CYP3A4 metabolizes more than 50% of the drugs on the market. The large inter-individual differences of CYP3A4 expression may contribute to the variability of human drug responses. Post-transcriptional regulation of CYP3A4 is poorly understood, whereas transcriptional regulation has been studied much more thoroughly. In this study, we used multiple software programs to predict miRNAs that might bind to CYP3A4 and identified 112 potentially functional miRNAs. Then a luciferase reporter system was used to assess the effect of the overexpression of each potentially functional miRNA in HEK 293T cells. Fourteen miRNAs that significantly decreased reporter activity were measured in human liver samples (N = 27) as candidate miRNAs. To establish a more effective way to analyze in vivo data for miRNA candidates, the relationship between functional miRNA and target mRNA was modeled mathematically. Taking advantage of this model, we found that hsa-miR-577, hsa-miR-1, hsa-miR-532-3p and hsa-miR-627 could significantly downregulate the translation efficiency of CYP3A4 mRNA in liver. This study used in silico, in vitro and in vivo methods to progressively screen functional miRNAs for CYP3A4 and to enhance our understanding of molecular events underlying the large inter-individual differences of CYP3A4 expression in human populations.
Emerging evidence indicates that the miR-23a/24-2/27a cluster may possess a causal role in mammary tumorigenesis and function as a novel class of oncogenes. However, the regulatory mechanism of the miR-23a/24-2/27a cluster in mammary carcinoma cell invasion and migration is still largely unknown. We observed that the expression levels of miR-23a, miR-24-2 and miR-27a were significantly higher in breast cancer with lymph node metastasis, compared with that from patients without lymph node metastasis or normal tissue. Forced expression of the miR-23a/24-2/27a cluster promoted mammary carcinoma cell migration, invasion, and hepatic metastasis, through targeting Sprouty2 (SPRY2) and consequent activation of p44/42 MAPK. Epidermal growth factor induced the expression of the transcription factor c-MYC, which promoted the expression of mature miR-23a, miR-24-2, and miR-27a and subsequently decreased expression of SPRY2 and activated p44/42 MAPK to promote mammary carcinoma cell migration and invasion. We therefore suggest a novel link between epidermal growth factor and the miR-23a/24-2/27a cluster via the regulation of c-MYC, providing the potential for the miR-23a/24-2/27a cluster to be used as biomarker in the diagnosis and/or treatment of breast cancer.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs which regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Abnormal expression of miRNAs occurs frequently in human tumors. Despite the fact that reduced expression of miR-128 has been observed in glioma tissues and cells, the role of miR-128 in tumors has not been fully characterized. In the present study, cell adhesion assays indicated that overexpression of miR-128 can promote cell-cell adhesion. Target site prediction algorithms indicated that miR-128 binds the 3-untranslated regions of erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor (Eph)B1 and EphB2 mRNAs. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR-128 binds and regulates EphB1 and EphB2 mRNAs. Overexpression of EphB2 reduced the ability of miR-128 to promote cell-cell adhesion. The wound-healing assay indicated that miR-128 significantly inhibited cell migration via EphB2. This study revealed the novel functions of miR-128 in cell-cell adhesion and cell migration in glioma cells through the regulation of EphB2, and identified EphB1 and EphB2 as novel miR-128 targets.
There is a huge variability of hepatic CYP3A4 level in human populations, which was believed to contribute to different responses to drugs among individuals. Transcription of CYP3A4 was regulated by transcription factors such as pregnane X receptor (PXR). MiRNA hsa-miR-148a was previously reported to influence PXR expression in HepG2 cells and in Japanese populations. In this study, we conducted a similar correlation study in Chinese Han population (N?=?24). No significant correlation of hsa-miR-148a was found with PXR expression or CYP3A4 expression. Our results suggest that hsa-miR-148a does not play a major role in the regulation of PXR or CYP3A4 expression in human livers from Chinese Han population.
Gliomas are the most common and aggressive primary tumors in the central nervous system. Recently, Max interactor-1 (MXI1), an antagonist of c-Myc that is involved in brain tumor progression, has been reported to be deregulated in a variety of tumors including glioma. However, the mechanism of MXI1 deregulation in gliomas remains unclear. In this study, we show that the relative expression level of MXI1 is markedly down-regulated in glioma cell lines. Using integrated bioinformatic analysis and experimental confirmation, we identified several miRNAs by screening a panel of predicted miRNAs that may regulate the MXI1 3UTR. The strongest inhibitory miRNA, miR-155, can attenuate the activity of a luciferase reporter gene that is fused with the MXI1 3UTR and decrease the expression levels of MXI1 mRNA and protein in U87 glioma cells. The potential role of miR-155 in promoting glioma cell proliferation by targeting MXI1 was confirmed in various glioma cell lines by rescue experiments using MTT assays, EdU incorporation assay, and cell counting experiments. In addition, we determined that the level of MXI1 mRNA was inversely correlated with the expression of miR-155 in 18 sets of glioblastoma multiforme specimens. These findings reveal for the first time that the targeting of MXI1 by miR-155 may result in a reduction in MXI1 expression and promote glioma cell proliferation; this result suggests a novel function of miR-155 in targeting MXI1 in glioma-genesis.
Animal microRNA (miRNA) target prediction is still a challenge, although many prediction programs have been exploited. MiRNAs exert their function through partially binding the messenger RNAs (mRNAs; likely at 3 untranslated regions [3UTRs]), which makes it possible to detect the miRNA-mRNA interactions in vitro by co-transfection of miRNA and a luciferase reporter gene containing the target mRNA fragment into mammalian cells under a dual-luciferase assay system. Here, we constructed a human miRNA expression library and used a dual-luciferase assay system to perform large-scale screens of interactions between miRNAs and the 3UTRs of seven genes, which included more than 3,000 interactions with triplicate experiments for each interaction. The screening results showed that the 3UTR of one gene can be targeted by multiple miRNAs. Among the prediction algorithms, a Bayesian phylogenetic miRNA target identification algorithm and a support vector machine (SVM) presented a relatively better performance (27% for EIMMo and 24.7% for miRDB) against the average precision (17.3%) of the nine prediction programs used here. Additionally, we noticed that a relatively high conservation level was shown at the miRNA 3 end targeted regions, as well as the 5 end (seed region) binding sites.
A method for solubilization of pristine fullerene (C(60)) in water was proposed by directly using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a "solubilizer" by means of the unfolding mechanism. C(60) aqueous solution with a small distribution size, excellent dispersion stability and high dispersion concentration was obtained without the use of derivatization and organic solvent.
Heparin, which has been used as an anticoagulant drug for decades, inhibits angiogenesis, whereas thrombin promotes tumor-associated angiogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of angiogenesis by heparin and thrombin are not well understood. Here, we show that microRNA-10b (miR-10b) is down-regulated by heparin and up-regulated by thrombin in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). Overexpression of miR-10b induces HMEC-1 cell migration, tube formation, and angiogenesis, and down-regulates homeobox D10 (HoxD10) expression via direct binding of miR-10b to the putative 3 UTR of HoxD10. In addition, HMEC-1 cell migration and tube formation are induced by HoxD10 knockdown, whereas angiogenesis is arrested when HoxD10 expression is increased after anti-miR-10b or heparin treatments. Furthermore, expression of miR-10b and its transcription factor Twist are up-regulated by thrombin, whereas HoxD10 expression is impaired by thrombin. Using quartz crystal microbalance analysis, we show that heparin binds to thrombin, thereby inhibiting thrombin-induced expression of Twist and miR-10b. However, the expression of miR-10b is not attenuated by heparin any more after thrombin expression is silenced by its siRNA. Interestingly, we find that heparin attenuates miR-10b expression and induces HoxD10 expression in vivo to inhibit angiogenesis and impair the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumor xenografts. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanism by which heparin and thrombin regulate angiogenesis.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitous non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. An increasing number of studies has revealed that viruses can also encode miRNAs, which are proposed to be involved in viral replication and persistence, cell-mediated antiviral immune response, angiogenesis, and cell cycle regulation. Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is a pathogenic iridovirus that has severely affected grouper aquaculture in China and Southeast Asia. Comprehensive knowledge about the related miRNAs during SGIV infection is helpful for understanding the infection and the pathogenic mechanisms.
The emerging concept of generating cancer stem cells from epithelial-mesenchymal transition has attracted great interest; however, the factors and molecular mechanisms that govern this putative tumor-initiating process remain largely elusive. We report here that miR-200a not only regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition but also stem-like transition in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. We first showed that stable knockdown of miR-200a promotes the transition of epithelium-like CNE-1 cells to the mesenchymal phenotype. More importantly, it also induced several stem cell-like traits, including CD133(+) side population, sphere formation capacity, in vivo tumorigenicity in nude mice, and stem cell marker expression. Consistently, stable overexpression of miR-200a switched mesenchyme-like C666-1 cells to the epithelial state, accompanied by a significant reduction of stem-like cell features. Furthermore, in vitro differentiation of the C666-1 tumor sphere resulted in diminished stem-like cell population and miR-200a induction. To investigate the molecular mechanism, we demonstrated that miR-200a controls epithelial-mesenchymal transition by targeting ZEB2, although it regulates the stem-like transition differentially and specifically by ?-catenin signaling. Our findings reveal for the first time the function of miR-200a in shifting nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell states via a reversible process coined as epithelial-mesenchymal to stem-like transition through differential and specific mechanisms.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a highly metastatic and invasive malignant tumor originating from the nasopharynx, is widely prevalent in Southeast Asia, the Middle East and North Africa. Although viral, dietary and genetic factors have been implicated in NPC, the molecular basis of its pathogenesis is not well defined. Based on a recent microRNA (miRNA) microarray study showing miR-200 downregulation in NPC, we further investigated the role of miR-200a in NPC carcinogenesis. We found that the endogenous miR-200a expression level increases with the degree of differentiation in a panel of NPC cell lines, namely undifferentiated C666-1, high-differentiated CNE-1, and low-differentiated CNE-2 and HNE1 cells. By a series of gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, we showed that over-expression of miR-200a inhibits C666-1 cell growth, migration and invasion, whereas its knock-down stimulates these processes in CNE-1 cells. In addition, we further identified ZEB2 and CTNNB1 as the functional downstream targets of miR-200a. Interestingly, knock-down of ZEB2 solely impeded NPC cell migration and invasion, whereas CTNNB1 suppression only inhibited NPC cell growth, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of miR-200a on NPC cell growth, migration and invasion are mediated by distinct targets and pathways. Our results reveal the important role of miR-200a as a regulatory factor of NPC carcinogenesis and a potential candidate for miRNA-based therapy against NPC.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, small non-protein coding single-stranded RNA molecules, which are crucial post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Previous studies have shown that miRNAs participate in a wide range of biological functions and play important roles in various human diseases including glioma. However, the role of miRNAs in mediating glioblastoma cell migration and invasion has not been elucidated. Using miRNA microarray, we identified miR-146b as one of the miRNAs that is significantly dysregulated in human glioblastoma tissue. We showed that miR-146b overexpression by transfection with the precursor miR-146b, or knock-down by Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA)-modified anti-miR-146b, has no effect on the growth of human glioblastoma U373 cells. However, precursor miR-146b transfection significantly reduced the migration and invasion of U373 cells, while LNA-anti-miR-146b transfection generated the opposite result. Furthermore, we discovered that a matrix metalloproteinase gene, MMP16, is one of the downstream targets of miR-146b. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-146b is involved in glioma cell migration and invasion by targeting MMPs, and implicate miR-146b as a metastasis-inhibiting miRNA in glioma.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non?coding RNAs which regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Abnormal expression of miRNAs occurs frequently in tumors. Although the two miRNAs miR?24?3p and miR?27a?3p come from two duplicated gene clusters of miR?23a~27a~24?2 and miR?23b~27b~24?1 which are found to be deregulated in a variety of cancers, the role of cooperation of the two clusters and the function of the two miRNAs in tumors have not been completely characterized. Here, we show that overexpression of miR?24?3p and miR?27a?3p could promote cell proliferation using the MTT assay. By integrated bioinformatic analysis and experimental confirmation, we identified MXI1, which has been found to act as a tumor suppressor gene by affecting c?Myc, as a direct target of miR?24?3p and miR?27a?3p. While targeting the MXI1 3 untranslated region by miR?24?3p or miR?27a?3p, luciferase activity was attenuated. The two miRNAs promote glioma cell proliferation via targeting MXI1 and the experiment was confirmed by the rescue experiments. Furthermore, our results show that two clusters of miR-23a~27a~24-2 and miR?23b~27b~24?1 regulate MXI1 synergistically. These findings reveal, for the first time, the novel functions of cooperation of miR?24?3p and miR?27a?3p from two clusters in promoting cell proliferation through MXI1. Additionally, we observed that miR?27a?3p is upregulated in glioma tissues.
miR-124 is a brain-enriched microRNA that plays a crucial role in neural development and has been shown to be down-regulated in glioma and medulloblastoma, suggesting its possible involvement in brain tumor progression. Here, we show that miR-124 is down-regulated in a panel of different grades of glioma tissues and in all of the human glioma cell lines we examined. By integrated bioinformatics analysis and experimental confirmation, we identified SNAI2, which is often up-regulated in glioma, as a direct functional target of miR-124. Because SNAI2 has been shown to regulate stem cell functions, we examined the roles of miR-124 and SNAI2 in glioma cell stem-like traits. The results showed that overexpression of miR-124 and knockdown of SNAI2 reduced neurosphere formation, CD133(+) cell subpopulation, and stem cell marker (BMI1, Nanog, and Nestin) expression, and these effects could be rescued by re-expression of SNAI2. Furthermore, enhanced miR-124 expression significantly inhibited glioma cell invasion in vitro. Finally, stable overexpression of miR-124 and knockdown of SNAI2 inhibited the tumorigenicity and invasion of glioma cells in vivo. These findings reveal, for the first time, that the tumor suppressor activity of miR-124 could be partly due to its inhibitory effects on glioma stem-like traits and invasiveness through SNAI2.
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