JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Reinnervation of Renal Afferent and Efferent Nerves at 5.5 and 11 Months After Catheter-Based Radiofrequency Renal Denervation In Sheep.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies indicate that catheter-based renal denervation reduces blood pressure and renal norepinephrine spillover in human resistant hypertension. The effects of this procedure on afferent sensory and efferent sympathetic renal nerves, and the subsequent degree of reinnervation, have not been investigated. We therefore examined the level of functional and anatomic reinnervation at 5.5 and 11 months after renal denervation using the Symplicity Flex catheter. In normotensive anesthetized sheep (n=6), electric stimulation of intact renal nerves increased arterial pressure from 99±3 to 107±3 mm Hg (afferent response) and reduced renal blood flow from 198±16 to 85±20 mL/min (efferent response). In a further group (n=6), immediately after denervation, renal sympathetic nerve activity was absent and the responses to electric stimulation were abolished. At 11 months after denervation (n=5), renal sympathetic nerve activity and the responses to electric stimulation were at normal levels. Immunohistochemical staining for renal efferent (tyrosine hydroxylase) and renal afferent nerves (calcitonin gene-related peptide), as well as renal norepinephrine levels, was normal 11 months after denervation. Findings at 5.5 months after denervation were similar (n=5). In summary, catheter-based renal denervation effectively ablated the renal afferent and efferent nerves in normotensive sheep. By 11 months after denervation the functional afferent and efferent responses to electric stimulation were normal. Reinnervation at 11 months after denervation was supported by normal anatomic distribution of afferent and efferent renal nerves. In view of this evidence, the mechanisms underlying the prolonged hypotensive effect of catheter-based renal denervation in human resistant hypertension need to be reassessed.
Related JoVE Video
[Expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 and ghrelin in gastric mucosa of rats with intrauterine growth retardation].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 and ghrelin in the gastric mucosa of rats with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and its significance.
Related JoVE Video
Systematic assessment of imputation performance using the 1000 Genomes reference panels.
Brief. Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genotype imputation has been widely adopted in the postgenome-wide association studies (GWAS) era. Owing to its ability to accurately predict the genotypes of untyped variants, imputation greatly boosts variant density, allowing fine-mapping studies of GWAS loci and large-scale meta-analysis across different genotyping arrays. By leveraging genotype data from 90 whole-genome deeply sequenced individuals as the evaluation benchmark and the 1000 Genomes Project data as reference panels, we systematically examined four important issues related to genotype imputation practice. First, in a study of imputation accuracy, we found that IMPUTE2 and minimac have the best imputation performance among the three popular imputing software evaluated and that using a multi-population reference panel is beneficial. Second, the optimal imputation quality cutoff for removing poorly imputed variants varies according to the software used. Third, the major contributing factors to consistently poor imputation are low variant heterozygosity, high sequence similarity to other genomic regions, high GC content, segmental duplication and being far from genotyping markers. Lastly, in an evaluation of the imputability of all known GWAS regions, we found that GWAS loci associated with hematological measurements and immune system diseases are harder to impute, as compared with other human traits. Recommendations made based on the above findings may provide practical guidance for imputation exercise in future genetic studies.
Related JoVE Video
Variants of estrogen-related genes and breast cancer risk in European and African American women.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been observed previously that compared with women of European ancestry (EA), those of African ancestry (AA) are more likely to develop estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, although the mechanisms have not been elucidated. We tested the associations between breast cancer risk and a targeted set of 20 genes known to be involved in estrogen synthesis, metabolism, and response and potential gene-environment interactions using data and samples from 1307 EA (658 cases) and 1365 AA (621 cases) participants from the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS). Multivariable logistic regression found evidence of associations with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ESR1 gene in EA women (rs1801132, odds ratio (OR)=1.47, 95% CI=1.20-1.80, P=0.0002; rs2046210, OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.04-1.47, P=0.02; and rs3020314, OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.19-1.70, P=0.00009), but not in AA women. The only other gene associated with breast cancer risk was CYP1A2 in AA women (rs2470893, OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.00-2.02, P=0.05), but not in EA women. When stratified by ER status, ESR1 rs1801132, rs2046210, and rs3020314 showed stronger associations in ER-positive than in ER-negative breast cancer in only EA women. Associations with the ESR1 SNPs in EA women also appeared to be stronger with longer endogenous estrogen exposure or hormonal replacement therapy use. Our results indicate that there may be differential genetic influences on breast cancer risk in EA compared with AA women and that these differences may be modified by tumor subtype and estrogen exposures. Future studies with a larger sample size may determine the full contribution of estrogen-related genes to racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of IL-33 and its epigenetic regulation in Multiple Sclerosis.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We examined the expression of IL-33 as an indicator of an innate immune response in relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and controls. Based on our previous studies we proposed a link between the expression of IL-33 and IL-33 regulated genes to histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and in particular HDAC3, an enzyme that plays a role in the epigenetic regulation of a number of genes including those which regulate inflammation. Our studies showed that intracellular expressions of IL-33 and IL-33 regulated genes are increased in patients with RRMS. In addition, following in vitro culture with TLR agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), there is increased induction of both IL-33 and HDAC3 in RRMS patients over that seen in controls. Also, culture of PBMC with IL-33 led to the expression of genes which overlapped with that seen in RRMS patients suggesting that the gene expression signature seen in RRMS may be driven by innate immune pathways. Expression of levels of IL-33 but not IL-1? (another gene regulated by TLR agonists) is completely inhibited by Trichostatin A (TSA) establishing a closer regulation of IL-33 but not IL-1? with HDAC. These results demonstrate the over expression of innate immune genes in RRMS and offer a causal link between the epigenetic regulation by HDAC and the induction of IL-33.
Related JoVE Video
Reflex control of inflammation by the splanchnic anti-inflammatory pathway is sustained and independent of anesthesia.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Following an immune challenge, there is two-way communication between the nervous and immune systems. It is proposed that a neural reflex-the inflammatory reflex-regulates the plasma levels of the key proinflammatory cytokine TNF-?, and that its efferent pathway is in the splanchnic sympathetic nerves. The evidence for this reflex is based on experiments on anesthetized animals, but anesthesia itself suppresses inflammation, confounding interpretation. Here, we show that previous section of the splanchnic nerves strongly enhances the levels of plasma TNF-? in conscious rats 90 min after they received intravenous LPS (60 ?g/kg). The same reflex mechanism, therefore, applies in conscious as in anesthetized animals. In anesthetized rats, we then determined the longer-term effects of splanchnic nerve section on responses to LPS (60 ?g/kg iv). We confirmed that prior splanchnic nerve section enhanced the early (90 min) peak in plasma TNF-? and found that it reduced the 90-min peak of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10; both subsequently fell to low levels in all animals. Splanchnic nerve section also enhanced the delayed rise in two key proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and interferon ?. That enhancement was undiminished after 6 h, when other measured cytokines had subsided. Finally, LPS treatment caused hypotensive shock in rats with cut splanchnic nerves but not in sham-operated animals. These findings demonstrate that reflex activation of the splanchnic anti-inflammatory pathway has a powerful and sustained restraining influence on inflammatory processes.
Related JoVE Video
The Use of Protein-DNA, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, and Transcriptome Arrays to Describe Transcriptional Circuits in the Dehydrated Male Rat Hypothalamus.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus is responsible for maintaining osmotic stability in mammals through its elaboration of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin. Upon dehydration, the SON undergoes a function-related plasticity, which includes remodeling of morphology, electrical properties, and biosynthetic activity. This process occurs alongside alterations in steady state transcript levels, which might be mediated by changes in the activity of transcription factors. In order to identify which transcription factors might be involved in changing patterns of gene expression, an Affymetrix protein-DNA array analysis was carried out. Nuclear extracts of SON from dehydrated and control male rats were analyzed for binding to the 345 consensus DNA transcription factor binding sequences of the array. Statistical analysis revealed significant changes in binding to 26 consensus elements, of which EMSA confirmed increased binding to signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 1/Stat3, cellular Myelocytomatosis virus-like cellular proto-oncogene (c-Myc)-Myc-associated factor X (Max), and pre-B cell leukemia transcription factor 1 sequences after dehydration. Focusing on c-Myc and Max, we used quantitative PCR to confirm previous transcriptomic analysis that had suggested an increase in c-Myc, but not Max, mRNA levels in the SON after dehydration, and we demonstrated c-Myc- and Max-like immunoreactivities in SON arginine vasopressin-expressing cells. Finally, by comparing new data obtained from Roche-NimbleGen chromatin immunoprecipitation arrays with previously published transcriptomic data, we have identified putative c-Myc target genes whose expression changes in the SON after dehydration. These include known c-Myc targets, such as the Slc7a5 gene, which encodes the L-type amino acid transporter 1, ribosomal protein L24, histone deactylase 2, and the Rat sarcoma proto-oncogene (Ras)-related nuclear GTPase.
Related JoVE Video
Echocardiographic assessment of ?-adrenoceptor stimulation-induced heart failure with reduced heart rate in mice.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
1. Chronic injection with the ?-adrenoceptor (?-AR) agonist isoproterenol (ISO) has been commonly used as an animal model of ?-AR-induced cardiac remodelling and heart failure. This ISO-treated model usually exhibits significantly decreased conscious heart rate (HR). However, the HR in treatment groups is usually adjusted to the same levels by anaesthesia to assess cardiac geometry and function. In the present study, we report a method of echocardiographic assessment that represents the true cardiac geometry and function under conditions of ISO withdrawal. 2. Briefly, C57BL/6 mice were treated with 5 mg/kg per day ISO for 12 weeks. Cardiac geometry and function were assessed by high-resolution echocardiography in vehicle (saline) - and ISO-treated mice that were either conscious or anaesthetized using different concentrations of isoflurane. 3. The cardiac ?-AR response was decreased in ISO-treated mice, as evidenced by markedly decreased conscious HR. Vehicle- and ISO-treated mice did not differ in terms of cardiac geometry or function when HR was adjusted to the same level (400 b.p.m.) in both treatment groups, but cardiac geometry and function did differ when a low (1%) rather than high (1.5% or 2%) isoflurane concentration was used to adjust HR. Furthermore, 3 day ISO withdrawal eliminated the difference in conscious HR between the two groups. In addition, the groups differed in cardiac geometry and function regardless of the isoflurane concentration used. 4. In conclusion, using isoflurane to decrease the HR of treated groups to the same level may mask left ventricular dysfunction in ISO-treated mice. Withdrawal of ISO eliminated the difference in basal HR between the ISO-treated and control groups on echocardiography, allowing a more accurate assessment of cardiac pathological and functional changes.
Related JoVE Video
Circulating miR-148b and miR-133a as biomarkers for breast cancer detection.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Circulating microRNAs have drawn a great deal of attention as promising novel biomarkers for breast cancer. However, to date, the results are mixed. Here, we performed a three-stage microRNA analysis using plasma samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls, with efforts taken to address several pitfalls in detection techniques and study design observed in previous studies. In the discovery phase with 122 Caucasian study subjects, we identified 43 microRNAs differentially expressed between breast cancer cases and healthy controls. When those microRNAs were compared with published data from other studies, we identified three microRNAs, including miR-148b, miR-133a and miR-409-3p, whose plasma levels were significantly higher in breast cancer cases than healthy controls and were also significant in previous independent studies. In the validation phase with 50 breast cancer cases and 50 healthy controls, we validated the associations with breast cancer detection for miR-148b and miR-133a (P = 1.5×10-6 and 1.3×10-10, respectively). In the in-vitro study phase, we found that both miR-148b and miR-133a were secreted from breast cancer cell lines, showing their secretory potential and possible tumor origin. Thus, our data suggest that both miR-148b and miR-133a have potential use as biomarkers for breast cancer detection.
Related JoVE Video
Application status of blood constituents during massive blood transfusion in some regions of China.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to learn about the current situation of surgical massive blood transfusion in China's Class III general hospitals, which could provide the basis for the formulation of guidelines on massive blood transfusion.
Related JoVE Video
Associations between apolipoprotein CIII concentrations and microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microalbuminuria (MAU) is a strong predictor of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Dyslipidemia exists in the majority of patients with DM and contributes to micro- and macrovascular complications associated with DM. Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) is an inhibitor of the activity of lipoprotein lipase, which metabolizes triglyceride (TG) in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and facilitates its clearance from plasma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between apoCIII and MAU and the effects of atorvastatin in type 2 diabetes. In total, 120 subjects were divided into type 2 diabetes and type 2 DN groups, while 60 healthy subjects were selected as controls. The patients with DN were administered 20 mg atorvastatin daily for 16 weeks. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and levels of HbA1c, FBG, TG, VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C), apoCIII and MAU were markedly elevated in the type 2 diabetes and type 2 DN groups compared with those in the control group (P<0.01), while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were decreased significantly (P<0.01). All patients with type 2 DN showed significantly elevated blood pressure, apoCIII levels, MAU, course of the disease and rate of stroke and retinopathy compared with the patients with type 2 diabetes (P<0.01). MAU was significantly positively correlated with the course of the disease, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, BMI and HbA1c, FBG, TG, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, VLDL-C and apoCIII levels (P<0.05), whereas negatively correlated with HDL-C levels (r=-0.194, P=0.020). Logistic regression analysis showed that apoCIII levels were independently associated with MAU (odds ratio, 1.100; 95% confidence interval, 1.037-1.153; P<0.001). Atorvastatin improved the lipid profile and MAU in patients with type 2 DN (P<0.01). Therefore, the present study demonstrated that an independent positive correlation exists between the levels of apoCIII and MAU in patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, atorvastatin may be used to improve the lipid profile and MAU in type 2 DN.
Related JoVE Video
Plant traits and ecosystem effects of clonality: a new research agenda.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clonal plants spread laterally by spacers between their ramets (shoot-root units); these spacers can transport and store resources. While much is known about how clonality promotes plant fitness, we know little about how different clonal plants influence ecosystem functions related to carbon, nutrient and water cycling.
Related JoVE Video
Associations between estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and timing of reproductive events differ between African American and European American women.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effects of reproductive factors on breast cancer risk seem to differ by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Menarche and first live birth (FLB) tend to occur at younger ages in African Americans (AA) than European Americans (EA), and could play a role in breast cancer disparities. In the Women's Circle of Health Study, a case-control study of breast cancer in EA and AA women, in-person interviews were conducted to collect epidemiologic data, including reproductive histories. Data on ER status, abstracted from pathology reports, were available for 814 AA and 538 EA breast cancer cases, and were analyzed with 1015 AA and 715 EA controls, to evaluate associations between subgroups and age at menarche, age at FLB, and the interval between those ages. Among AA women, later age at menarche (?14 years) was associated with reduced risk of both ER(+) and ER(-) breast cancer, with ORs strongest for ER(-) disease [OR = 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.88]; associations were weaker and nonsignificant for EA women. There were no significant associations with age at FLB, but AA women with a FLB within 15 years of menarche had increased risk of ER(-) disease (OR = 2.26; 95% CI, 1.29-3.95), with no significant associations among EAs. In our data, earlier age at menarche and shorter intervals until FLB are associated with ER(-) breast cancer in AA women; differential distributions by race of these and other reproductive risk factors could contribute to the higher prevalence of ER(-) breast cancer in AA women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(6); 1115-20. ©2014 AACR.
Related JoVE Video
Visualizing the endocytosis of phenylephrine in living cells by quantum dot-based tracking.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the intracellular receptor-drug transportation, a fluorescent probe consisting of phenylephrine-polyethylene glycol-quantum dots conjugate was employed to track endocytosis process of phenylephrine in living cells. This type of movement was studied by continuously filming fluorescent images in the same cell. We also calculated the movement parameters, and divided the endocytosis process into 6 stages. Furthermore, the movement parameters of this probe in different organelles were determined by co-localization of the probe fluorescent images and different cellular organelles. After comparing the parameters in cellular organelles with these in 6 stages, the whole endocytosis pathway was demonstrated. These results verified that this probe successfully tracked the whole intracellular dynamic endocytosis process of phenylephrine. Our method realized the visual tracking the whole receptor-mediated endocytosis, which is a new approach on investigating the molecular mechanisms and kinetic properties of intracellular receptor-drug transportation.
Related JoVE Video
Prioritization of candidate disease genes by enlarging the seed set and fusing information of the network topology and gene expression.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The identification of disease genes is very important not only to provide greater understanding of gene function and cellular mechanisms which drive human disease, but also to enhance human disease diagnosis and treatment. Recently, high-throughput techniques have been applied to detect dozens or even hundreds of candidate genes. However, experimental approaches to validate the many candidates are usually time-consuming, tedious and expensive, and sometimes lack reproducibility. Therefore, numerous theoretical and computational methods (e.g. network-based approaches) have been developed to prioritize candidate disease genes. Many network-based approaches implicitly utilize the observation that genes causing the same or similar diseases tend to correlate with each other in gene-protein relationship networks. Of these network approaches, the random walk with restart algorithm (RWR) is considered to be a state-of-the-art approach. To further improve the performance of RWR, we propose a novel method named ESFSC to identify disease-related genes, by enlarging the seed set according to the centrality of disease genes in a network and fusing information of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network topological similarity and the gene expression correlation. The ESFSC algorithm restarts at all of the nodes in the seed set consisting of the known disease genes and their k-nearest neighbor nodes, then walks in the global network separately guided by the similarity transition matrix constructed with PPI network topological similarity properties and the correlational transition matrix constructed with the gene expression profiles. As a result, all the genes in the network are ranked by weighted fusing the above results of the RWR guided by two types of transition matrices. Comprehensive simulation results of the 10 diseases with 97 known disease genes collected from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database show that ESFSC outperforms existing methods for prioritizing candidate disease genes. The top prediction results of Alzheimer's disease are consistent with previous literature reports.
Related JoVE Video
Visual and quantitative screening of ?1-adrenoceptor antagonists in living cells using quantum dots.
ACS Comb Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The performance of ?1-adrenoceptor antagonists in living cells was assessed using quantum dots conjugated to a derivative of the ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin. The optimum receptor binding condition and apparent Kd of prazosin-conjugated quantum dots was first determined, followed by application of these structures to drug screening. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were used to visually and quantitatively measure the affinity of five candidate drugs. The observed affinity order and the affinity coefficient Ki were consistent with previously reported values. These results suggest that this method is suitable for specific drug screening in living cells and is able to realize the displacement assay over the large ranges of dissociation constants.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic polymorphisms in oxidative stress-related genes are associated with outcomes following treatment for aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Variable survival outcomes are seen following treatment for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). This study examined whether outcomes for aggressive B-cell NHL are associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in oxidative stress-related genes, which can alter drug metabolism and immune responses. Genotypes for 53 SNPs in 29 genes were determined for 337 patients given anthracycline-based therapies. Their associations with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression; associations with hematologic toxicity were estimated by logistic regression. To validate the findings, the top three SNPs were tested in an independent cohort of 572 DLBCL patients. The top SNPs associated with PFS in the discovery cohort were the rare homozygotes for MPO rs2243828 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14-3.06, P = 0.013), AKR1C3 rs10508293 (HR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.28-3.41, P = 0.0032) and NCF4 rs1883112 (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.43-1.02, P = 0.06). The association of the NCF4 SNP with PFS was replicated in the validation dataset (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.44-1.01, P = 0.05) and the meta-analysis was significant (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.89, P < 0.01). The association of the MPO SNP was attenuated in the validation dataset, while the meta-analysis remained significant (HR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.12-2.41). These two SNPs showed similar trends with OS in the meta-analysis (for NCF4, HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.51-1.02, P = 0.07 and for MPO, HR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.36-3.12, P < 0.01). In addition, patients with the rare homozygote of the NCF4 SNP had an increased risk of hematologic toxicity. We concluded that genetic variations in NCF4 may contribute to treatment outcomes for patients with aggressive NHL.
Related JoVE Video
Combined effects of circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin d and Th1 and th2 cytokines on breast cancer estrogen receptor status.
Cancers (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFN?2, and TNF?, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNF? levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44-21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFN?2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Bone health history in breast cancer patients on aromatase inhibitors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A cross-sectional study was performed to assess bone health history among aromatase inhibitor (AI) users before breast cancer (BC) diagnosis, which may impact fracture risk after AI therapy and choice of initial hormonal therapy. A total of 2,157 invasive BC patients initially treated with an AI were identified from a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Data on demographic and lifestyle factors were obtained from in-person interviews, and bone health history and clinical data from KPNC clinical databases. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal AI users was assessed, compared with 325 postmenopausal TAM users. The associations of bone health history with demographic and lifestyle factors in AI users were also examined. Among all initial AI users, 11.2% had a prior history of osteoporosis, 16.3% had a prior history of any fracture, and 4.6% had a prior history of major fracture. Postmenopausal women who were taking TAM as their initial hormonal therapy had significantly higher prevalence of prior osteoporosis than postmenopausal AI users (21.5% vs. 11.8%, p<0.0001). Among initial AI users, the associations of history of osteoporosis and fracture in BC patients with demographic and lifestyle factors were, in general, consistent with those known in healthy older women. This study is one of the first to characterize AI users and risk factors for bone morbidity before BC diagnosis. In the future, this study will examine lifestyle, molecular, and genetic risk factors for AI-induced fractures.
Related JoVE Video
Phylogenetic meta-analysis of the functional traits of clonal plants foraging in changing environments.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Foraging behavior, one of the adaptive strategies of clonal plants, has stimulated a tremendous amount of research. However, it is a matter of debate whether there is any general pattern in the foraging traits (functional traits related to foraging behavior) of clonal plants in response to diverse environments. We collected data from 97 published papers concerning the relationships between foraging traits (e.g., spacer length, specific spacer length, branch intensity and branch angle) of clonal plants and essential resources (e.g., light, nutrients and water) for plant growth and reproduction. We incorporated the phylogenetic information of 85 plant species to examine the universality of foraging hypotheses using phylogenetic meta-analysis. The trends toward forming longer spacers and fewer branches in shaded environments were detected in clonal plants, but no evidence for a relation between foraging traits and nutrient availability was detected, except that there was a positive correlation between branch intensity and nutrient availability in stoloniferous plants. The response of the foraging traits of clonal plants to water availability was also not obvious. Additionally, our results indicated that the foraging traits of stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to resource availability than those of rhizomatous plants. In consideration of plant phylogeny, these results implied that the foraging traits of clonal plants (notably stoloniferous plants) only responded to light intensity in a general pattern but did not respond to nutrient or water availability. In conclusion, our findings on the effects of the environment on the foraging traits of clonal plants avoided the confounding effects of phylogeny because we incorporated phylogeny into the meta-analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Reversal of bortezomib resistance in myelodysplastic syndrome cells by MAPK inhibitors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms with distinctive clinicopathological features. Currently, there is no specific approach for the treatment of MDS. Here, we report that bortezomib (BTZ), a proteasome inhibitor that has been used to treat plasma cell myeloma, induced G2/M phase cycle arrest in the MDS cell line SKM-1 through upregulation of Wee1, a negative regulator of G2/M phase transition. Treatment by BTZ led to reduced SKM-1 cell viability as well as increased apoptosis and autophagy. The BTZ-induced cell death was associated with reduced expression of p-ERK. To elucidate the implications of downregulation of p-ERK, we established the BTZ resistant cell line SKM-1R. Our data show that resistance to BTZ-induced apoptosis could be reversed by the MEK inhibitors U0126 or PD98059. Our results suggest that MAPK pathway may play an important role in mediating BTZ resistance.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of invigorating lung and kidney prescription and its components on secretion of cytokines induced by CSE and LPS].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe effect of Invigorating Lung and Kidney Prescription (ILKP) on secretion of cytokines induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in vitro and discuss prescription regularity of ILKP and reveal molecular mechanism of ILKP treatment on COPD.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical effect of combination therapy with high-frequency oscillation ventilation, pulmonary surfactant and inhaled nitric oxide in the treatment of neonatal hypoxemic respiratory failure].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the clinical effect of combination therapy with high-frequency oscillation ventilation (HFOV), pulmonary surfactant (PS) and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in the treatment of neonatal hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF).
Related JoVE Video
Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.
Oecologia
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.
Related JoVE Video
Tsc1 deficiency-mediated mTOR hyperactivation in vascular endothelial cells causes angiogenesis defects and embryonic lethality.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This is a study on the role of tuberous sclerosis complex1 (TSC1) mutation and mTOR activation in endothelial cells during angiogenic and embryonic development. Past studies had shown that Tsc1/Tsc2 mutant genes lead to overactivation of mTOR in the regulating pathways in developing fetus. We used conditional Cre-loxp gene knockout approach to delete Tsc1 in mices endothelial cells in our experimental models. Similarly, activation of mTOR signaling in endothelial cells of these embryos (Tie2-Cre/Tsc1(-/-)) was found. Majority of Tie2-Cre/Tsc1(-/-) embryos died at embryonic day 14.5 in utero. Cardiovascular defects, subcutaneous edema and hemorrhage were present among them. Whole-mount immunostaining in these embryos revealed a disorganized vascular network, defective sprouting of vessels in yolk sac and thickening of the labyrinth layer in the placenta. A thinner ventricular wall with disorganized trabeculae was present in the hearts of Tie2-Cre/Tsc1(-/-) embryos. Endothelial cells in Tsc1-deficient mice showed defective mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticular morphology, but no significant change was observed in cell junctions. The mutant embryos displayed significantly reduced cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and disturbed expression of angiogenic factors. A cohort of mice was treated prenatally with mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. The offspring of these mutant mice survived up to 22 days after birth. It was concluded that physiological TSC1-mTOR signaling in endothelial cells is crucial for vascular development and embryogenesis. We postulated that disruption of normal angiogenic pathways through hyperactive mTOR signaling maybe the mechanism that lead to deranged vascular pathogenesis in the tuberous sclerosis complex.
Related JoVE Video
[Elementary quantitative study on factors of phytoplankton bloom].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigated the effect quantitatively on phytoplankton population by various factors such as sinking velocity, diffusivity, growth, mortality and water depth, through both numerically and theoretical methods, then proposed an initial judgment criterion for estimating phytoplankton population development. To the conventional simplification about even growth rate and vertical turbulent diffusivity, which is not consistent with the fact, this study investigated the influence by the asymmetric growth rate, as a result of light attenuation and nutrient limit, and uneven vertical turbulent diffusivity. It was shown that the shade effect by light attenuation and nutrient flux limit both led. phytoplankton population from blooming or collapsing to quasi-steady condition. The uneven vertical turbulent diffusivity influenced the phytoplankton population by l/H which is upper euphotic layer depth by water depth. The influence is not apparent only if the water depth is large enough while l/H is small. Hence even vertical turbulent diffusivity can be utilized approximately in very shallow lakes.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic variants in microRNAs and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an integral part of the post-transcriptional machinery of gene expression and have been implicated in the carcinogenic cascade. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNAs and risk of breast cancer have been evaluated in populations of European or Asian ancestry, but not among women of African ancestry. Here we examined 145 SNPs in six miRNA processing genes and in 78 miRNAs which target genes known to be important in breast cancer among 906 African American (AA) and 653 European American (EA) cases and controls enrolled in the Womens Circle of Health Study. Allele frequencies of most SNPs (87 %) differed significantly by race. We found a number of SNPs in miRNAs and processing genes in association with breast cancer overall or stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Several associations were significantly different by race, with none of the associations being significant in both races. Using a polygenic risk score to combine the effects of multiple SNPs, we found significant associations with the score in each subgroup analysis. For ER-positive cancer, each unit increment of the risk score was associated with a 51 % increased risk in AAs (OR = 1.51, 95 % CI = 1.30-1.74, p = 3.3 × 10(-8)) and a 73 % increased risk in EAs (OR = 1.73, 95 % CI = 1.45-2.06, p = 1.4 × 10(-9)). These data show, for the first time, that miRNA-related genetic variations may underlie the etiology of breast cancer in both populations of African and European ancestries. Future studies are needed to validate our findings and to explore the underlying mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation on the efficacy and safety of domestic bivalirudin during percutaneous coronary intervention.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bivalirudin was widely used as an anticoagulant during coronary interventional procedure in western countries. However, it was not available in China before this clinical trial was designed. This randomized, single-blind and multicenter clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of domestic bivalirudin during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Related JoVE Video
Parity and breastfeeding among African-American women: differential effects on breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor status in the Womens Circle of Health Study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has long been held that parity reduces risk of breast cancer. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the effects of parity, as well as breastfeeding, may vary according to estrogen receptor (ER) status. We evaluated these associations in a case-control study among African-American women in New York City and New Jersey.
Related JoVE Video
[The relationship between inhibitory effect of xuanfuguilian prescription on the growth of esophageal cells ECA9706 and its components].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To discuss the relationship between inhibitory effect of different concentration ethanol extracts from Xuanfuguilian prescription on the growth of esophageal cells ECA9706 and its components.
Related JoVE Video
[Measurement and estimation of grassland evapotranspiration in a mountainous region at the upper reach of Heihe River basin, China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of water cycle, but its measurement in high altitude mountainous region is quite difficult, inducing the insufficient understanding on the actual ET in high altitude mountainous region and the effects of ET on this region s water cycle. In this paper, two small type weighing mini-lysimeters were applied to measure the daily ET in a piece of grassland in a high altitude mountainous region of the Heihe River basin from July 1st, 2009 to June 30th, 2010. Based on the measured data, the methods of FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (F-P-M), Priestley-Taylor (P-T), and Hargreaves-Samani (H-S) were employed to estimate the ET to analyze the applicability of the three methods for the mountainous region, and the pan coefficient at the measurement spots was discussed. During the measurement period, the total annual ET at the measurement spots was 439.9 mm, accounting for 96.5% of the precipitation in the same period, and the ET showed an obvious seasonal distribution, being 389. 3 mm in May-October, accounting for 88. 5% of the annual value. All the three methods could be well applied to estimate the summer ET but not the winter ET, and their applicability followed the sequence of P-T > F-P-M > H-S. At the measurement spots, the daily pan coefficient in summer was 0.7-0. 8, while that in winter was quite variable.
Related JoVE Video
Unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is underused as a curative therapy in eligible patients from the United States.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is a curative therapy for hematologic disorders including acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic and myeloid leukemia, Hodgkins and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and myelodysplastic syndrome. To determine the utilization of alloHCT from unrelated donors (URDs) in the United States, we calculated the number of patients diagnosed with hematologic disorders age 20 to 74 years based on 2004 to 2008 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results and 2007 US Census data, estimated the percentage of patients who would be eligible for URD alloHCT after discounting the mortality rate during induction therapy and the rate of severe comorbidities, and compared these with the actual 2007 alloHCTs facilitated by the National Marrow Donor Program. We found that the number of URD alloHCT as a percentage of the estimated potential transplantations ranged from 11% for multiple myeloma to 54% for chronic myeloid leukemia, with an average percentage of 26% for all the disorders considered. In an analysis stratified by age groups (20 to 44, 45 to 64, and 65 to 74 years), the utilization of URD alloHCT was higher in younger patients than in older patients for all disorders. Of acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemia patients, approximately 66% underwent URD alloHCT later in the course of their disease (in second or greater complete remission). URD alloHCT is likely underused for potentially curable hematologic disorders, particularly in older patients. Understanding the reasons for low use of alloHCT may lead to strategies to expand the use of this curative therapy for more patients with hematologic disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Organ selective regulation of sympathetic outflow by the brain Angiotensin system.
Curr. Hypertens. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Angiotensin II (Ang II) has actions on the sympathetic nervous system both as a circulating hormone acting on the circumventricular organs and also as a neurotransmitter/ neuromodulator acting within the brain. Administration of Ang II into the cerebral ventricles has diverse effects on sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), causing an increase in cardiac and splanchnic and a decrease in renal SNA. Similar contrasting effects on cardiac and renal SNA are seen with administration of hypertonic saline, which is thought to act centrally through angiotensinergic pathways. In heart failure there is compelling evidence that central angiotensinergic mechanisms contribute to the increases in cardiac and renal SNA, which have numerous detrimental effects. Although there is evidence that Ang II regulates sympathetic activity, and contributes to excess SNA in disease, the exact sites in the brain at which Ang II acts to selectively control SNA to individual organs are not well defined.
Related JoVE Video
The chemical chaperon 4-phenylbutyric acid ameliorates hepatic steatosis through inhibition of de novo lipogenesis in high-fructose-fed rats.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease caused by dietary factors such as a high fructose intake is a growing global concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the intervention effects of an endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) on liver steatosis induced by high-fructose feeding in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Wistar rats were divided into the control, high-fructose group (HFru) and PBA intervention (HFru-PBA) groups. PBA intervention was initiated following 4 weeks of high-fructose feeding. After 8 weeks of feeding, the ERS markers p-PERK, p-eIF2?, p-IRE-1, spliced XBP-1, ATF-6 were measured by western blotting. Liver triglyceride contents and morphological changes were examined. The protein expression of lipogenic key enzymes (ACC, FAS and SCD-1) and upstream transcriptional factors (SREBP-1c and ChREBP) were measured. The ERS-related cell events, oxidative stress and apoptosis, were evaluated by standard methods. Results demonstrated that PBA intervention significantly resolved hepatic ERS and improved liver steatosis induced by high-fructose feeding in rats. The protein expression of ACC, FAS, SCD-1 and SREBP-1c was upregulated in high-fructose-fed rats, whereas it decreased following PBA intervention. Oxidative stress and apoptosis were observed in livers of high-fructose-fed rats, but were alleviated by PBA intervention. ERS is involved in the development of fatty liver induced by a high fructose intake. ERS inhibition by PBA can therefore ameliorate liver steatosis through inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Activation of NOD2/RIPK2 pathway induces mitochondrial injury to oligodendrocyte precursor cells in vitro and CNS demyelination in vivo.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We examined the activation of innate immune pathway mediated by nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) in oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). We show that activation of NOD2 by ligand peptidoglycan (PGN) leads to the recruitment and phosphorylation of receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 (RIPK2). Phosphorylation of RIPK2 is followed by phosphorylation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), increase in NOS activity and subsequent accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) mediated N-tyrosinylated compounds in OPCs. The reversal of NOS activity by the nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), but not by the iNOS inhibitor l-canavanine, supported the conclusion that the increased NOS activity was due to the selective activation of nNOS in OPCs. In addition, NO mediated injury to OPC was reflected in reduction in activity of respiratory enzymes such as complex I and IV, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome-C from mitochondria. Furthermore, intracerebral injection of PGN into corpus callosum (CC) of rats led to the development of demyelination, which appeared as early as by day 3 post-injection, and involved the trunk of the CC by day 14. Accumulation of N-tyrosinylated proteins was seen in oligodendrocytes in regions of the CC which were in close proximity to the injection site. Taken together, these results suggest that PGN induced formation of NO, mitochondrial dysfunction and accumulation of N-tyrosinylated proteins in oligodendrocytes are likely mediators of central nervous system demyelination.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of consumption of micronutrient enriched wheat steamed bread on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.
Nutr J
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Steamed wheat bread have previously been shown to induce comparatively high postprandial plasma glucose responses, on the contrary, buckwheat products induced lower postprandial plasma glucose. The present study was to assess the effects of micronutrient enriched bread wheat variety Jizi439 and buckwheat on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and diabetic subjects comparing with buckwheat and other bread wheat varieties.
Related JoVE Video
Cytokine and cytokine receptor genes of adaptive immune response are differentially associated with breast cancer risk in American women of African and European ancestry.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Disparities in breast cancer biology are evident between American women of African ancestry (AA) and European ancestry (EA), and may be due, in part, to differences in immune function. To assess the potential role of constitutional host immunity on breast carcinogenesis, we tested associations between breast cancer risk and 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 cytokine-related genes of the adaptive immune system using 650 EA (n=335 cases) and 864 AA (n=458 cases) women from the Womens Circle of Health Study (WCHS). With additional participant accrual to the WCHS, promising SNPs from the initial analysis were evaluated in a larger sample size (1307 EAs and 1365 AAs). Multivariate logistic regression found SNPs in genes important for T helper type 1 (Th1) immunity (IFNGR2 rs1059293, IL15RA rs2296135, LTA rs1041981), Th2 immunity (IL4R rs1801275), and T regulatory cell-mediated immunosuppression (TGFB1 rs1800469), associated with breast cancer risk, mainly among AAs. The combined effect of these five SNPs was highly significant among AAs (P-trend=0.0005). When stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status, LTA rs1041981 was associated with ER positive breast cancers among EAs and marginally among AAs. Among AA women only, IL15 rs10833 and IL15RA rs2296135 were associated with ER positive tumors, and IL12RB1 rs375947, IL15 rs10833 and TGFB1 rs1800469 were associated with ER negative tumors. Our study systematically identified genetic variants in the adaptive immune response pathway associated with breast cancer risk, which appears to differ by ancestry groups, menopausal status and ER status. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Mitofusin-2 ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in liver of rats.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effects of mitofusin-2 (MFN2) on insulin sensitivity and its potential targets in the liver of rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD).
Related JoVE Video
Astrogliopathy and oligodendrogliopathy are early events in CNS demyelination.
Glia
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We examined the phenotypic composition of cells and the underlying mechanisms of demyelination following injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the corpus callosum of rats. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay showed fragmented DNA, which co-localized with oligodendrocytes in areas of demyelination following intracerebral injection with LPS. Immunostaining showed the presence of caspase 3 in cells which expressed the oligodendrocyte markers, suggesting activation of the apoptotic pathway. Commensurate reduction in glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)+/ gap junction protein connexin43+ (Cx43) cells, was also seen in the corpus callosum prior to histochemical evidence of demyelination. Expression of mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines was maximal 3 day postinjection, at a time when the numbers of TUNEL positive cells in the corpus callosum were declining and the total number of CD68+ cells peaked at day 14 postinjection. Our studies suggest that death of oligodendrocytes is an early event in LPS model of demyelination. We believe that the innate immune model of oligodendrocyte death will be useful in the development of neuroprotective agents capable of rescuing oligodendrocytes from apoptosis.
Related JoVE Video
Case-only analyses of the associations between polymorphisms in the metastasis-modifying genes BRMS1 and SIPA1 and breast tumor characteristics, lymph node metastasis, and survival.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lymph node metastases and tumor characteristics predict breast cancer prognosis but correlate imperfectly with likelihood of metastatic relapse. Discovery of genetic polymorphisms affecting metastasis may improve identification of patients requiring aggressive adjuvant therapy to prevent recurrence. We investigated associations between several variants in the BRMS1 and SIPA1 metastasis-modifying genes and lymph node metastases, tumor subtype and grade, recurrence, disease-free survival, and overall survival. This cross-sectional and prospective prognostic analysis included 859 patients who received surgery for incident breast cancer at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, participated in the DataBank and BioRepository shared resource, and had DNA, clinical, and pathology data available for analysis. Genotyping for BRMS1 (rs11537993, rs3116068, and rs1052566) and SIPA1 (rs75894763, rs746429, rs3741378, and rs2306364) polymorphisms was performed using Sequenom(®) iPLEX Gold and Taqman(®) real-time PCR assays. Logistic and Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR), respectively. BRMS1 rs1052566 heterozygous individuals were more likely to have node-positive tumors (OR = 1.58, 95 % CI 1.13-2.23), although there was no dose-response relationship, and those with at least one variant allele were less likely to have the luminal B subtype (AG + AA: OR = 0.59, 95 % CI 0.36-0.98). BRMS1 rs3116068 was associated with increased likelihood of having the luminal B and the HER2-enriched tumor subtype (P trend = 0.03). Two SIPA1 SNPs, rs746429 and rs2306364, were associated with decreased risk of triple-negative tumors (P trend = 0.04 and 0.07, respectively). Presence of 8 or more risk alleles was associated with an increased likelihood of having a node-positive tumor (OR = 2.14, 95 % CI 1.18-3.36, P trend = 0.002). There were no significant associations with survival. Polymorphisms in metastasis-associated genes may be related to tumor characteristics and lymph node metastasis, but not survival. Future evaluation of metastasis-modifying gene variants is necessary to better understand the biology of metastasis.
Related JoVE Video
Oxymatrine attenuates hepatic steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats fed with high fructose diet through inhibition of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (Srebf1) and activation of peroxisome proliferator activated recep
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of oxymatrine, a monomer isolated from the medicinal plant Sophora flavescens Ait, on the hepatic lipid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) rats and to explore the potential mechanism. Rats were fed with high fructose diet for 8 weeks to establish the NAFLD model, then were given oxymatrine treatment (40, 80, and 160 mg/kg, respectively) for another 8 weeks. Body weight gain, liver index, serum and liver lipids, and histopathological evaluation were measured. Enzymatic activity and gene expression of the key enzymes involved in the lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation were assayed. The results showed that oxymatrine treatment reduced body weight gain, liver weight, liver index, dyslipidemia, and liver triglyceride level in a dose dependant manner. Importantly, the histopathological examination of liver confirmed that oxymatrine could decrease the liver lipid accumulation. The treatment also decreased the fatty acid synthase (FAS) enzymatic activity and increased the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) enzymatic activity. Besides, oxymatrine treatment decreased the mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1(Srebf1), fatty acid synthase (Fasn), and acetyl CoA carboxylase (Acc), and increased the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (Ppar?), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (Cpt1a), and acyl CoA oxidase (Acox1) in high fructose diet induced NAFLD rats. These results suggested that the therapeutic effect of oxymatrine on the hepatic steatosis in high fructose diet induced fatty liver rats is partly due to down-regulating Srebf1 and up-regulating Ppar? mediated metabolic pathways simultaneously.
Related JoVE Video
The radial diffusivity and magnetization transfer pool size ratio are sensitive markers for demyelination in a rat model of type III multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Determining biophysical sensitivity and specificity of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging is essential to develop effective imaging metrics of neurodegeneration. Among these metrics, apparent pool size ratio (PSR) from quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) imaging and radial diffusivity (RD) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are both known to relate to histological measure of myelin density and integrity. However their relative sensitivities towards quantitative myelin detection are unknown. In this study, we correlated high-resolution quantitative magnetic resonance imaging measures of subvoxel tissue structures with corresponding quantitative myelin histology in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated animal model of MS. Specifically, we acquired quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics (on the same tissue sample) in an animal model system of type III oligodendrogliopathy which lacked prominent lymphocytic infiltration, a system that had not been previously examined with quantitative MRI. We find that the qMT measured apparent pool size ratio (PSR) showed the strongest correlation with a histological measure of myelin content. DTI measured RD showed the next strongest correlation, and other DTI and relaxation parameters (such as the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1f) or fractional anisotropy (FA)) showed considerably weaker correlations with myelin content.
Related JoVE Video
Pretreatment levels of circulating Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and their ratios, are associated with ER-negative and triple negative breast cancers.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Immune signatures in breast tumors differ by estrogen receptor (ER) status. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between ER phenotypes and circulating levels of cytokines that co-ordinate cell-mediated [T-helper type 1 (Th1)] and humoral [T-helper type 2 (Th2)] immunity. We conducted a case-case comparison of 523 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer to evaluate associations between 27 circulating cytokines, measured using Luminex XMap technology, and breast cancer phenotypes [ER(-) vs. ER(+); triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) vs. luminal A (LumA)]. Ratios of Th1 to Th2 cytokines were also evaluated. Levels of interleukin (IL)-5, a Th-2 cytokine, were higher in ER(-) than in ER(+) tumors. The highest tertile of IL-5 was more strongly associated with ER(-) (OR = 2.33, 95 % CI 1.40-3.90) and TNBCs (OR = 2.78, 95 % CI 1.53-5.06) compared to ER(+) and LumA cancers, respectively, particularly among premenopausal women (OR = 4.17, 95 % CI 1.86-9.34, ER(-) vs. ER(+); OR = 5.60, 95 % CI 2.09-15.01, TNBC vs. LumA). Elevated Th1 cytokines were also detected in women with ER(-) and TNBCs, with women in the highest tertile of interferon ?2 (OR = 2.39, 95 % CI 1.31-4.35) or tumor necrosis factor-? (OR = 2.27, 95 % CI 1.21-4.26) being twice as likely to have TNBC versus LumA cancer. When cytokine ratios were examined, women with the highest ratios of Th1 cytokines to IL-5 levels were least likely to have ER(-) or TNBCs compared to ER(+) or LumA cancers, respectively. The strongest associations were in premenopausal women, who were up to 80 % less likely to have TNBC than LumA cancers (IL-12p40/IL-5, OR = 0.19, 95 % CI 0.07-0.56). These findings indicate that immune function is associated with ER(-) and TNBC and may be most relevant among younger women, who are likely to be diagnosed with these aggressive phenotypes.
Related JoVE Video
Acid-catalyzed conversion of mono- and poly-sugars into platform chemicals: effects of molecular structure of sugar substrate.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hydrolysis/pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass always produces a mixture of sugars with distinct structures as intermediates or products. This study tried to elucidate the effects of molecular structure of sugars on their acid-catalyzed conversions in ethanol/water. Location of carbonyl group in sugars (fructose versus glucose) and steric configuration of hydroxyl groups (glucose versus galactose) significantly affected yields of levulinic acid/ester (fructose>glucose>galactose). The dehydration of fructose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural produces much less soluble polymer than that from glucose and galactose, which results in high yields of levulinic acid/ester from fructose. Anhydrate sugar such as levoglucosan tends to undergo the undesirable decomposition to form less levulinic acid/ester. Catalytic behaviors of the poly-sugars (sucrose, maltose, raffinose, ?-cyclodextrins) were determined much by their basic units. However, their big molecular sizes create the steric hindrance that significantly affects their followed conversion over solid acid catalyst.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiac sympathoexcitation in heart failure.
Auton Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heart failure (HF) is a serious debilitating condition with poor survival rates and an increasing level of prevalence. The excessive sympatho-excitation that is a hallmark of heart failure has long-term effects that contribute to disease progression. The mechanisms causing the increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) have been extensively investigated in experimental models of heart failure, but there is less information on the factors causing the increase in cardiac SNA (CSNA). This review focuses on our recent investigations of the mechanisms driving the increased CSNA in an ovine rapid ventricular pacing model of HF. In conscious sheep with mild heart failure (ejection fraction 35-40%) the arterial baroreflex control of CSNA was normal. In contrast, the normal inhibition of CSNA with volume expansion was abolished in HF, indicating desensitisation of the cardiopulmonary mechano-reflex. Antagonism of central angiotensin AT1 receptors with losartan substantially reduced CSNA, demonstrating a critical role for the central renin-angiotensin system. Investigation of the role of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), which plays a critical role in setting the increased RSNA in HF, demonstrated that the PVN did not maintain the increased CSNA in HF or the resting level of CSNA in normal animals. Furthermore, inhibition of the PVN in normal animals reversed the reduction in RSNA, but not CSNA, induced by volume expansion. These studies emphasise that the mechanisms controlling CSNA in the normal state, and causing the increase in HF, are different to those controlling sympathetic activity to the kidney.
Related JoVE Video
The therapeutic potential of IGF-I in skeletal muscle repair.
Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Skeletal muscle loss due to aging, motor-neuron degeneration, cancer, heart failure, and ischemia is a serious condition for which currently there is no effective treatment. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) plays an important role in muscle maintenance and repair. Preclinical studies have shown that IGF-I is involved in increasing muscle mass and strength, reducing degeneration, inhibiting the prolonged and excessive inflammatory process due to toxin injury, and increasing the proliferation potential of satellite cells. However, clinical trials have not been successful due to ineffective delivery methods. Choosing the appropriate isoforms or peptides and developing targeted delivery techniques can resolve this issue. Here we discuss the latest development in the field with special emphasis on novel therapeutic approaches.
Related JoVE Video
Protective effects of matrine against progression of high-fructose diet-induced steatohepatitis by enhancing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defences involving Nrf2 translocation.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of matrine against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a high-fructose diet. After being fed a high-fructose diet (HFD) for 4weeks, male Wistar rats were orally administered matrine in three different doses (40, 80, or 160mg/kg) once daily. Serum and liver samples were collected after treatment with matrine for 4weeks. Lipid droplets within hepatocytes, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and necrotic foci in the liver were morphologically alleviated by matrine in a dose-dependent manner compared with the HFD group. ALT and AST in the blood and the triglyceride content in the liver also decreased. The increased malondialdehyde and depleted glutathione by HFD were ameliorated in a dose-related manner with matrine. Matrine promoted Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus with subsequently up-regulated antioxidative enzyme protein expression, and it enhanced antioxidant activities compared with the HFD group (p<0.05). The increased activity of nuclear factor-kappa B in the liver and the tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels in plasma induced by HFD were inhibited by matrine as well (p<0.05). In this study, we also found that matrine ameliorated HFD-induced hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that matrine is effective in preventing conversion of high-fructose diet-induced hepatic steatosis into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in rats.
Related JoVE Video
Innate immunity pathways and breast cancer Risk in African American and European-American women in the Womens Circle of Health Study (WCHS).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
African American (AA) women are more likely than European American (EA) women to be diagnosed with early, aggressive breast cancer. Possible differences in innate immune pathways (e.g., inflammatory responses) have received little attention as potential mechanisms underlying this disparity. We evaluated distributions of selected genetic variants in innate immune pathways in AA and EA women, and examined their associations with breast cancer risk within the Womens Circle of Health Study (WCHS). In stage I of the study (864 AA and 650 EA women) we found that genotype frequencies for 35 of 42 tested SNPs (18 candidate genes) differed between AAs and EAs (corroborated by ancestry informative markers). Among premenopausal AA women, comparing variant allele carriers to non-carriers, reduced breast cancer risk was associated with CXCL5-rs425535 (OR=0.61, P=0.02), while among EA women, there were associations with TNFA-rs1799724 (OR =2.31, P =0.002) and CRP-rs1205 (OR=0.54, P=0.01). For postmenopausal women, IL1B-rs1143627 (OR=1.80, P=0.02) and IL1B-rs16944 (OR=1.85, P =0.02) were associated with risk among EA women, with significant associations for TNFA-rs1799724 limited to estrogen receptor (ER) positive cancers (OR=2.0, P =0.001). However, none of the SNPs retained significance after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing at the level of P0.0012 (0.05/42) except for TNFA-rs1799724 in ER positive cancers. In a stage II validation (1,365 AA and 1,307 EA women), we extended evaluations for four SNPs (CCL2-rs4586, CRP-rs1205, CXCL5-rs425535, and IL1RN-rs4251961), which yielded similar results. In summary, distributions of variants in genes involved in innate immune pathways were found to differ between AA and EA populations, and showed differential associations with breast cancer according to menopausal or ER status. These results suggest that immune adaptations suited to ancestral environments may differentially influence breast cancer risk among EA and AA women.
Related JoVE Video
Heat shock protein 70 acts as a potential biomarker for early diagnosis of heart failure.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early identification for heart failure (HF) may be useful for disease modifying treatment in order to reduce heart disease progression or even to reverse it. In our previous studies, we have revealed a group of heat shock proteins (HSPs) which might be related to neonatal rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by proteomic approach. Here, we confirm that HSPs, including HSP27 and HSP70, altered in the early stage of cardiac remodeling in vivo animal model. Furthermore, plasma concentrations of those HSPs and their potential screening value were evaluated at different stages in 222 patient subjects. Plasma HSP27, HSP70 and HSP90 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results indicate that HSP70 was positively correlated to the severity (progression) of HF (r?=?0.456, p<0.001). The area under the rate of change (ROC) curve was 0.601 (p?=?0.017) in patients with stage B HF and 0.835 (p<0.001) in those with stage C HF. However, HSP27 and HSP90 did not display significant changes in any stage of HF in this study. Taken together, plasma concentrations of HSP70 elevated with the progression of HF and might act as a potential screening biomarker for early diagnosis of HF.
Related JoVE Video
[Characteristics of stemflow for typical alpine shrubs in Qilian Mountain].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Taking the typical alpine shrubs Potentilla fruticosa, Salix cupularis, Hippophae rhamnoides, and Caragana jubata in Qilian Mountain as test objects, a field investigation from June 1 to October 31, 2010 was conducted on the variation characteristics of the shrub stemflow, and analyzed the affecting effects of rainfall intensity and canopy structure morphology. The stemflow generated when the rainfall in early period was 2.1 mm, with an average of 3.4%, 3.2%, 8.0%, and 4.2% of the gross rainfall for P. fruticosa, S. cupularis, H. rhamnoides, and C. jubata, respectively. There was a significant positive linear correlation between the stemflow and rainfall intensity. With increasing rainfall, the stemflow percentage showed a trend of increase-decrease-increase. Stemflow played an important role in supplying water to the shrub rhizosphere, and the average funneling ratio was 59, 30, 110, and 49 for P. fruticosa, S. cupularis, H. rhamnoides, and C. jubata, respectively. The stemflow percentage had a significant exponential relationship with the maximum rain intensity in 10 minutes (I10). When the I10 was more than 6.0 mm x h(-1), the stemflow of H. rhamnoides and C. jubata showed a persistently increasing trend, while that of P. fruticosa and S. cupularis tended to be stable. Canopy structure morphology had complicated effects on the stemflow. In the same rainfall intensities, the height and crown projection area of the shrubs were the important factors affecting the generation of stemflow.
Related JoVE Video
Inactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by rapamycin in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, a key cellular signaling pathway associated with various cellular functions, has distinct roles in the inflammatory process. In this study, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (Rapa) was used to test whether inhibition of mTOR activation attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in a murine model.
Related JoVE Video
Transactivated EGFR mediates ??-AR-induced STAT3 activation and cardiac hypertrophy.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?(1)-Adrenergic receptor (?(1)-AR) is a crucial mediator of cardiac hypertrophy. Although numerous intracellular pathways have been implicated in ?(1)-AR-induced hypertrophy, its precise mechanism remains elusive. We aimed to determine whether ?(1)-AR induces cardiac hypertrophy through a novel signaling pathway-?(1)-AR/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The activation of STAT3 by ?(1)-AR was first demonstrated by tyrosine phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activity in neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat cardiomyocytes. Activated STAT3 showed an essential role in ?(1)-AR-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophic growth, as assessed by treatment with STAT3 inhibitory peptide and lentivirus-STAT3 small interfering RNA. The results were further confirmed by in vivo experiments involving intraperitoneal injection of the STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 significantly inhibiting phenylephrine-infusion-induced heart hypertrophy in male C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, the ?(1)-AR-activated STAT3 was associated with transactivation of EGFR because inhibition of EGFR with the selective inhibitor AG1478 prevented ?(1)-AR-induced STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and its transcriptional activity, as well as cardiac hypertrophy. In summary, these results suggest that ?(1)-AR induces the activation of STAT3, mainly through transactivation of EGFR, which plays an important role in ?(1)-AR-induced cardiac hypertrophy.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiomyocyte overexpression of miR-27b induces cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have begun to reveal critical roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. In this study, we tested whether a transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)-regulated miRNA played a pivotal role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). We observed that miR-27b was upregulated in hearts of cardiomyocyte-specific Smad4 knockout mice, which developed cardiac hypertrophy. In vitro experiments showed that the miR-27b expression could be inhibited by TGF-?1 and that its overexpression promoted hypertrophic cell growth, while the miR-27b suppression led to inhibition of the hypertrophic cell growth caused by phenylephrine (PE) treatment. Furthermore, the analysis of transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of miR-27b revealed that miR-27b overexpression was sufficient to induce cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. We validated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) as a direct target of miR-27b in cardiomyocyte. Consistently, the miR-27b transgenic mice displayed significantly lower levels of PPAR-? than the control mice. Furthermore, in vivo silencing of miR-27b using a specific antagomir in a pressure-overload-induced mouse model of HF increased cardiac PPAR-? expression, attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. The results of our study demonstrate that TGF-?1-regulated miR-27b is involved in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy, and validate miR-27b as an efficient therapeutic target for cardiac diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Transcriptomic analysis of the osmotic and reproductive remodeling of the female rat supraoptic nucleus.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus is an important integrative brain structure that coordinates responses to perturbations in water balance and regulates maternal physiology through the release of the neuropeptide hormones vasopressin and oxytocin into the circulation. Both dehydration and lactation evoke a dramatic morphological remodeling of the SON, a process known as function-related plasticity. We hypothesize that some of the changes seen in SON remodeling are mediated by differential gene expression, and have thus used microarrays to document global changes in transcript abundance that accompany chronic dehydration in female rats, and in lactation. In situ hybridization analysis has confirmed the differential expression of three of these genes, namely TNF-induced protein 6, gonadotropin-inducible transcription factor 1, and ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 1. Comparison of differential gene expression patterns in male and female rats subjected to dehydration and in lactating rats has enabled the identification of common elements that are significantly enriched in gene classes with particular functions. Two of these are related to the requirement for increased protein synthesis and hormone delivery in the physiologically stimulated SON (translation initiation factor activity and endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment, respectively), whereas others are consistent with the concept of SON morphological plasticity (collagen fibril organization, extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis, extracellular structure organization and biogenesis, and homophilic cell adhesion). We suggest that the genes coordinately regulated in the SON as a consequence of dehydration and lactation form a network that mediates the plastic processes operational in the physiologically activated SON.
Related JoVE Video
Culturable bacterial community analysis in the root domains of two varieties of tree peony (Paeonia ostii).
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A total of 985 bacterial strains with different colony characteristics were isolated from the root of tree peony plants (variety Fengdan and Lan Furong); 69 operational taxonomic units were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Representatives of each group were selected for partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The major groups in the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and rhizoplane of Fengdan were Firmicutes (63.2%), Actinobacteria (36.3%), and Betaproteobacteria (53.0%), respectively. The major bacteria groups in the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and rhizoplane of Lan Furong were Actinobacteria (34.8%), Gammaproteobacteria (45.2%), and Betaproteobacteria (49.1%), respectively. In total, the bacterial isolates comprised 26 genera--14 in the bulk soil, 14 in the rhizosphere, and 11 in the rhizoplane. The most common genus in the bulk soil of Fengdan and Lan Furong was Bacillus (49.6% and 32.6%, respectively), in the rhizosphere Microbacterium (21.1%) and Pseudomonas (42.0%), and in the rhizoplane Variovorax (53.0% and 49.1%, respectively). The results show that there are obvious differences in the bacterial communities in the three root domains of the two varieties, and the plants exerted selective pressures on their associated bacterial populations. The host genotypes also influenced the distribution pattern of the bacterial community.
Related JoVE Video
Repeat polymorphisms in estrogen metabolism genes and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The etiology of prostate cancer remains elusive, although steroid hormones probably play a role. Considering the carcinogenic potential of estrogen metabolites as well as altered intraprostatic estrogen biosynthesis during the development of prostate cancer, we investigated associations between repeat polymorphisms of three key estrogen-related genes (CYP11A1, CYP19A1, UGT1A1) and risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), designed to test finasteride versus placebo as a chemoprevention agent. Using data and specimens from 1154 cases and 1351 controls who were frequency matched on age, family history of prostate cancer and PCPT treatment arm, we used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) separately in the placebo and finasteride arms. Among men in the placebo arm, CYP19A1 7/8 genotype carriers had a significantly higher risk of prostate cancer compared with those with the 7/7 genotype (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.16-2.5), regardless of Gleason grade. This genotype was also associated with elevated serum estrogen levels. For the (TA)(n) repeat polymorphism in UGT1A1, the heterozygous short (<7 repeats)/long (?7 repeats) genotype was significantly associated with the risk of low-grade prostate cancer (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.05-1.70) compared with the short/short genotype. No significant association was found with CYP11A1. These associations were not observed among men in the finasteride arm. The results indicate that repeat polymorphisms in genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism may influence risk of prostate cancer but that their effects may be modified by factors altering hormone metabolism, such as finasteride treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Stem cell induced cardiac regeneration: fusion/mitochondrial exchange and/or transdifferentiation?
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Potentially, adult stem cell-based therapy provides a new therapeutic option for myocardial regeneration. However, to date, with regard to the benefits seen, the mechanisms involved in stem cell-based therapy are not well understood. Suggested pathways proposed so far include fusion of stem cells with cardiomyocytes, transdifferentiation into cardiac and vascular cells and secretion of paracrine factors. In a recent study, our group examined the fate of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) fused with rat cardiomyocytes after treatment with fusion-inducing hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ). In this study, we demonstrated that cells of fused hASC cardiomyocytes display a cardiomyocyte phenotype and spontaneous rhythmic contraction and generate an action potential in vitro. As part of the work underlying this paper, we co-cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes with hASCs or pig bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), where ASCs or MSCs had previously been transduced with a lentivirus encoding eGFP. Our data evidence early cardiac contractile proteins, such as Titin and MF20, identified in eGFP-positive cells, suggesting a cardiomyogenic phenotype. Recent work by others has shown that the myogenic conversion increased when BMSCs were cultured with apoptotic cells. In this Extra View article, we review the current understanding of stem cell-derived factors, fusion/partial fusion and the manner in which the exchange of cellular contents between stem cells and cardiomyocytes might contribute to the reprogramming of fully differentiated cardiomyocytes based on recently published literature.
Related JoVE Video
Interleukin-8 derived from local tissue-resident stromal cells promotes tumor cell invasion.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of adipose tissue resident stromal cells on tumor cell invasion. Our data show that a subpopulation of adipose tissue derived stromal cells expressing Nestin, NG2, ?-smooth muscle actin and PDGFR-? migrate toward the cancer cells. Microarray analysis revealed the upregulation of IL-8 in the migrated cells. We demonstrated that stromal cell derived IL-8 promote the invasion and the anchorage-independent growth of cancer cells. We conclude that human breast cancer cells attract a subpopulation of stromal cells that secrete IL-8 to promote tumor cell invasion in a paracrine fashion.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic predictors of taxane-induced neurotoxicity in a SWOG phase III intergroup adjuvant breast cancer treatment trial (S0221).
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Taxanes have resulted in improved survival for breast cancer patients, but often cause neurological toxicities. Identification of biomarkers related to toxicities could be important for dictating treatment regimen. We evaluated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Fanconi Anemia (FA)/BRCA pathway in relation to grade 3/4 neurotoxicities in patients (n = 888) from SWOG0221, a phase III adjuvant trial for breast cancer of 4 dose/schedules of cyclophosphamide (C), doxorubicin (A), and paclitaxel (T). In a separate cohort, we measured the correlation of significant FANCD2 SNPs with corresponding gene expression. For FANCD2, permutation testing revealed that 4 (out of 20) SNPs were significantly associated with an almost two-fold increased risk of toxicity. Two FANCD2 haplotypes were also associated with neurological toxicity, with odds ratios (OR) in the overall population of 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3, 2.5) and 1.7 (95% CI, 1.2, 2.4). Although numbers were small, an African-American-specific haplotype was associated with an almost 3-fold increase in risk of neurologic toxicity (OR = 2.84, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.9). Expression analyses revealed that significant FANCD2 SNPs were associated with FANCD2 expression levels (P = 0.03). There were no associations between SNPs in BRCA1 and neurotoxicities. In this trial of CA+T for breast cancer, SNPs in FANCD2, but not in BRCA1, were associated with a 70-80% increase in the odds of grade 3/4 neurological toxicities and increased expression of the gene. If replicated, women with these genotypes should be closely monitored for toxicities and could be targeted for preventive measures or alternative therapeutic approaches.
Related JoVE Video
Switching control of sympathetic activity from forebrain to hindbrain in chronic dehydration.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the mechanisms responsible for increased blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) caused by 2-3 days dehydration (DH) both in vivo and in situ preparations. In euhydrated (EH) rats, systemic application of the AT(1) receptor antagonist Losartan and subsequent pre-collicular transection (to remove the hypothalamus) significantly reduced thoracic (t)SNA. In contrast, in DH rats, Losartan, followed by pre-collicular and pontine transections, failed to reduce tSNA, whereas transection at the medulla-spinal cord junction massively reduced tSNA. In DH but not EH rats, selective inhibition of the commissural nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) significantly reduced tSNA. Comparable data were obtained in both in situ and in vivo (anaesthetized/conscious) rats and suggest that following chronic dehydration, the control of tSNA transfers from supra-brainstem structures (e.g. hypothalamus) to the medulla oblongata, particularly the cNTS. As microarray analysis revealed up-regulation of AP1 transcription factor JunD in the dehydrated cNTS, we tested the hypothesis that AP1 transcription factor activity is responsible for dehydration-induced functional plasticity. When AP1 activity was blocked in the cNTS using a viral vector expressing a dominant negative FosB, cNTS inactivation was ineffective. However, tSNA was decreased after pre-collicular transection, a response similar to that seen in EH rats. Thus, the dehydration-induced switch in control of tSNA from hypothalamus to cNTS seems to be mediated via activation of AP1 transcription factors in the cNTS. If AP1 activity is blocked in the cNTS during dehydration, sympathetic activity control reverts back to forebrain regions. This unique reciprocating neural structure-switching plasticity between brain centres emphasizes the multiple mechanisms available for the adaptive response to dehydration.
Related JoVE Video
Common genetic variants are associated with accelerated bone mineral density loss after hematopoietic cell transplantation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bone mineral density (BMD) loss commonly occurs after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Hypothesizing that genetic variants may influence post-HCT BMD loss, we conducted a prospective study to examine the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in bone metabolism pathways and acute BMD loss after HCT.
Related JoVE Video
Temporal profile of arginine vasopressin release from the neurohypophysis in response to hypertonic saline and hypotension measured using a fluorescent fusion protein.
J. Neurosci. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Methods currently employed to study the release of hormones such as arginine vasopressin (AVP), while sensitive, suffer from a low temporal resolution such that the monitoring of AVP release on a moment-to-moment basis is not possible. Here, we describe a new approach to indirectly monitor the temporal profile of AVP release from the neurohypophysis of transgenic rats expressing an AVP-eGFP fusion gene. Using fibre-optic probes (termed optrodes) we were able to indirectly monitor AVP release via a reporter moiety in real-time. This method is a major advance over current methods used to monitor AVP release. Intravenous administration of hypertonic saline (3M NaCl) induced a rapid (latency of 2-3s) increase in fluorescence detected in the neurohypophysis that lasted on average for 60s - a response that was highly reproducible. Infusion of sodium nitroprusside induced a rapid fall in blood pressure accompanied by a rapid, stimulus-locked increase in fluorescent signal that returned to baseline with the recovery of blood pressure to pre-stimulus levels - again this response was highly reproducible. Withdrawal of blood (to simulate haemorrhage) also resulted in a stimulus-locked increase in fluorescence that return to baseline after the withdrawn blood was returned to the animal. In conclusion, we developed a highly sensitive approach that allows the indirect measurement of AVP release via the monitoring of a reporter gene in real-time. This technology can be adapted to permit the study of a whole array of neurohormones/chemicals in transgenic animals expressing a fluorescent reporter construct.
Related JoVE Video
Heterogeneous light supply affects growth and biomass allocation of the understory fern Diplopterygium glaucum at high patch contrast.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Spatial heterogeneity in resource supply is common and responses to heterogeneous resource supply have been extensively documented in clonal angiosperms but not in pteridophytes. To test the hypotheses that clonal integration can modify responses of pteridophytes to heterogeneous resource supply and the integration effect is larger at higher patch contrast, we conducted a field experiment with three homogeneous and two heterogeneous light treatments on the rhizomatous, understory fern Diplopterygium glaucum in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in East China. In homogeneous treatments, all D. glaucum ramets in 1.5 m×1.5 m units were subjected to 10, 40 and 100% natural light, respectively. In the heterogeneous treatment of low patch contrast, ramets in the central 0.5 m×0.5 m plots of the units were subjected to 40% natural light and their interconnected ramets in the surrounding area of the units to 100%; in the heterogeneous treatment of high patch contrast, ramets in the central plots were subjected to 10% natural light and those in the surrounding area to 100%. In the homogeneous treatments, biomass and number of living ramets in the central plots decreased and number of dead ramets increased with decreasing light supply. At low contrast heterogeneous light supply did not affect performance or biomass allocation of D. glaucum in the central plots, but at high contrast it increased lamina biomass and number of living ramets older than annual and modified biomass allocation to lamina and rhizome. Thus, clonal integration can affect responses of understory ferns to heterogeneous light supply and ramets in low light patches can be supported by those in high light. The results also suggest that effects of clonal integration depend on the degree of patch contrast and a significant integration effect may be found only under a relatively high patch contrast.
Related JoVE Video
Anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) lesion affects hypothalamic neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression following water deprivation.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been reported to be up-regulated in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) during dehydration which in turn could increase nitric oxide (NO) production and consequently affect arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion. The anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region has strong afferent connections with the SON. Herein we describe our analysis of the effects of an AV3V lesion on AVP secretion, and c-fos and nNOS expression in the SON following dehydration. Male Wistar rats had their AV3V region electrolytically lesioned or were sham operated. After 21 days they were submitted to dehydration or left as controls (euhydrated). Two days later, one group was anaesthetized, perfused and the brains were processed for Fos protein and nNOS immunohistochemistry (IHC). Another group was decapitated, the blood collected for hematocrit, osmolality, serum sodium and AVP plasma level analysis. The brains were removed for measurement of neurohypophyseal AVP content, and the SON was punched out and processed for nNOS detection by western blotting. The AV3V lesion reduced AVP plasma levels and c-fos expression in the SON following dehydration (P<0.05). Western blotting revealed an up-regulation of nNOS in the SON of control animals following dehydration, whereas such up-regulation was not observed in AV3V-lesioned rats (P<0.05). We conclude that the AV3V region plays a role in regulating the expression of nNOS in the SON of rats submitted to dehydration, and thus may affect the local nitric oxide production and the secretion of vasopressin.
Related JoVE Video
Distinct actions of intermittent and sustained ?-adrenoceptor stimulation on cardiac remodeling.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heart disease is associated with increased sympathetic nerve activity and elevated levels of circulating catecholamines, resulting in chronic stimulation of the ?-adrenergic receptors (?-AR) and consequent pathological cardiac remodeling. Experimentally, chronic administration of the ?-AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO) has been most commonly used to model ?-AR-induced cardiac remodeling. However, it remains unclear whether ?-AR-mediated cardiac remodeling and dysfunction differs between sustained versus pulsatile (intermittent) exposure to a ?-agonist. Here, we compare the effects of intermittent versus sustained administration of ISO on cardiac remodeling and function in mice. Animals were administered 5 mg (kg d)(-1) ISO for 2 weeks either by daily subcutaneous injection, or continuous infusion via an implanted osmotic minipump. Cardiac function and remodeling were determined by echocardiography, micromanometry and histology. Moreover, Western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were utilized to define the proteins and genes involved. Both sustained and intermittent administration of ISO resulted in a similar degree of cardiac hypertrophy (16% and 19%, respectively). However, mice receiving ISO by daily injection developed more severe ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis compared with mice receiving ISO via the osmotic minipump. The disparity in results between the delivery methods is suggested to be due, at least in part, to increased expression of fibrogenic factors, including connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and NADPH oxidase (NOX4), in mice receiving intermittent application of ISO. In summary, compared with sustained exposure to a ?-AR agonist, intermittent ?-AR stimulation leads to more severe cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis. These findings not only further our understanding of ?-AR function in the setting of cardiac pathophysiology, but also highlight that significant differences can result dependent upon the mode of experimental ?-AR stimulation in inducing cardiomyopathy.
Related JoVE Video
Wound microenvironment sequesters adipose-derived stem cells in a murine model of reconstructive surgery in the setting of concurrent distant malignancy.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is unclear whether mesenchymal stem cells that are applied to regenerate wound tissues can migrate to existing tumors and enhance their growth. The authors investigated whether adipose-derived stem cells had any effect on the growth and progression of distant tumors when applied to a skin wound.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical analysis of 123 cases of chylous effusion].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To analyze the clinical characteristics of chylous effusion and boost its diagnostic and therapeutic level.
Related JoVE Video
Icariin attenuates cardiac remodelling through down-regulating myocardial apoptosis and matrix metalloproteinase activity in rats with congestive heart failure.
J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, the anti-heart failure effect of icariin, a natural flavonol glycoside, and the underlying mechanisms were investigated.
Related JoVE Video
Fibroblasts share mesenchymal phenotypes with stem cells, but lack their differentiation and colony-forming potential.
Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) and fibroblasts have been well studied, differences between these two cell types are not fully understood. We therefore comparatively analysed antigen and gene profiles, colony-forming ability and differentiation potential of four human cell types in vitro: commercially available skin-derived fibroblasts [hSDFs (human skin-derived fibroblasts)], adipose tissue-derived stem cells [hASCs (human adipose tissue-derived stem cells)], embryonic lung fibroblasts (WI38) and dermal microvascular endothelial cells [hECs (human dermal microvascular endothelial cells)].
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.