Associations between apolipoprotein CIII concentrations and microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes.
Microalbuminuria (MAU) is a strong predictor of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Dyslipidemia exists in the majority of patients with DM and contributes to micro- and macrovascular complications associated with DM. Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) is an inhibitor of the activity of lipoprotein lipase, which metabolizes triglyceride (TG) in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and facilitates its clearance from plasma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between apoCIII and MAU and the effects of atorvastatin in type 2 diabetes. In total, 120 subjects were divided into type 2 diabetes and type 2 DN groups, while 60 healthy subjects were selected as controls. The patients with DN were administered 20 mg atorvastatin daily for 16 weeks. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and levels of HbA1c, FBG, TG, VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C), apoCIII and MAU were markedly elevated in the type 2 diabetes and type 2 DN groups compared with those in the control group (P<0.01), while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were decreased significantly (P<0.01). All patients with type 2 DN showed significantly elevated blood pressure, apoCIII levels, MAU, course of the disease and rate of stroke and retinopathy compared with the patients with type 2 diabetes (P<0.01). MAU was significantly positively correlated with the course of the disease, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, BMI and HbA1c, FBG, TG, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, VLDL-C and apoCIII levels (P<0.05), whereas negatively correlated with HDL-C levels (r=-0.194, P=0.020). Logistic regression analysis showed that apoCIII levels were independently associated with MAU (odds ratio, 1.100; 95% confidence interval, 1.037-1.153; P<0.001). Atorvastatin improved the lipid profile and MAU in patients with type 2 DN (P<0.01). Therefore, the present study demonstrated that an independent positive correlation exists between the levels of apoCIII and MAU in patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, atorvastatin may be used to improve the lipid profile and MAU in type 2 DN.