional dielectric substrate, the thin gain film can contribute to several, or dozens, of times more intense local electric fields in the gap between the particle and the substrate. We use the finite difference time domain method to numerically analyze the influences of the gain coefficient of the film and of the other parameters on the field enhancement. The numerical results show that there is an optimal refractive index of the gain film that enables us to achieve a maximal field enhancement for a given NP radius. Moreover, the optimal refractive index of the gain film can be incorporated into any available materials using metal nanoparticles with an appropriate radius.
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[Comparison of immune response after laparoscopic and open surgery for colorectal carcinoma: a meta-analysis].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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To compare the immune function after laparoscopic surgery (LS) and conventional open surgery(OS) for colorectal cancer (CRC).
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A pilot study of S-1-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with biliary tract cancer.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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S-1 chemotherapy is effective against advanced biliary tract cancer. The purpose was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of S-1-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer.
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PPM1D silencing by RNA interference inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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PPM1D (protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1D) has been reported to be involved in multiple human tumors. This study was designed to investigate the functional role of PPM1D in lung cancer cells.
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Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer after adjusting for inflammatory markers.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Despite the substantial epidemiologic evidence on the inverse association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and colorectal cancer, it remains controversial whether this relationship is causal or due to confounding by inflammation. We reevaluated the association between plasma 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer risk by additionally accounting for inflammatory markers in a prospective case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (615 cases and 1,209 matched controls). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of colorectal cancer in relation to quartiles of plasma 25(OH)D. Results were compared before and after adjusting for inflammatory markers in the multivariable model. Plasma 25(OH)D was associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (multivariable RR comparing extreme quartiles = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.97; Ptrend = 0.01). Additional adjustment for C-reactive protein, IL6, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, or a composite inflammatory score did not change the results [multivariable (including inflammatory score) RR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53-0.98; Ptrend = 0.02). Our findings suggest that confounding by inflammation, as reflected by circulating inflammatory markers, does not appear to account for the inverse association between plasma 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer.
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Identification of human complement factor B as a novel biomarker candidate for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Pancreatic cancer (PC; pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma) is characterized by significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 has been known as a PC biomarker, it is not commonly used for general screening because of its low sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a new biomarker for PC diagnosis in the earlier stage of cancer. To search for a novel serologic PC biomarker, we carried out an integrated proteomic analysis for a total of 185 pooled or individual plasma from healthy donors and patients with five disease groups including chronic pancreatitis (CP), PC, and other cancers (e.g., hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and gastric cancer) and identified complement factor b (CFB) as a candidate serologic biomarker for PC diagnosis. Immunoblot analysis of CFB revealed more than two times higher expression in plasma samples from PC patients compared with plasma from individuals without PC. Immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry analysis confirmed both molecular identity and higher expression of CFB in PC samples. CFB showed distinctly higher specificity than CA 19-9 for PC against other types of digestive cancers and in discriminating PC patients from non-PC patients (p < 0.0001). In receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, CFB showed an area under curve of 0.958 (95% CI: 0.956 to 0.959) compared with 0.833 (95% CI: 0.829 to 0.837) for CA 19-9. Furthermore, the Y-index of CFB was much higher than that of CA 19-9 (71.0 vs 50.4), suggesting that CFB outperforms CA 19-9 in discriminating PC from CP and other gastrointestinal cancers. This was further supported by immunoprecipitation and qRT-PCR assays showing higher expression of CFB in PC cell lines than in normal cell lines. A combination of CFB and CA 19-9 showed markedly improved sensitivity (90.1 vs 73.1%) over that of CFB alone in the diagnosis of PC against non-PC, with similar specificity (97.2 vs 97.9%). Thus, our results identify CFB as a novel serologic PC biomarker candidate and warrant further investigation into a large-scale validation and its role in molecular mechanism of pancreatic carcinogenesis.
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Emodin-loaded magnesium silicate hollow nanocarriers for anti-angiogenesis treatment through inhibiting VEGF.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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The applications of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) treatment in ophthalmic fields to inhibit angiogenesis have been widely documented in recent years. However, the hydrophobic nature of many agents makes its delivery difficult in practice. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to introduce a new kind of hydrophobic drug carrier by employing nanoparticles with a hollow structure inside. Followed by the synthesis and characterization of magnesium silicate hollow spheres, cytotoxicity was evaluated in retina capillary endothelial cells. The loading and releasing capacity were tested by employing emodin, and the effect on VEGF expression was performed at the gene and protein level. Finally, an investigation on angiogenesis was carried on fertilized chicken eggs. The results indicated that the magnesium silicate nanoparticles had low toxicity. Emodin-MgSiO3 can inhibit the expression of both VEGF gene and protein effectively. Angiogenesis of eggs was also reduced significantly. Based on the above results, we concluded that magnesium silicate hollow spheres were good candidates as drug carriers with enough safety.
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IL-1? Induces IL-6 production in retinal Müller cells predominantly through the activation of P38 MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathway.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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IL-6 plays an important role in various inflammatory ocular diseases, including diabetic retinopathy. Müller cells are the major source of inflammatory mediators, including IL-6, in the retina. However, the mechanism of regulating IL-6 production in these cells remains unclear. Examination of signaling pathways in human retinal Müller cells (MIO-M1 cell line) cultured with IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, IFN-?, glucose or mannitol showed that IL-1? was the most potent stimulator of IL-6 production. In addition, IL-1 ? also increased NF-?B p50 protein level and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and c-Jun. Induction of IL-6 production by IL-1? was significantly reduced by addition of p38 MAPK (SB203580), MEK1/2 (U0126) or NF-?B (BAY11-7082) inhibitors, with the highest effect being observed with SB203580. To explore the specific elements in IL-6 promoter responsible for IL-1?-induction of IL-6 expression, a series of plasmids bearing various IL-6 promoter mutations were transiently expressed in MIO-MI cells cultured in the presence or absence of IL-1? (10ng/ml) and/or SB203580 (10µM). Results showed that IL-6 promoter activity of the parent pIL-6-Luc651 was significantly enhanced by IL-1?, but the level was significantly attenuated by SB203580. Furthermore, the IL-6 promoter activity was also reduced upon deletion of NF-?B, AP-1 or C/EBP binding sites, with NF-?B deletion being the greatest. These results are the first demonstration that IL-1? induces IL-6 production in Müller cells by activation of IL-6 promoter activity predominantly through the p38 MAPK/NF-?B pathway.
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The efficacy of endoscopic palliation of obstructive jaundice in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Obstructive jaundice in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is uncommon (0.5-13%). Unlike other causes of obstructive jaundice, the role of endoscopic intervention in obstructive jaundice complicated by HCC has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of obstructive jaundice caused by HCC and predictive factors for successful endoscopic intervention.
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Syndrome Differentiation of Diabetes by the Traditional Chinese Medicine according to Evidence-Based Medicine and Expert Consensus Opinion.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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In Chinese medicine, diabetes belongs to the category of "Xiaoke disease (disease with symptoms of frequent drinking and urination)"; in the traditional sense, its pathogenesis is "Yin deficiency and dryness-heat." However, over time, changes in the social environment and lifestyle have also changed the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in diabetes. In this study, we performed diabetes syndrome differentiation using TCM according to evidence-based medicine and expert consensus opinion.
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Diagnostic Efficiency of Hemoglobin A1c for Newly Diagnosed Diabetes and Prediabetes in Community-Based Chinese Adults Aged 40 Years or Older.
Diabetes Technol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Abstract Background: Europeans and Americans are gradually accepting the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) threshold of 6.5% for diagnosing diabetes proposed by the American Diabetes Association, but the cutoff of HbA1c for the Chinese population is unclear. We evaluated the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diagnosing newly diagnosed diabetes and prediabetes in community-based Chinese adults 40 years of age or older. Subjects and Methods: In this study 8,239 subjects (5,496 women) 40-90 years of age underwent HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance test measurement after an overnight fast. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined by the World Health Organization criteria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c, and the optimal cutoff was defined as the point on the receiver operating characteristic curve with the largest Youden index. Spearman correlation was used for correlation analysis. Results: The prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes and prediabetes was 10.7% (880/8,239) and 19.0% (1,564/8,239), respectively. Fasting plasma glucose and postprandial plasma glucose were positively correlated with HbA1c level (r=0.725 and r=0.673, both P<0.001, respectively). For diagnosing diabetes, the AUC was 0.857 (95% confidence interval, 0.841-0.873), and the optimal cutoff for HbA1c was 6.3%, with the largest Youden index being 0.581. For diagnosing prediabetes, the AUC was 0.681 (95% confidence interval, 0.666-0.697), and the optimal cutoff for HbA1c was 5.9%, with the largest Youden index being 0.280. Conclusions: An HbA1c threshold of 6.3% was highly valuable for diagnosing newly diagnosed diabetes, and a value of 5.9% was weakly valuable for diagnosing prediabetes in community-based Chinese adults 40 years of age or older.
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Clinical characteristics of long-term survivors of inoperable pancreatic cancer: an 8-year cohort analysis in Korea.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Inoperable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is known to have an extremely poor prognosis. Although rare, there are some patients who have unexpected long-term survival, but the reason is not yet clear.
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The Clinico-Oncologic Outcomes of Elderly Patients with Glioblastoma after Surgical Resection Followed by Concomitant Chemo-Radiotherapy.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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There have been controversies in the treatment of elderly patients with glioblastoma. We introduce the outcome of the treatment of elderly patients with glioblastoma comparing with younger patients.
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RAG1/2 knockout pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Pigs share many physiological, biochemical, and anatomical similarities with humans and have emerged as valuable large animal models for biomedical research. Considering the advantages in immune system resemblance, suitable size, and longevity for clinical practical and monitoring purpose, SCID pigs bearing dysfunctional RAG could serve as important experimental tools for regenerative medicine, allograft and xenograft transplantation, and reconstitution experiments related to the immune system. In this study, we report the generation and phenotypic characterization of RAG1 and RAG2 knockout pigs using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. Porcine fetal fibroblasts were genetically engineered using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and then used to provide donor nuclei for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We obtained 27 live cloned piglets; among these piglets, 9 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG1, 3 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG2, and 10 were targeted with a monoallelic mutation in RAG2. Piglets with biallelic mutations in either RAG1 or RAG2 exhibited hypoplasia of immune organs, failed to perform V(D)J rearrangement, and lost mature B and T cells. These immunodeficient RAG1/2 knockout pigs are promising tools for biomedical and translational research.
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Treatment and Outcomes for Gangliogliomas: A Single-Center Review of 16 Patients.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Ganglioglioma is a rare and slowly growing benign tumor. We investigated the outcomes of patients who underwent different combination treatments.
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Irisin has no effect on lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes or fatty acid metabolism in HepG2 hepatocytes.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Irisin, a newly identified myokine responsible for browning of white or beige adipocytes, has been reported to be present at reduced levels in diabetic patients and associated with obesity, serum triglyceride (TG) levels, and intrahepatic TG levels. We wondered whether irisin could directly affect fatty acid and TG metabolism in adipocytes and hepatocytes. We examined the effects of various concentrations of irisin on lipolysis (according to Oil Red O staining, free fatty acid release, and glycerol release), protein expression of HSL and ATGL, and mRNA expression of other lipid-related genes (UCP-1, PPAR?, FABP-4, HSL, ATGL, PPAR?, and CPT-1) in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well as mRNA levels of genes involved in the synthesis (SREBP-1C and FAS) and ?-oxidation (PPAR? and CPT-1) of fatty acids in HepG2 hepatocytes under physiological or hyperglycemic conditions. Our results revealed that although irisin significantly increased the mRNA levels of UCP-1 and PPAR?, it failed to show detectable effects on lipolysis, HSL or ATGL protein levels, or the mRNA expression of other lipid-related genes in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In HepG2 hepatocytes, high glucose induced the upregulation of SREBP-1C and FAS and the downregulation of PPAR?; however, no significant effect of irisin on gene expression was observed under either physiological or hyperglycemic conditions. We therefore conclude that irisin has no significant direct effect on lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes or on fatty acid metabolism in HepG2 hepatocytes.
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Mandibular Tori Are Associated With Mechanical Stress and Mandibular Shape.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The influence of mechanical stimulation on the formation of torus mandibularis (TM) is still poorly understood. We sought to understand the etiology of TMs by investigating the role of parafunctional activity and mandibular morphology on the formation of TMs.
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Clinical usefulness of ¹?F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer planned to undergo concurrent chemoradiation therapy.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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To assess the role of coregistered (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in detecting radiographically occult distant metastasis (DM) at staging in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and to study whether FDG-PET parameters can predict relatively long-term survival in patients who are more likely to benefit from chemoradiation therapy (CRT).
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Urinary PGE-M levels are associated with risk of colorectal adenomas and chemopreventive response to anti-inflammatory drugs.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) promotes colorectal carcinogenesis. Overall, systemic PGE2 production can be assessed by measuring its major metabolite, PGE-M, in urine. We examined the potential role of PGE-M as a biomarker for colorectal adenoma risk and chemopreventive response to anti-inflammatory drugs. We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study. Among women who previously provided a urine sample, we identified 420 cases diagnosed with colorectal adenoma during follow-up and matched them to 420 endoscopy-negative controls. We measured urinary PGE-M using an LC/MS assay. Compared with women in the lowest quartile of urinary PGE-M, women in the highest quartile had a multivariate OR of 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.92-2.14) for any adenoma; 0.91 (95% CI, 0.48-1.72) for low-risk adenoma (solitary adenoma <1 cm in greatest diameter with tubular/unspecified histology); and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.04-2.67) for high-risk adenoma (adenoma ?1 cm in greatest diameter and/or tubulovillous, villous or high-grade dysplasia histology or multiple adenomas of any size or histology). Regular use of anti-inflammatory drugs (?2 standard tablets of aspirin/NSAIDs per week) was associated with a significant reduction in adenoma risk (multivariate OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43-0.87) in women with high baseline PGE-M (quartiles 2-4), but not low PGE-M (quartile 1).Urinary PGE-M is associated with an increased risk of high-risk adenoma. Anti-inflammatory drugs seem to reduce adenoma risk among women with high, but not low PGE-M. Urinary PGE-M may serve as a biomarker to define subsets of the population who may obtain differential chemopreventive benefit from anti-inflammatory drugs.
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IL-1? Upregulates IL-8 Production in Human Müller Cells Through Activation of the p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Diabetic retinopathy shares some similarity with chronic inflammation and Müller cells dysfunction may play an important role in its initiation and progression since these cells are thought to be a major source of inflammatory factors. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of cytokines on human retinal Müller cells and to understand the underlying signal transduction pathways regulating interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression. In this study, human MIO-M1 cells were treated with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interferon-gamma (IFN-?), glucose, or mannitol, followed by examination of their IL-8 protein and mRNA levels by Western blotting and PCR, respectively. After treatment with IL-1?, the levels of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were measured. IL-8 was also measured by Western blotting and ELISA following Müller cell culture with IL-1? and specific inhibitors of the p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, JNK, or JAK2 pathways. The results showed that IL-1? was a potent inducer of IL-8 expression in MIO-M1 cells, although a relatively small increase was induced by TNF-?. IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, and IFN-? did not modify IL-8 expression. Increase of IL-8 expression was accompanied by a significant increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK, but not of JAK2 and STAT3. Furthermore, inhibitors of p38 MAPK and MEK1/2, but not for JNK and JAK2, significantly inhibited IL-8 expression. In conclusion, IL-1? potently stimulates IL-8 expression in Müller cells mainly through the p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways.
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Prognostic Value of Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis on Preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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In this study, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) measured on (18)F-FDG PET/CT in pancreatic cancer patients who underwent resection with curative intent.
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Abundance-ratio-based semiquantitative analysis of site-specific N-linked glycopeptides present in the plasma of hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Aberrant structures of site-specific N-linked glycans are closely associated with the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most common fatal cancers worldwide. Vitronectin (VTN) is considered a candidate glycobiomarker of HCC. In this study, we describe a reliable and simple quantification strategy based on abundance ratios of site-specific N-linked glycopeptides of VTN to screen for potential biomarkers. A total of 14 unique N-linked glycans corresponding to 27 unique N-linked glycopeptides were characterized at three N-linked sites (Asn-86, -169, and -242) present in VTN. These glycans could be good candidate markers for HCC. Among these glycans, the abundance ratio of two representative glycoforms (fucosyl vs non-fucosyl) was significantly increased in HCC plasma relative to normal plasma. This strategy was also successfully applied to another potential HCC biomarker, haptoglobin. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our approach employing tandem mass tag (TMT) and target N-linked glycopeptides of VTN is a useful tool for quantifying specific glycans in HCC plasma relative to normal plasma. Our strategy represents a simple and potentially useful screening platform for the discovery of cancer-specific glycobiomarkers.
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Clinicopathologic characteristics associated with complications and long-term outcomes of endoscopic papillectomy for adenoma.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Endoscopic papillectomy (EP) is currently employed for the treatment of ampullary adenoma. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic characteristics related to complications and long-term outcomes of EP.
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Metabolic abnormalities, but not obesity, contribute to the mildly reduced eGFR in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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The role of obesity as a determinant of kidney dysfunction has not reached an agreement and the underlying reason may be due to the heterogeneity of obese phenotypes. The aim of the study was to explore the associations of different obese phenotypes with the change of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the roles of obesity and metabolic abnormalities in this association.
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Phase II clinical trial of ex vivo-expanded cytokine-induced killer cells therapy in advanced pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Second-line chemotherapy in patients with gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer has shown disappointing survival outcomes due to rapid disease progression and performance deterioration. The aim of this phase II trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adoptive immunotherapy using ex vivo-expanded, cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells in gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer. Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who showed disease progression during gemcitabine-based chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. For generation of CIK cells, peripheral blood samples were collected from each patient and cultured with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody and IL-2. Patients received CIK cells intravenously 10 times, every week for 5 weeks and then every other week for 10 weeks. Twenty patients were enrolled between November 2009 and September 2010. The disease control rate was 25 % (4/16 patients). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.0 weeks (95 % CI 8.8-13.2), and the median overall survival (OS) was 26.6 weeks (95 % CI 8.6-44.6). Grade 3 toxicities included general weakness in two patients and thrombocytopenia in one patient. Grade 4 hematologic or non-hematologic toxicity was not observed. Patients showed improvement in pancreatic pain, gastrointestinal distress, jaundice, body image alterations, altered bowel habits, health satisfaction, and sexuality when assessing quality of life (QoL). Adoptive immunotherapy using CIK cells showed comparable PFS and OS to survival data of previous trials that assessed conventional chemotherapies while maintaining tolerability and showing encouraging results in terms of patient QoL in gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer (clinicalTrials.gov number NCT00965718).
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Influence of propofol and fentanyl on deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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We investigated the effect of propofol and fentanyl on microelectrode recording (MER) and its clinical applicability during subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. We analyzed 8 patients with Parkinson's disease, underwent bilateral STN DBS with MER. Their left sides were done under awake and then their right sides were done with a continuous infusion of propofol and fentanyl under local anesthesia. The electrode position was evaluated by preoperative MRI and postoperative CT. The clinical outcomes were assessed at six months after surgery. We isolated single unit activities from the left and the right side MERs. There was no significant difference in the mean firing rate between the left side MERs (38.7 ± 16.8 spikes/sec, n=78) and the right side MERs (35.5 ± 17.2 spikes/sec, n=66). The bursting pattern of spikes was more frequently observed in the right STN than in the left STN. All the electrode positions were within the STNs on both sides and the off-time Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III scores at six months after surgery decreased by 67% of the preoperative level. In this study, a continuous infusion of propofol and fentanyl did not significantly interfere with the MER signals from the STN. The results of this study suggest that propofol and fentanyl can be used for STN DBS in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease improving the overall experience of the patients.
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Validation of group B borderline resectable pancreatic cancer: retrospective analysis.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Among borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC), group B BRPC patients have findings that are suggestive but not diagnostic of metastasis. In this study, we attempted to validate whether group B could truly be categorized as a borderline resectable group.
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A prospective study of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15) and risk of colorectal cancer.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Chronic inflammation plays a role in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The novel plasma inflammatory biomarker macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1, GDF15) may have a direct mechanistic role in colorectal carcinogenesis.
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Notch pathway activation is associated with pancreatic cancer treatment failure.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is resistant to conventional treatment. The aim of the study was to confirm the hypothesis that changes in cancer stem cells (CSCs) and developmental pathway after treatment was responsible for treatment failure in pancreatic cancer.
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Stereotactic radiosurgery for cavernous sinus hemangiomas.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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We performed this retrospective study to analyze the outcome of patients with cavernous sinus hemangioma (CSH) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We analyzed 19 patients with CSHs who were treated with SRS between 1998 and 2011. The median age of the patients was 50 years (range, 35-73 years), and 16 (84.2%) of the patients were female. SRS was performed as a primary treatment for 18 patients and to treat a residual lesion after surgical resection in one patient. Nine (47.4%) patients had cranial neuropathies in 14 cranial nerves before SRS, whereas five (26.3%) patients were initially asymptomatic. The mean volume of the CSHs was 6.1 ± 7.2 cm(3) (range, 0.3-32.3 cm(3)), and the median marginal dose at the 50% isodose line was 14.5 Gy (range, 11.5-16.0 Gy). The mean follow-up period was 37 months (range, 12-85 months). At the last follow-up, the lesion volume had decreased in all patients. The average tumor volume had decreased to 26% (range, 0-70%) of the initial volume at the last follow-up MRI. The first follow-up MRI, performed 6.1 ± 1.0 months after the SRS, showed that the tumor volume had decreased to 41% (range, 0-88%) of the initial volume. All 14 of the cranial neuropathies observed before SRS had improved, with complete remission in 12 (85.7%) cranial nerves and partial remission in two (14.3%). There were no radiation-induced neuropathies or complications during the follow-up period. SRS appears to be an effective and safe treatment modality for the management of CSHs.
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The effect of notchplasty on tunnel widening in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
Arthroscopy
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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To investigate changes in femoral tunnel diameter, dimension, and volume after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with notchplasty.
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GSK-3? inhibition promotes early engraftment of ex vivo-expanded haematopoietic stem cells.
Cell Prolif.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a source of stem cells used for allogeneic transplantation, in addition to bone marrow and peripheral blood. Limited numbers of stem cells in a single UCB unit is associated with slow haematopoietic recovery and high risk of graft failure, particularly in adult patients. UCB stem cells can be expanded ex vivo; however, rapid differentiation reduces their regenerative potential. We have recently shown that Wnt/?-catenin signalling is down-regulated in ex vivo-expanded stem cells; therefore, we propose that re-activation of Wnt signalling using GSK-3? inhibition may act to improve regenerative potential of these ex vivo-expanded stem cells.
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Dietary intake of fish, ?-3 and ?-6 fatty acids and risk of colorectal cancer: A prospective study in U.S. men and women.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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The association between fish, ?-3 and ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains inconclusive. Recent prospective studies suggest that the relationship may vary by gender, subsite and duration of follow-up. We followed 123,529 US adults (76,386 women and 47,143 men) without a history of cancer at baseline for 24 to 26 years. Fish and PUFA intake was assessed at baseline and updated every 4 years by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We found no overall association between fish, ?-3 and ?-6 PUFA intake and CRC risk with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89-1.20] comparing marine ?-3 intake of ? 0.30 g/d versus <0.15 g/d among women and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.85-1.30) comparing intake of ? 0.41 g/d versus <0.16 g/d among men. However, fish and marine ?-3 PUFA intake appeared to be positively associated with risk of distal colon cancer in both men and women and inversely with risk of rectal cancer in men. In an analysis based on a limited number of cases, marine ?-3 PUFA intake assessed 12-16 years before diagnosis tended to be inversely associated with CRC risk in men (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.52-1.10). In conclusion, although no overall association between fish, ?-3 or ?-6 PUFA intake was observed with CRC risk, marine ?-3 PUFA may be differentially associated with risk of distal colon and rectal cancers and a long latency may be needed for its protection against CRC in men.
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The clinical features and treatment modality of esophageal neuroendocrine tumors: a multicenter study in Korea.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the esophagus are extremely rare, and few cases have been reported worldwide. Thus, a comprehensive nationwide study is needed to understand the characteristics of and treatment strategy for esophageal NETs.
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Gemcitabine-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome in pancreatic cancer: a case report and review of the literature.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare thrombotic complication characterized by a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. HUS may be caused by several different conditions, including infection, malignancy, and chemotherapeutic agents, such as mitomycin, cisplatin, and most recently, gemcitabine. The outcome of gemcitabine-induced HUS is poor, and the disease has a high mortality rate. This study reports a case of gemcitabine-induced HUS in a patient with pancreatic cancer in Korea.
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Duodenal adenocarcinoma following a neuroendocrine tumor in the duodenum.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm accounting for 0.3% of all gastrointestinal tract carcinomas. We herein present one case of duodenal adenocarcinoma after duodenal neuroendocrine carcinoma. Poorly differentiated duodenal neuroendocrine carcinoma with liver metastasis (TxNxM1) was confirmed, and eight cycles of palliative chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil/etoposide/cisplatin) were administered. The patient was then in a clinically complete response status. About 1 year later, newly developed adenocarcinoma was detected at the same site. It was completely surgically resected, and the patient was cured.
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Generation of knockout rabbits using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.
Cell Regen (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Zinc-finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases are novel gene-editing platforms contributing to redefine the boundaries of modern biological research. They are composed of a non-specific cleavage domain and a tailor made DNA-binding module, which enables a broad range of genetic modifications by inducing efficient DNA double-strand breaks at desired loci. Among other remarkable uses, these nucleases have been employed to produce gene knockouts in mid-size and large animals, such as rabbits and pigs, respectively. This approach is cost effective, relatively quick, and can produce invaluable models for human disease studies, biotechnology or agricultural purposes. Here we describe a protocol for the efficient generation of knockout rabbits using transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and a perspective of the field.
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Age-related cataract, cataract surgery and subsequent mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Changes in lens may reflect the status of systemic health of human beings but the supporting evidences are not well summarized yet. We aimed to determine the relationship of age-related cataract, cataract surgery and long-term mortality by pooling the results of published population-based studies.
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Establishment of a Rabbit Oct4 Promoter-Based EGFP Reporter System.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Rabbits are commonly used as laboratory animal models to investigate human diseases and phylogenetic development. However, pluripotent stem cells that contribute to germline transmission have yet to be established in rabbits. The transcription factor Oct4, also known as Pou5f1, is considered essential for the maintenance of the pluripotency of stem cells. Hence, pluripotent cells can be identified by monitoring Oct4 expression using a well-established Oct4 promoter-based reporter system. This study developed a rabbit Oct4 promoter-based enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter system by transfecting pROP2-EGFP into rabbit fetal fibroblasts (RFFs). The transgenic RFFs were used as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The EGFP expression was detected in the blastocysts and genital ridges of SCNT fetuses. Fibroblasts and neural stem cells (NSCs) were derived from the SCNT fetuses. EGFP was also reactivated in blastocysts after the second SCNT, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were obtained after reprogramming using Yamanaka's factors. The results above indicated that a rabbit reporter system used to monitor the differentiating status of cells was successfully developed.
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Fluctuation between Fasting and 2-H Postload Glucose State Is Associated with Glomerular Hyperfiltration in Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Patients with HbA1c < 7%.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate whether fluctuations between the fasting and 2-h postload glucose ([2-hPBG]-fasting blood glucose [FBG]) states are associated with glomerular hyperfiltration (GHF) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese patients with newly diagnosed diabetes.
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Targeted Sequencing of Large Genomic Regions with CATCH-Seq.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Current target enrichment systems for large-scale next-generation sequencing typically require synthetic oligonucleotides used as capture reagents to isolate sequences of interest. The majority of target enrichment reagents are focused on gene coding regions or promoters en masse. Here we introduce development of a customizable targeted capture system using biotinylated RNA probe baits transcribed from sheared bacterial artificial chromosome clone templates that enables capture of large, contiguous blocks of the genome for sequencing applications. This clone adapted template capture hybridization sequencing (CATCH-Seq) procedure can be used to capture both coding and non-coding regions of a gene, and resolve the boundaries of copy number variations within a genomic target site. Furthermore, libraries constructed with methylated adapters prior to solution hybridization also enable targeted bisulfite sequencing. We applied CATCH-Seq to diverse targets ranging in size from 125 kb to 3.5 Mb. Our approach provides a simple and cost effective alternative to other capture platforms because of template-based, enzymatic probe synthesis and the lack of oligonucleotide design costs. Given its similarity in procedure, CATCH-Seq can also be performed in parallel with commercial systems.
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Triglyceride levels are closely associated with mild declines in estimated glomerular filtration rates in middle-aged and elderly Chinese with normal serum lipid levels.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the relationship between lipid profiles [including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)] and a mild decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in subjects with normal serum lipid levels.
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Association of pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor expression in ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma with poor prognosis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF) expression is elevated in both ovarian tumors and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, PAUF expression in ovarian tumors according to histologic subtype and grade has not been investigated. In this study, we examined various clinicopathologic features of 24 patients with mucinous cystadenoma (MCA), 36 with mucinous borderline tumors (MBTs), and 46 with mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs) according to PAUF expression status assessed using immunohistochemistry. We found that MACs more frequently stained positive for PAUF than did MCAs and MBTs (P < 0.0001). Although there was no significant differences with respect to other clinicopathologic characteristics of MACs according to PAUF expression status, patients with PAUF-weakly positive and PAUF-strongly positive MACs tended to have a shorter overall survival (OS) than those with PAUF-negative MAC, determined using a Kaplan-Meier analysis (P = 0.1885). After adjusting for various clinicopathologic parameters, PAUF positivity of MACs was a significant predictive factor for disease-free survival (DFS) (negative vs. weakly positive: P = 0.045, hazard ratio [HR] = 57.406, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.090-3022.596; and negative vs. strongly positive: P = 0.034, HR = 97.890, 95% CI: 1.412-6785.925). In conclusion, PAUF was more frequently expressed in MAC than in its benign and borderline counterparts, and was associated with a poor OS and DFS in MAC patients. Therefore, we suggest that PAUF may be a practical biomarker for histopathological categorization and a prognostic marker for patients with an ovarian mucinous tumor.
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Fluctuation between fasting and 2-H postload glucose state is associated with chronic kidney disease in previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients with HbA1c ? 7%.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate how the glucose variability between fasting and a 2-h postload glucose state (2-h postload plasma glucose [2hPG]-fasting plasma glucose [FPG]) is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese patients previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
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Gastrojejunostomy by pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery using a newly designed anastomosing metal stent in a porcine model.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The accepted palliative treatment for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is surgical bypass or placement of self-expandable metal stents. We developed a safe and simple natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) technique for gastrojejunostomy using a fully covered, anastomosing metal stent in a porcine model.
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[Effects of herbivorous insect stress on the growth and yield-related traits of insect-resistant transgenic rice].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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A field experiment was conducted to test the effects of high and low herbivorous insect stresses on the growth, development and yield-related traits of insect-resistant transgenic rice. Three Bt transgenic rice Bt63, R1 and R2 were selected as the test materials, and non-transgenic rice Shanyou63 was taken as the control. The differences in the vegetative growth, seed-setting, and stem borer resistance between transgenic and non-transgenic rice were compared. Under herbivorous insect stress, the transgenic rice fully displayed the stem borer-resistance of exogenous gene. Under the high stress, the stem borer-damaged degree of the three transgenic rice lines was much lower than that of the control. The plant height, tillers per plant, aboveground fresh mass, panicle length, panicle fresh mass, productive panicles per plant, filled grains per plant, grain mass per plant, seed setting rate, and 1000-grain mass of the three transgenic rice lines excelled the control, but had no significant differences except plant height, tillers per plant, and panicle length. Therefore, introducing exogenous Bt gene into rice had no negative effect on rice seed-setting, and high herbivorous insect stress had less impacts on transgenic rice yield.
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Clinical implications and risk factors of acute pancreatitis after cardiac valve surgery.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Acute pancreatitis is one of the potentially lethal complications that occurs after cardiac surgery. We tried to identify risk factors for and the prognosis of acute pancreatitis after cardiac valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
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Prognostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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We evaluated the prognostic value of (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer.
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Thermal transport in lattice-constrained 2D hybrid graphene heterostructures.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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The thermal transport properties of hybrid graphene/h-BN heterostructures are investigated using atomistic simulations. While the thermal conductivity is observed to be significantly limited perpendicular to the graphene/h-BN interface, it is tunable via a composition parallel to the interface. In particular we show that the thermal transport parallel to the interface can be understood by viewing the hybrid system as a series of individual embedded graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) constrained by neighboring h-BN. A mechanistic model is proposed to relate the thermal conductivities of the embedded and free-standing GNRs through a linear function of the composition. The model predictions are demonstrated to be in good agreement with the simulation results.
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NSAID is inversely associated with asymptomatic gastric ulcer: Local health examination data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Abstract Background. Silent peptic ulcer has been considered to be associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The recent studies have reported no relationship between them. Aim. We attempted to investigate an association between asymptomatic peptic ulcer and NSAID in Korean adults. Methods. The subjects were enrolled from participants visiting Myongji Hospital for health examination program of the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation. The questionnaires were designed to investigate individual medical information and gastroduodenal symptoms. Results. From May 2005 to March 2009, 5459 participants were enrolled and 299 participants were excluded. Of 5160 participants, 3144 (60.9%) participants were asymptomatic and 424 (8.2%) participants had peptic ulcer. Among 3144 asymptomatic participants, NSAID-taking participants had the odds ratio of 1.4 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7-2.6, p = 0.339] for the risk of peptic ulcer. Among 424 peptic ulcer patients, 247 (58.3%) were asymptomatic. They had lower prevalence of NSAID use (4.9% vs. 14.7%). The asymptomatic gastric ulcer patients had smaller size and more frequent healing stage than the symptomatic gastric ulcer patients. In multivariable analysis of 424 peptic ulcer patients, NSAID patients had the odds ratio of 0.249 (95%CI: 0.115-0.536, p < 0.05) for asymptomatic peptic ulcer. In subgroup analysis of 284 gastric ulcer patients, NSAID-taking patients had the odds ratio of 0.263 (95% CI: 0.105-0.657, p = 0.004) for asymptomatic peptic ulcer. Conclusion. NSAID has an inverse association with asymptomatic patients with gastric peptic ulcer, but has no association with gastroduodenal symptoms in duodenal ulcer patients. These suggest that NSAID may be associated with gastroduodenal symptoms rather than masking symptoms, at least in gastric ulcer patients.
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Peptide prefractionation is essential for proteomic approaches employing multiple-reaction monitoring of fruit proteomic research.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Off-gel™ IEF has become a popular tool in proteomics research to fractionate peptides or proteins. We conducted a detailed investigation on the fruit proteomics of apple, banana, and strawberry fruit employing Off-gel™ electrophoresis (OGE) as a crucial step to improve the proteome coverage and quantitative proteomic workflows including multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM). We provide technical details concerning the application of Off-gel™IEF, nano-LC-MS detection, and MRM optimization and analysis. Our results demonstrated that the application of OGE is an effective method for peptide fractionation and increased significantly the number of proteins identified by at least ten times, with more total peptides detected and collected. Furthermore, we developed a protocol combining OGE and MRM studies to identify and quantitatively investigate monodehydroascorbate reductase, a key enzyme in the redox and antioxidant system of apple fruit during fruit ripening. Using this method, the quantitative changes in this protein during ripening and in response to ethylene treatment was investigated. Our results provide direct and comprehensive evidence demonstrating the benefits of OGE and its application for both shotgun and quantitative proteomics research.
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Effects of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of individual commercial layers.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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The effects of a series of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of laying hens from 18 through 74 wk of age were investigated. One hundred forty-four pullets (Bovans) were randomly assigned to individual cages with separate feeders including 3 different protein level series of isocaloric diets. Diets were separated into 4 phases of 18-22, 23-32, 33-44, and 45-74 wk of age. The high protein (H) series contained 21.62, 19.05, 16.32, and 16.05% CP, respectively. Medium protein (M) and low protein (L) series were 2 and 4% lower in balanced dietary protein. The results clearly demonstrated that the balanced dietary protein level was a limiting factor for BW, ADFI, egg weight, hen day egg production (HDEP), and feed per kilogram of eggs. Feeding with the L series resulted in lower ADFI and HDEP (90.33% peak production) and more feed per kilogram of eggs compared with the H or M series (HDEP; 93.23 and 95.68% peak production, monthly basis). Egg weight responded in a linear manner to balanced dietary protein level (58.78, 55.94, and 52.73 g for H, M, and L, respectively). Feed intake of all hens, but especially those in the L series, increased considerably after wk 54 when the temperature of the house decreased due to winter conditions. Thus, hens fed the L series seemed particularly dependent on house temperature to maintain BW, ADFI, and HDEP. For egg quality parameters, percent yolk, Haugh units, and egg specific gravity were similar regardless of diets. Haugh units were found to be greatly affected by the variation of housing temperature (P = 0.025). Maximum performance cannot always be expected to lead to maximum profits. Contrary to the idea of a daily amino acid requirement for maximum performance, these results may be used to determine profit-maximizing levels of balanced dietary protein based on the cost of protein and returns from different possible protein levels that may be fed.
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MiR-106b expression determines the proliferation paradox of TGF-? in breast cancer cells.
Oncogene
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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TGF-? has paradoxical effects on cancer cell proliferation, as it suppresses proliferation of normal epithelial and low-invasive cancer cells, but enhances that of high-invasive cancer cells. However, how cancer cells acquire the ability to evade the tumor-suppressing effects of TGF-?, yet still take advantage of its tumor-promoting effects, remains elusive. Here, we identified miR-106b as a molecular switch to determine TGF-? effects on cell proliferation. TGF-?1 enhances the transcription of miR-106b via a promoter independent of its host gene MCM7 by activating c-jun. In high-invasive breast cancer cells, miR-106b is upregulated by TGF-?1 at a much higher level than that in normal or low-invasive cancer cells. Accumulation of miR-106b counterbalances TGF-? growth-inhibiting effects by eliminating activated retinoblastoma (RB) and results in enhanced proliferation. Furthermore, miR-106b mediates TGF-? effects on tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer xenografts. In addition, miR-106b expression is elevated in higher stage tumors and correlated with tumor progression in breast cancer patients. These findings suggest that high level of miR-106b induced by TGF-? determines the tumor-promoting effects of TGF-? in breast cancer.Oncogene advance online publication, 2 December 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.525.
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South African guideline for the management of chronic hepatitis B: 2013.
S. Afr. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Hepatitis B remains a significant yet preventable health issue in South Africa. The introduction of the hepatitis B vaccine into the country some 18 years ago has demonstrated benefit, but the exposure to, and prevalence of chronic HBsAg positivity remain unacceptably high. Those with chronic hepatitis B virus infection have an elevated risk of developing cirrhosis with end-stage liver disease and a markedly elevated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, independent of the presence of cirrhosis. The challenge in South Africa remains prevention through the universal vaccination coverage of all children and the identification of those with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Over the last decade our understanding of hepatitis B and its behaviour and natural history in those with chronic infection has significantly improved. This understanding is key to identifying those who warrant further evaluation and therapy. A number of global societies have updated their guidelines in recent years. This document draws on these guidelines and serves to contextualise, for South Africa, practice guidelines for the management of chronic hepatitis B.
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Interpreting experiments on egg production--statistical considerations.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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A given data set can be analyzed many ways, but only one is the correct analysis based on the design actually used when running the experiment. This work gives a tutorial-like illustration of the e?ects of the presence of a regression variable (or covariate) on the recorded responses in an experiment set up as a standard factorial design and shows how the analysis results are to be adjusted for the presence of covariates. An underlying assumption of a factorial model is that each of the treatments (e.g., diets) is randomly allocated to di?erent subjects (hens). When many measurements (e.g., over time) are made on the same subject (hen), this independence assumption is violated; in these cases, the design is an example from the class of repeated measures designs. The di?erence in analysis between factorial designs and repeated measures designs is also discussed. Then, the 2 concepts are merged wherein the results for a repeated measures analysis have to be adjusted for the presence of covariates. The paper concludes with analyses on the results of egg production responses from an experiment in which repeated measurements were made on the same hens and in which an unanticipated temperature covariate was present.
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Zeaxanthin Induces Apoptosis in Human Uveal Melanoma Cells through Bcl-2 Family Proteins and Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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The cytotoxic effects of zeaxanthin on two human uveal melanoma cell lines (SP6.5 and C918) and related signaling pathways were studied and compared to effects on normal ocular cells (uveal melanocytes, retinal pigment epithelial cells, and scleral fibroblasts). MTT assay revealed that zeaxanthin reduced the cell viability of melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner (10, 30, and 100? ? M), with IC50 at 40.8 and 28.7? ? M in SP6.5 and C918 cell lines, respectively. Zeaxanthin did not affect the viability of normal ocular cells even at the highest levels tested (300? ? M), suggesting that zeaxanthin has a selectively cytotoxic effect on melanoma cells. Zeaxanthin induced apoptosis in melanoma cells as indicated by annexin V and ethidium III flow cytometry. Western blot analysis demonstrated that zeaxanthin decreased the expression of antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and increased the expression of proapoptotic proteins (Bak and Bax) in zeaxanthin-treated melanoma cells. Zeaxanthin increased mitochondrial permeability as determined by JC-1 fluorescein study. Zeaxanthin also increased the level of cytosol cytochrome c and caspase-9 and -3 activities, but not caspase-8, as measured by ELISA assay or colorimetric assay. All of these findings indicate that the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway is involved in zeaxanthin-induced apoptosis in uveal melanoma cells.
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Clinicopathologic features and outcomes of pancreatic cysts during a 12-year period.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Pancreatic cysts are being detected more frequently with advances in abdominal imaging. We designed this study to identify the characteristics of pancreatic cysts upon long-term follow-up and to define the proper management of them.
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Plasma adiponectin and soluble leptin receptor and risk of colorectal cancer: a prospective study.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Adipokines are adipocyte-secreted hormones that may mediate the etiologic link between obesity and colorectal cancer; however, the evidence from large prospective studies is limited. We prospectively evaluated the association of plasma adiponectin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) with colorectal cancer risk within the Nurses Health Study (1990-2008) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1994-2008) among 616 incident colorectal cancer cases and 1,205 controls selected using risk-set sampling and matched on age and date of blood draw. In unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for matching factors and multiple risk factors, plasma adiponectin was significantly associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer among men, but not among women. Compared with men in the lowest quartile of adiponectin, men in the highest quartile had a relative risk (RR) for colorectal cancer of 0.55 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.35-0.86; Ptrend = 0.02]. The corresponding RR in women was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.67-1.39; Ptrend = 0.74). Plasma sOB-R was not associated with overall colorectal cancer risk in either men or women. A significant heterogeneity was noted in the association between sOB-R and colorectal cancer by subsite in women (Pheterogeneity = 0.004); sOB-R was significantly associated with increased risk of rectal cancer but not colon cancer. These findings support a role for adiponectin in colorectal carcinogenesis in men. Further studies are warranted to confirm these associations and elucidate potential underlying mechanisms.
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A pilot study for preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy with S-1 and cisplatin for locally advanced gastric cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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This study aims to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with the combination of S-1 and cisplatin in locally advanced gastric cancer.
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Folfox4 as a rescue chemotherapy for gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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This phase II study assessed the efficacy and safety of FOLFOX4 as a rescue therapy in patients with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer.
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Galeal tack-up sutures to prevent subgaleal cerebrospinal fluid collection.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Postoperative subgaleal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection is considered as one of the common minor surgical complication which can lead to prolonged hospitalization. We introduce "galeal tack-up suture" to prevent postoperative subgaleal CSF collection.
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Quantitative proteomic investigation employing stable isotope labeling by peptide dimethylation on proteins of strawberry fruit at different ripening stages.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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A quantitative proteomic investigation of strawberry fruit ripening employing stable isotope labeling by peptide dimethylation was conducted on Mira and Honeoye strawberry fruit. Postharvest physiological quality indices, including volatile production, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, soluble solids and titratable acidity, were also characterized in white, pink and red fruit. More than 892 and 848 proteins were identified and quantified in the Mira and Honeoye fruit, respectively, using at least two peptides for each protein identification. Using the normalized ratio of protein abundance changes, proteins that changed two-fold or more were identified as proteins that are up- or down-regulated during fruit ripening. Among the quantified proteins, 111 proteins were common to both cultivars and represented five significant clusters based on quantitative changes. Among the up-regulated proteins were proteins involved in metabolic pathways including flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthesis, volatile biosynthesis, antioxidant metabolism, stress responses and allergen formation. Proteins that decreased during fruit ripening were found to be responsible for methionine metabolism, antioxidant-redox, energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Our results show that strawberry ripening is a highly complex system involving multi-physiological processes made possible through changes in protein expression. This study provides new insights on the regulation of proteins during strawberry fruit ripening that lay the foundation for further targeted studies.
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Higher Serum Levels of Vitamin D Are Associated With a Reduced Risk of Diverticulitis.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Recent studies have shown geographic and seasonal variations in hospital admissions for diverticulitis. Because this variation parallels differences in ultraviolet light exposure, the most important contributor to vitamin D status, we examined the association of prediagnostic serum levels of vitamin D with diverticulitis.
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Phase II Trial of Erlotinib Plus Gemcitabine Chemotherapy in Korean Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer and Prognostic Factors for Chemotherapeutic Response.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Erlotinib and gemcitabine combined chemotherapy is becoming the treatment of choice in advanced pancreatic cancer. We evaluated the effectiveness of treatment with erlotinib plus gemcitabine and the prognostic factors for chemotherapeutic response in Korean pancreatic cancer patients.
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Radiotherapy prolongs biliary metal stent patency in malignant pancreatobiliary obstructions.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Biliary stenting is the most effective decompressive method for treating malignant biliary obstructive jaundice. Although the main cause of stent occlusion is tumor growth, few studies have investigated whether stent patency is affected by the combination of cancer-treatment modalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of local radiotherapy on metal-stent patency in patients with malignant biliary obstruction.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.