JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Substituting water for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces circulating triglycerides and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese but not in overweight mexican women in a randomized controlled trial.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mexico's sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is among the highest globally. Although evidence shows that increases in SSB intake are linked with increased energy intake, weight gain, and cardiometabolic risks, few randomized clinical trials have been conducted in adults.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic contribution to postpartum haemorrhage in Swedish population: cohort study of 466,686 births.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the familial clustering of postpartum haemorrhage in the Swedish population, and to quantify the relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects.
Related JoVE Video
Antidepressant use in pregnancy and the risk of cardiac defects.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Whether the use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of congenital cardiac defects is uncertain. In particular, there are concerns about a possible association between paroxetine use and right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and between sertraline use and ventricular septal defects.
Related JoVE Video
Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy and the Risk of Congenital Malformations: A Cohort Study.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic hypertension is a common medical condition in pregnancy. The purpose of the study is to examine the association between maternal chronic hypertension and the risk of congenital malformations in the offspring.
Related JoVE Video
The Wnt receptor Ryk reduces neuronal and cell survival capacity by repressing FOXO activity during the early phases of mutant huntingtin pathogenicity.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Wnt receptor Ryk is an evolutionary-conserved protein important during neuronal differentiation through several mechanisms, including ?-secretase cleavage and nuclear translocation of its intracellular domain (Ryk-ICD). Although the Wnt pathway may be neuroprotective, the role of Ryk in neurodegenerative disease remains unknown. We found that Ryk is up-regulated in neurons expressing mutant huntingtin (HTT) in several models of Huntington's disease (HD). Further investigation in Caenorhabditis elegans and mouse striatal cell models of HD provided a model in which the early-stage increase of Ryk promotes neuronal dysfunction by repressing the neuroprotective activity of the longevity-promoting factor FOXO through a noncanonical mechanism that implicates the Ryk-ICD fragment and its binding to the FOXO co-factor ?-catenin. The Ryk-ICD fragment suppressed neuroprotection by lin-18/Ryk loss-of-function in expanded-polyQ nematodes, repressed FOXO transcriptional activity, and abolished ?-catenin protection of mutant htt striatal cells against cell death vulnerability. Additionally, Ryk-ICD was increased in the nucleus of mutant htt cells, and reducing ?-secretase PS1 levels compensated for the cytotoxicity of full-length Ryk in these cells. These findings reveal that the Ryk-ICD pathway may impair FOXO protective activity in mutant polyglutamine neurons, suggesting that neurons are unable to efficiently maintain function and resist disease from the earliest phases of the pathogenic process in HD.
Related JoVE Video
Increase in prescription opioid use during pregnancy among Medicaid-enrolled women.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report the prevalence of prescription opioid use and evaluate the trends in a large cohort of Medicaid-enrolled pregnant women.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of circulating and endothelial progenitor cells in patients with extreme-duration type 1 diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We characterized and correlated endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) with lack of vascular complications in the Joslin Medalist Study in patients with type 1 diabetes for 50 years or longer.
Related JoVE Video
Alteration of bioelectrically-controlled processes in the embryo: a teratogenic mechanism for anticonvulsants.
Reprod. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Maternal use of anticonvulsants during the first trimester of pregnancy has been associated with an elevated risk of major congenital malformations in the offspring. Whether the increased risk is caused by the specific pharmacological mechanisms of certain anticonvulsants, the underlying epilepsy, or common genetic or environmental risk factors shared by epilepsy and malformations has been controversial. We hypothesize that anticonvulsant therapies during pregnancy that attain more successful inhibition of neurotransmission might lead to both better seizure control in the mother and stronger alteration of bioelectrically-controlled processes in the embryo that result in structural malformations. We propose that development of pharmaceuticals that do not alter cell resting transmembrane voltage levels could result in safer drugs.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women with systemic inflammatory diseases: a population-based cohort study.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have suggested a potential risk of cervical cancer in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases (SID) such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Related JoVE Video
Prescription of antihypertensive medications during pregnancy in the UK.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to describe the management of antihypertensive medications in pregnancy by general practitioners in the UK and compare it with current guidelines.
Related JoVE Video
DKWSLLL, a versatile DXXXLL-type signal with distinct roles in the Cu(+)-regulated trafficking of ATP7B.
Traffic
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the liver, the P-type ATPase and membrane pump ATP7B plays a crucial role in Cu(+) donation to cuproenzymes and in the elimination of excess Cu(+). ATP7B is endowed with a COOH-cytoplasmic (DE)XXXLL-type traffic signal. We find that accessory (Lys -3, Trp -2, Ser -1 and Leu +2) and canonical (D -4, Leu 0 and Leu +1) residues confer the DKWSLLL signal with the versatility required for the Cu(+)-regulated cycling of ATP7B between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane (PM). The separate mutation of these residues caused a disruption of the signal, resulting in different ATP7B distribution phenotypes. These phenotypes indicate the key roles of specific residues at separate steps of ATP7B trafficking, including sorting at the TGN, transport from the TGN to the PM and its endocytosis, and recycling to the TGN and PM. The distinct roles of ATP7B in the TGN and PM and the variety of phenotypes caused by the mutation of the canonical and accessory residues of the DKWSLLL signal can explain the separate or joined presentation of Wilson's cuprotoxicosis and the dysfunction of the cuproenzymes that accept Cu(+) at the TGN.
Related JoVE Video
Developing a systematic approach to safer medication use during pregnancy: summary of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--convened meeting.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To address information gaps that limit informed clinical decisions on medication use in pregnancy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) solicited expert input on a draft prototype outlining a systematic approach to evaluating the quality and strength of existing evidence for associated risks. The draft prototype outlined a process for the systematic review of available evidence and deliberations by a panel of experts to inform clinical decision making for managing health conditions in pregnancy. At an expert meeting convened by the CDC in January 2013, participants divided into working groups discussed decision points within the prototype. This report summarizes their discussions of best practices for formulating an expert review process, developing evidence summaries and treatment guidance, and disseminating information. There is clear recognition of current knowledge gaps and a strong collaboration of federal partners, academic experts, and professional organizations willing to work together toward safer medication use during pregnancy.
Related JoVE Video
Validity of maternal and infant outcomes within nationwide Medicaid data.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study is to assess the validity of preeclampsia, congenital cardiac malformations, and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) diagnoses in the US Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX), a nationwide health care utilization database that may be useful for perinatal research.
Related JoVE Video
Patterns of opioid utilization in pregnancy in a large cohort of commercial insurance beneficiaries in the United States.
Anesthesiology
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are few data regarding the utilization of opioids during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence and patterns of opioid use in a large cohort of pregnant women who were commercial insurance beneficiaries.
Related JoVE Video
Trends in antiretroviral drug use during pregnancy among HIV-infected women on medicaid: 2000-2007.
AIDS Patient Care STDS
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Optimal use of antiretroviral drugs by pregnant women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is crucial to treat maternal HIV infection and prevent perinatal transmission of the virus effectively. Our goal was to describe national trends of antiretroviral (ARV) use during pregnancy among HIV-infected women living in the U.S. and enrolled in Medicaid. We used the 2000-2007 Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) files to identify our study cohort. ARV use was defined as the dispensing of at least one ARV drug prescription during pregnancy based on Medicaid pharmacy claims. The prevalence of HIV was calculated, and temporal trends of ARV use during pregnancy were compared to the U.S. perinatal treatment guidelines. Predictors of ARV use during pregnancy were assessed using logistic regression models. From 1,106,757 pregnancies (955,251 women), 3083 (2856 women, 0.28%) were identified as HIV positive. We found striking regional variations in the prevalence of HIV and ARV prescription dispensing among pregnant women. The states with the highest HIV prevalence were Washington DC (5.8%), Maryland (0.90%), and New York (0.89%); all other states had a prevalence below 0.5%. A substantial fraction of women did not have any ARV dispensing throughout pregnancy (637 of 3083 (21%) pregnancies), and women with limited health care utilization were the least likely to have ARV dispensings. This finding calls for further research to better characterize HIV-positive women who are enrolled in Medicaid prior to pregnancy and yet have no ARV prescriptions so that appropriate interventions can be implemented.
Related JoVE Video
Studies with many covariates and few outcomes: selecting covariates and implementing propensity-score-based confounding adjustments.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Propensity scores are useful for confounding adjustment in the commonly observed setting of many potential confounders, frequent exposure, and rare events. However, with few exposed outcomes to inform covariate selection and many candidate confounders, optimal approaches to construct and implement propensity-score-based confounding adjustment remain unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Association between topiramate and zonisamide use during pregnancy and low birth weight.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the possible effects of topiramate and zonisamide use during pregnancy on fetal growth.
Related JoVE Video
High concentrations of myeloperoxidase in the equine uterus as an indicator of endometritis.
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intraluminal fluid and excessive abnormal hyperedema are regularly used for the diagnosis of endometritis in the mare, which is routinely confirmed by the presence of neutrophils on endometrial smears. Studies show a relation between neutrophils and myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme contained in and released by neutrophils during degranulation or after cell lysis. This enzyme has been found in many fluids and tissues, and associated with different inflammatory pathologies in the horse. The aims of this study were to assess the presence and concentration of MPO in the equine uterus, and to investigate its relation with neutrophils, and other clinical signs of endometritis. Mares (n = 51) were evaluated for the presence of intraluminal fluid and excessive endometrial edema before breeding, and a small volume lavage and cytology samples were obtained. From 69 cycles, supernatant of the uterine flushes was analyzed with a specific equine MPO ELISA assay to measure MPO concentration. Cytology samples were used for the diagnosis of endometritis. Myeloperoxidase was present in the uterus of all estrus mares in highly variable concentrations. Myeloperoxidase concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in samples with positive cytologies and in the presence of intraluminal fluid. Occasionally, some samples with negative cytologies showed high MPO concentration, but the opposite was never observed. Cycles presenting hyperedema weren't associated with high concentration of MPO, intraluminal fluid, or positive cytology, making it a poor diagnostic tool of endometritis.
Related JoVE Video
A novel Isospora species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from warblers (Passeriformes: Parulidae) of Costa Rica.
J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Five of 16 (31%) rufous-capped warblers (Basileuterus rufifrons) and 2 of 5 (40%) ovenbirds ( Seiurus aurocapilla ) sampled from Costa Rica were positive for a novel species of Isospora. Oocysts have a thin, smooth, double-layered, colorless wall and measure 22.3 ?m ± 1.6 ?m × 24.3 ?m ± 1.5 ?m (19-25 ?m × 21-28 ?m) with an average length-width (L/W) ratio of 1.0 (1-1.3). Oocyst residuum and micropyle are absent, but 0-4 spherical to cigar-shaped polar granules (1-2.5 ?m) are present. Sporocysts are ovoid and measure 11.8 ?m ± 0.9 ?m × 16 ?m ± 1.7 ?m (10-14 ?m × 12-19 ?m) with an average L/W ratio of 1.6 (1.0-1.9). A knob-like Stieda body continuous with the sporocyst wall and a trapezoidal compartmentalized substieda body are present. Each sporocyst contained 4 sporozoites and a diffuse sporocyst residuum consisting of many variable-sized granules, some as large as 2 ?m. This is the second description of an Isospora species in New World warblers (Passeriformes: Parulidae) and the first report of Isospora from both the rufous-capped warbler and ovenbird.
Related JoVE Video
First trimester exposure to antiretroviral therapy and risk of birth defects.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of birth defects, but the evidence remains inconclusive.
Related JoVE Video
Could wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) be reservoirs for Leishmania infantum in the focus of Madrid, Spain?
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Xenodiagnosis has previously proved that hares (Lepus granatensis) from a focus of leishmaniasis in the southwestern Madrid region (Spain) are infective to Phlebotomus perniciosus, the only vector in the area, thus playing a probable role as active reservoirs in a sylvatic transmission cycle linked to the usual domestic one. Although actions have been taken to reduce the population of this lagomorph, a high population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is present in the area, which shows detectable anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies and a large number of individuals with DNA of this parasite. With the aim to elucidate the role of this lagomorph in the focus, xenodiagnostic studies carried out with wild rabbits captured in the area demonstrate that they are able to transmit L. infantum to P. perniciosus. Moreover, the study of blood meal preferences of P. perniciosus caught in the focus during and entomological survey shows strong evidence that rabbits are contributing to the maintenance of a high sand fly population in the area. These findings suggest that wild rabbits could play some role in Leishmania transmission.
Related JoVE Video
Early activation of pro-fibrotic WNT5A in sepsis-induced acute lung injury.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
IntroductionThe mechanisms of lung repair and fibrosis in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are poorly known. Since the role of WNT/ß-catenin signaling appears to be central to lung healing and fibrosis, we hypothesized that this pathway is activated very early in the lungs after sepsis.MethodsWe tested our hypothesis using a three-step experimental design: (1) in vitro lung cell injury model with human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B and lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) cells exposed to endotoxin for 18 hours; (2) an animal model of sepsis-induced ARDS induced by cecal ligation and perforation, and (3) lung biopsies from patients who died within the first 24 hours of septic ARDS. We examined changes in protein levels of target genes involved in the Wnt pathway, including WNT5A, non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41) ß-catenin, matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7), cyclin D1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Finally, we validated the main gene targets of this pathway in experimental animals and human lungs.ResultsProtein levels of WNT5A, non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41) ß-catenin, total ß-catenin, MMP7, cyclin D1, and VEGF increased after endotoxin stimulation in BEAS-2B and MRC-5 cells. Lungs from septic animals and from septic humans demonstrated acute lung inflammation, collagen deposition, and marked increase of WNT5A and MMP7 protein levels.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that the WNT/ß-catenin signaling pathway is activated very early in sepsis-induced ARDS and could play an important role in lung repair and fibrosis. Modulation of this pathway might represent a potential target for treatment for septic and ARDS patients.
Related JoVE Video
Triggers of spontaneous preterm delivery--why today?
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our goal is to study the triggers of spontaneous preterm delivery using a case-crossover design.
Related JoVE Video
Striatal vessels receive phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase-rich innervation from midbrain dopaminergic neurons.
Front Neuroanat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nowadays it is assumed that besides its roles in neuronal processing, dopamine (DA) is also involved in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. However, studies on the hemodynamic actions of DA have been mainly focused on the cerebral cortex, but the possibility that vessels in deeper brain structures receive dopaminergic axons and the origin of these axons have not been investigated. Bearing in mind the evidence of changes in the blood flow of basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD), and the pivotal role of the dopaminergic mesostriatal pathway in the pathophysiology of this disease, here we studied whether striatal vessels receive inputs from midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The injection of an anterograde neuronal tracer in combination with immunohistochemistry for dopaminergic, vascular and astroglial markers, and dopaminergic lesions, revealed that midbrain dopaminergic axons are in close apposition to striatal vessels and perivascular astrocytes. These axons form dense perivascular plexuses restricted to striatal regions in rats and monkeys. Interestingly, they are intensely immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylated at Ser19 and Ser40 residues. The presence of phosphorylated TH in vessel terminals indicates they are probably the main source of basal TH activity in the striatum, and that after activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, DA release onto vessels precedes that onto neurons. Furthermore, the relative weight of this "vascular component" within the mesostriatal pathway suggests that it plays a relevant role in the pathophysiology of PD.
Related JoVE Video
Experimental feeding of Hydrilla verticillata colonized by stigonematales cyanobacteria induces vacuolar myelinopathy in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vacuolar myelinopathy (VM) is a neurologic disease primarily found in birds that occurs when wildlife ingest submerged aquatic vegetation colonized by an uncharacterized toxin-producing cyanobacterium (hereafter "UCB" for "uncharacterized cyanobacterium"). Turtles are among the closest extant relatives of birds and many species directly and/or indirectly consume aquatic vegetation. However, it is unknown whether turtles can develop VM. We conducted a feeding trial to determine whether painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) would develop VM after feeding on Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), colonized by the UCB (Hydrilla is the most common "host" of UCB). We hypothesized turtles fed Hydrilla colonized by the UCB would exhibit neurologic impairment and vacuolation of nervous tissues, whereas turtles fed Hydrilla free of the UCB would not. The ability of Hydrilla colonized by the UCB to cause VM (hereafter, "toxicity") was verified by feeding it to domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) or necropsy of field collected American coots (Fulica americana) captured at the site of Hydrilla collections. We randomly assigned ten wild-caught turtles into toxic or non-toxic Hydrilla feeding groups and delivered the diets for up to 97 days. Between days 82 and 89, all turtles fed toxic Hydrilla displayed physical and/or neurologic impairment. Histologic examination of the brain and spinal cord revealed vacuolations in all treatment turtles. None of the control turtles exhibited neurologic impairment or had detectable brain or spinal cord vacuolations. This is the first evidence that freshwater turtles can become neurologically impaired and develop vacuolations after consuming toxic Hydrilla colonized with the UCB. The southeastern United States, where outbreaks of VM occur regularly and where vegetation colonized by the UCB is common, is also a global hotspot of freshwater turtle diversity. Our results suggest that further investigations into the effect of the putative UCB toxin on wild turtles in situ are warranted.
Related JoVE Video
Invited Commentary: Composite Outcomes as an Attempt to Escape From Selection Bias and Related Paradoxes.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This commentary reviews the recent history of explanations to crossover paradoxes such as the birth weight and gestational age paradoxes, with a special emphasis on the current proposal by Kramer et al. in this issue of the Journal (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;000(0):000-000). We contend that the causal structure of these paradoxes is essentially identical to that of several well-known selection biases. We then consider the pros and cons of using composite outcomes to circumvent these selection biases.
Related JoVE Video
Development of a comorbidity index for use in obstetric patients.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To develop and validate a maternal comorbidity index to predict severe maternal morbidity, defined as the occurrence of acute maternal end-organ injury, or mortality.
Related JoVE Video
Use of antidepressants near delivery and risk of postpartum hemorrhage: cohort study of low income women in the United States.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine whether use of serotonin or non-serotonin reuptake inhibitors near to delivery is associated with postpartum hemorrhage.
Related JoVE Video
Patterns of recurrence of postpartum hemorrhage in a large population-based cohort.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although a history of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a recognized risk factor for PPH in subsequent pregnancies, little is known about how the risk accumulates over multiple pregnancies, how recurrence varies by PPH subtype, and whether recurrence can be explained by chronic maternal conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of ischemic cerebrovascular and coronary events in adult users of anticonvulsant medications in routine care settings.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Older-generation anticonvulsants that highly induce cytochrome P450 enzyme system activity produce metabolic abnormalities that may increase cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of ischemic cerebrovascular and coronary events in adult new users of anticonvulsants that highly induce cytochrome P450 activity compared with other anticonvulsant agents, as observed in a routine care setting.
Related JoVE Video
Antidepressant use and risk for preeclampsia.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prior studies suggest that women who use antidepressants during pregnancy have an increased risk for preeclampsia, yet the comparative safety of specific antidepressants remains unclear. US nationwide Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) data have not been used to study medication safety during pregnancy.
Related JoVE Video
Use of decongestants during pregnancy and the risk of birth defects.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies suggested that early pregnancy exposure to specific oral decongestants increases the risks of several birth defects. Using January 1993-January 2010 data from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study, we tested those hypotheses among 12,734 infants with malformations (cases) and 7,606 nonmalformed control infants in the United States and Canada. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for specific birth defects, with controlling for potential confounders. Findings did not replicate several hypotheses but did support 3 previously reported associations: phenylephrine and endocardial cushion defect (odds ratio = 8.0; 95% confidence interval: 2.5, 25.3; 4 exposed cases), phenylpropanolamine and ear defects (odds ratio = 7.8; 95% confidence interval: 2.2, 27.2; 4 exposed cases), and phenylpropanolamine and pyloric stenosis (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 8.8; 6 exposed cases). Hypothesis-generating analyses involving multiple comparisons identified a small number of associations with oral and intranasal decongestants. Accumulating evidence supports associations between first-trimester use of specific oral and possibly intranasal decongestants and the risk of some infrequent specific birth defects.
Related JoVE Video
The risk of congenital malformations associated with exposure to ?-blockers early in pregnancy: a meta-analysis.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?-blockers are commonly used during the first trimester of pregnancy. Data about risks of congenital anomalies in offspring have not been summarized. We performed a meta-analysis to determine teratogenicity of ?-blockers in early pregnancy. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Clinical Trials, and hand search. Meta-analyses were performed using random-effects models based on odds ratios (ORs). Prespecified subgroup analyses were performed to explore heterogeneity. Randomized controlled trials or observational studies examining risks of congenital malformations associated with first trimester ?-blocker exposure compared with no exposure were included. Thirteen population-based case-control or cohort studies were identified. Based on meta-analyses, first-trimester oral ?-blocker use showed no increased odds of all or major congenital anomalies (OR=1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.10; 5 studies). However, in analyses examining organ-specific malformations, increased odds of cardiovascular defects (OR=2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-3.42; 4 studies), cleft lip/palate (OR=3.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-5.43; 2 studies), and neural tube defects (OR=3.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-10.67; 2 studies) were observed. The effects on severe hypospadias were nonsignificant (1 study). Causality is difficult to interpret given the small number of heterogeneous studies and possibility of biases. Given the frequency of this exposure in pregnancy, further research is needed.
Related JoVE Video
Notch and VEGF pathways play distinct but complementary roles in tumor angiogenesis.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Anti-angiogenesis is a validated strategy to treat cancer, with efficacy in controlling both primary tumor growth and metastasis. The role of the Notch family of proteins in tumor angiogenesis is still emerging, but recent data suggest that Notch signaling may function in the physiologic response to loss of VEGF signaling, and thus participate in tumor adaptation to VEGF inhibitors.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of a restriction fragment length enzyme assay for differentiation of haemoproteus and Plasmodium across a standard region of the mitochondrial genome.
J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract : Avian hemosporidian parasites are a genetically diverse group of parasites with a near cosmopolitan distribution. Over the past 2 decades, several PCR protocols have been designed to detect these parasites. The majority of these protocols amplify part of or the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. However, many of these protocols co-amplify 2 genera (Haemoproteus and Plasmodium), making it impossible to determine which genus is amplified without post-PCR analysis. A uniform database (MalAvi), containing sequences amplified with the primers HAEMF and HAEMR2, has been developed to increase comparability across studies. We analyzed sequences from the MalAvi database and new sequences and found that digestion with EcoRV could be used to distinguish Haemoproteus from the majority of Plasmodium sequences. In addition, we tested 220 wild birds from Costa Rica and the United States for avian hemosporidians and assessed the ability of EcoRV to distinguish these 2 genera. Thirty-six positive samples were sequenced to confirm the restriction profiles, and we also analyzed 63 new hemosporidian sequences from ongoing studies in the United States for the restriction site. Among these new samples, all of the 85 Haemoproteus (subgenus Parahaemoproteus) and 14 Plasmodium were distinguishable. Overall, 887 of 898 (98.8%) sequences from our studies and the MalAvi database were assigned to the correct genus. Of these samples, all Haemoproteus samples were correctly identified and all but 11 Plasmodium samples were correctly identified by the EcoRV assay. Overall, this restriction enzyme protocol is able to quickly and efficiently classify these 2 genera of avian malarial parasites and would be useful for researchers interested in identifying parasites to genus-level, studies focused on sequence analysis of only a single genus, or for detecting co-infections that would need cloning prior to sequence analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Medications in the first trimester of pregnancy: most common exposures and critical gaps in understanding fetal risk.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine which medications are most commonly used by women in the first trimester of pregnancy and identify the critical gaps in information about fetal risk for those medications.
Related JoVE Video
Methylergonovine maleate and the risk of myocardial ischemia and infarction.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the risks of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) that are associated with methylergonovine maleate (Methergine; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Plantation, FL) use in a large database of inpatient delivery admissions in the United States.
Related JoVE Video
Do shade-grown coffee plantations pose a disease risk for wild birds?
Ecohealth
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Shade-grown coffee plantations are often promoted as a conservation strategy for wild birds. However, these agro-ecosystems are actively managed for food production, which may alter bird behaviors or interactions that could change bird health, compared to natural forest. To examine whether there is a difference between the health parameters of wild birds inhabiting shade-grown coffee plantations and natural forest, we evaluated birds in Costa Rica for (1) their general body condition, (2) antibodies to pathogens, (paramyxovirus and Mycoplasma spp.), and (3) the prevalence and diversity of endo-, ecto-, and hemoparasites. We measured exposure to Mycoplasma spp. and paramyxovirus because these are pathogens that could have been introduced with domestic poultry, one mechanism by which these landscapes could be detrimental to wild birds. We captured 1,561 birds representing 75 species. Although seasonal factors influenced body condition, we did not find bird general body condition to be different. A total of 556 birds of 31 species were tested for antibodies against paramyxovirus-1. Of these, five birds tested positive, four of which were from shade coffee. Out of 461 other tests for pathogens (for antibodies and nucleotide detection), none were positive. Pterolichus obtusus, the feather mite of chickens, was found on 15 birds representing two species and all were from shade-coffee plantations. Larvated eggs of Syngamus trachea, a nematode typically associated with chickens, were found in four birds captured in shade coffee and one captured in forest. For hemoparasites, a total of 1,121 blood smears from 68 bird species were examined, and only one species showed a higher prevalence of infection in shade coffee. Our results indicate that shade-coffee plantations do not pose a significant health risk to forest birds, but at least two groups of pathogens may deserve further attention: Haemoproteus spp. and the diversity and identity of endoparasites.
Related JoVE Video
Low urine vascular endothelial growth factor levels are associated with mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and retinopathy of prematurity.
Neonatology
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Organ-specific vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is decreased during the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) several weeks before either disease can be diagnosed. Early measurement of organ-specific tissue VEGF levels might allow identification of infants at high risk for these diseases, but is not clinically feasible. Urine VEGF is easily measured and useful in early diagnosis of several diseases.
Related JoVE Video
The pseudokinase tribbles homologue-3 plays a crucial role in cannabinoid anticancer action.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of marijuana, and other cannabinoids inhibit tumor growth in animal models of cancer. This effect relies, at least in part, on the up-regulation of several endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins including the pseudokinase tribbles homologue-3 (TRIB3), which leads in turn to the inhibition of the AKT/mTORC1 axis and the subsequent stimulation of autophagy-mediated apoptosis in tumor cells. Here, we took advantage of the use of cells derived from Trib3-deficient mice to investigate the precise mechanisms by which TRIB3 regulates the anti-cancer action of THC. Our data show that RasV(12)/E1A-transformed embryonic fibroblasts derived from Trib3-deficient mice are resistant to THC-induced cell death. We also show that genetic inactivation of this protein abolishes the ability of THC to inhibit the phosphorylation of AKT and several of its downstream targets, including those involved in the regulation of the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) axis. Our data support the idea that THC-induced TRIB3 up-regulation inhibits AKT phosphorylation by regulating the accessibility of AKT to its upstream activatory kinase (the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2; mTORC2). Finally, we found that tumors generated by inoculation of Trib3-deficient cells in nude mice are resistant to THC anticancer action. Altogether, the observations presented here strongly support that TRIB3 plays a crucial role on THC anti-neoplastic activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Lipid Metabolism in Cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Challenges of using primary care electronic medical records in the UK to study medications in pregnancy.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper aimed to assess the prescription of medications during pregnancy by primary care physicians in the UK.
Related JoVE Video
National trends in antidepressant medication treatment among publicly insured pregnant women.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The risk of depression in women is greatest at childbearing age. We sought to examine and explain national trends in antidepressant use in pregnant women.
Related JoVE Video
Medications as a potential source of exposure to phthalates among women of childbearing age.
Reprod. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the association between the use of medications potentially containing phthalates and urinary concentrations of specific phthalate metabolites around conception.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of complications after a peptic ulcer diagnosis: effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few studies have evaluated the prevention of upper gastrointestinal complications (UGIC; bleeding or perforation) in patients with uncomplicated peptic ulcer (PU). We assessed the effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) in a non-randomized setting. To maximize exchangeability of exposed and unexposed groups we restricted the study to patients with a new diagnosis of PU, i.e., a clear indication. To minimize selection bias we mimicked an intention to treat approach by assessing the effect of PPI prescription after PU diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Coffee agroforests remain beneficial for neotropical bird community conservation across seasons.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Coffee agroforestry systems and secondary forests have been shown to support similar bird communities but comparing these habitat types are challenged by potential biases due to differences in detectability between habitats. Furthermore, seasonal dynamics may influence bird communities differently in different habitat types and therefore seasonal effects should be considered in comparisons. To address these issues, we incorporated seasonal effects and factors potentially affecting bird detectability into models to compare avian community composition and dynamics between coffee agroforests and secondary forest fragments. In particular, we modeled community composition and community dynamics of bird functional groups based on habitat type (coffee agroforest vs. secondary forest) and season while accounting for variation in capture probability (i.e. detectability). The models we used estimated capture probability to be similar between habitat types for each dietary guild, but omnivores had a lower capture probability than frugivores and insectivores. Although apparent species richness was higher in coffee agroforest than secondary forest, model results indicated that omnivores and insectivores were more common in secondary forest when accounting for heterogeneity in capture probability. Our results largely support the notion that shade-coffee can serve as a surrogate habitat for secondary forest with respect to avian communities. Small coffee agroforests embedded within the typical tropical countryside matrix of secondary forest patches and small-scale agriculture, therefore, may host avian communities that resemble those of surrounding secondary forest, and may serve as viable corridors linking patches of forest within these landscapes. This information is an important step toward effective landscape-scale conservation in Neotropical agricultural landscapes.
Related JoVE Video
Harnessing the Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) to Evaluate Medications in Pregnancy: Design Considerations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the absence of clinical trial data, large post-marketing observational studies are essential to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of medications during pregnancy. We identified a cohort of pregnancies ending in live birth within the 2000-2007 Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX). Herein, we provide a blueprint to guide investigators who wish to create similar cohorts from healthcare utilization data and we describe the limitations in detail.
Related JoVE Video
[Prevention of infant obesity].
Gac Med Mex
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem, demanding urgent and clear defined actions in order to stop the rapid increase on its prevalence and all health consequences associated. The best strategy to stop the rapid increase in childhood obesity is to prevent it. In order to do so, multiple defined actions between government, industry, community organizations, schools, families and health-care professionals. The general and family physicians, pediatricians, nurses, dieticians and other clinicians should be engaged, as a key actor, in the prevention of childhood obesity. The health-care professionals have frequent opportunities to inform to children, youth and their parents about the importance of prevention of obesity and to promote and engage them in healthy life styles, particularly, a healthy diet and regular physical activity.
Related JoVE Video
Selected cardiopulmonary values and baroreceptor reflex in conscious green iguanas (Iguana iguana).
Am. J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine selected cardiopulmonary values and baroreceptor response in conscious green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and to evaluate the use of blood gas analysis and pulse oximetry in this species.
Related JoVE Video
Beyond the intention-to-treat in comparative effectiveness research.
Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The intention-to-treat comparison is the primary, if not the only, analytic approach of many randomized clinical trials.
Related JoVE Video
A new Isospora species of passerines in the family Turdidae from Costa Rica.
J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Seven thrush species (Turdidae) from Costa Rica were examined for intestinal parasites; 21 of the 84 (25%) birds sampled were positive for a new species of Isospora. Oocysts of Isospora zorzali n. sp. have thin, smooth, double, and colorless walls; they measure 19.7 ± 1.5 µm × 18.6 ± 1.4 µm (16-24 µm × 15-21 µm), with an average length-width ratio of 1.1 µm. Sporocysts are ovoid, measure 8.5 ± 1.1 µm × 14.5 ± 1.7 µm (7-11 µm × 11-18 µm) with an average length-width ratio of 1.7 µm. A nipple-like stieda body continuous with the sporocyst wall is present, but no substieda body was observed. A sporocyst residuum consisting of large equal sized granules was observed either clumped together or diffusely. The sporocysts fill the entire oocysts with little to no open space observed. This is the first report of Isospora species from any of the sampled host species and also the first report from any species of thrush in Costa Rica.
Related JoVE Video
Stimulation of ALK by the growth factor midkine renders glioma cells resistant to autophagy-mediated cell death.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active component of marijuana, promotes cancer cell death via autophagy stimulation. We find that activation of the tyrosine kinase receptor ALK by its ligand midkine interferes with the signaling mechanism by which THC promotes autophagy-mediated glioma cell death.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence, trends, and outcomes of chronic hypertension: a nationwide sample of delivery admissions.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We sought to define the prevalence, trends, and outcomes of primary and secondary chronic hypertension in a population-based sample of deliveries.
Related JoVE Video
Isospora troglodytes n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a new coccidian species from wrens of Costa Rica.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nineteen (91%) of 21 rufous-and-white wrens (Thryothorus rufalbus) and five (71%) of seven plain wrens (Cantorchilus modestus) sampled from Costa Rica were positive for a new species of Isospora. Oocysts have a thin, smooth, double, colorless wall and measure 20.1 ± 1.4 × 23.4 ± 1.5 ?m (18-24 × 20-26 ?m) with an average length-width ratio of 1.2 ?m. Sporocysts are ovoid, measure 9.5 ± 0.9 × 15.5 ± 1.1 ?m (7-12 × 12-18 ?m) with an average length-width ratio of 1.6 ?m. A nipple-like steida body continuous with the sporocyst wall and a prominent oval-shaped substeida body are present. In addition to the four sporozoites, a single compact sporocyst residuum was present in each sporocyst. This is the first description of an Isospora species from the family Troglodytidae and the first report of Isospora from the rufous-and-white wren and plain wren.
Related JoVE Video
Medications used to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and the risk of selected birth defects.
Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) occurs in up to 80% of pregnant women, but its association with birth outcomes is not clear. Several medications are used for the treatment of NVP; however, data are limited on their possible associations with birth defects.
Related JoVE Video
Fetal effects of anticonvulsant polytherapies: different risks from different drug combinations.
Arch. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the frequency of malformations among infants born to women who had taken lamotrigine or carbamazepine as part of polytherapy during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Related JoVE Video
Suboptimal gastroprotective coverage of NSAID use and the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers: an observational study using three European databases.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gastro-protective agents (GPA) are co-prescribed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) to lower the risk of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) events. It is unknown to what extent the protective effect is influenced by therapy adherence.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of phthalates in medications and dietary supplement formulations in the United States and Canada.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In animal studies, some ortho-phthalates, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), have been shown to be reproductive and developmental toxicants. Human studies show widespread population exposure to background levels of phthalates. Limited evidence suggests that particularly high exposure levels may result from orally ingested medicinal products containing phthalates as excipients (inactive ingredients).
Related JoVE Video
Patterns of medication use during pregnancy in rheumatoid arthritis.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To characterize therapies prescribed during pregnancy to women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Related JoVE Video
Polyplex-microbubble hybrids for ultrasound-guided plasmid DNA delivery to solid tumors.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microbubble ultrasound contrast agents are being developed as image-guided gene carriers for targeted delivery in vivo. In this study, novel polyplex-microbubbles were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for systemic circulation and tumor transfection. Branched polyethylenimine (PEI; 25 kDa) was modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG; 5 kDa), thiolated and covalently attached to maleimide groups on lipid-coated microbubbles. The PEI-microbubbles demonstrated increasingly positive surface charge and DNA loading capacity with increasing maleimide content. The in vivo ultrasound contrast persistence of PEI-microbubbles was measured in the healthy mouse kidney, and a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model accounting for free and adherent microbubbles was developed to describe the anomalous time-intensity curves. The model suggested that PEI loading dramatically reduced free circulation and increased nonspecific adhesion to the vasculature. However, DNA loading to form polyplex-microbubbles increased circulation in the bloodstream and decreased nonspecific adhesion. PEI-microbubbles coupled to a luciferase bioluminescence reporter plasmid DNA were shown to transfect tumors implanted in the mouse kidney. Site-specific delivery was achieved using ultrasound applied over the tumor area following bolus injection of the DNA/PEI-microbubbles. In vivo imaging showed over 10-fold higher bioluminescence from the tumor region compared to untreated tissue. Ex vivo analysis of excised tumors showed greater than 40-fold higher expression in tumor tissue than non-sonicated control (heart) tissue. These results suggest that the polyplex-microbubble platform offers improved control of DNA loading and packaging suitable for ultrasound-guided tissue transfection.
Related JoVE Video
A liberation psychology approach to acculturative integration of migrant populations.
Am J Community Psychol
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper describes an acculturative integration approach that stresses the contribution of liberation psychology. Immigrant integration is a challenge for receiving countries in the Western world due to the frequent asymmetrical and oppressive conditions suffered by newcomers in their new settlements. The cross-cultural perspective connects integration with psychological acculturation, emphasizing harmony between acquisitions of the new culture while maintaining cultural heritage, and creating opportunities for intergroup relationships. In turn, liberation psychology permits an understanding of the acculturative transition as an empowerment and self-construction process by which immigrants acquire a new vision of the world and of themselves, transforming both structural conditions and themselves. From this perspective we conceptualize acculturative integration as the process by which newcomers become an accepted part of the new society through a reflexive and evaluative process, changing their social references and position, rebuilding their social and personal resources, and achieving a new agency in coherence with their new challenges and goals. In this process, they acquire critical thinking about unequal conditions, gain capacities to respond to the inequalities, and take effective actions to confront them. We illustrate this process using the narratives of nine Moroccan women who are living in asymmetrical and oppressive local contexts in Andalusia, the southern-most region of Spain.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase 2 reduces tumor metastasis and inflammatory signaling during blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockade is an effective therapy for human cancer, yet virtually all neoplasms resume primary tumor growth or metastasize during therapy. Mechanisms of progression have been proposed to include genes that control vascular remodeling and are elicited by hypoperfusion, such as the inducible enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We have previously shown that COX-2 inhibition by the celecoxib analog SC236 attenuates perivascular stromal cell recruitment and tumor growth. We therefore examined the effect of combined SC236 and VEGF blockade, using the metastasizing orthotopic SKNEP1 model of pediatric cancer. Combined treatment perturbed tumor vessel remodeling and macrophage recruitment, but did not further limit primary tumor growth as compared to VEGF blockade alone. However, combining SC236 and VEGF inhibition significantly reduced the incidence of lung metastasis, suggesting a distinct effect on prometastatic mechanisms. We found that SC236 limited tumor cell viability and migration in vitro, with effects enhanced by hypoxia, but did not change tumor proliferation or matrix metalloproteinase expression in vivo. Gene set expression analysis (GSEA) indicated that the addition of SC236 to VEGF inhibition significantly reduced expression of gene sets linked to macrophage mobilization. Perivascular recruitment of macrophages induced by VEGF blockade was disrupted in tumors treated with combined VEGF- and COX-2-inhibition. Collectively, these findings suggest that during VEGF blockade COX-2 may restrict metastasis by limiting both prometastatic behaviors in individual tumor cells and mobilization of macrophages to the tumor vasculature.
Related JoVE Video
Drug certainty-response in interview-based studies.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Imperfect recall of exposure timing challenges the ascertainment of medications in interview-based studies.
Related JoVE Video
Systematic review of peptic ulcer disease incidence rates: do studies without validation provide reliable estimates?
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Incidence rate (IR) estimates for peptic ulcer disease (PUD) vary widely among studies. We conducted a systematic review to quantify and examine the discrepancies.
Related JoVE Video
Acid suppressants reduce risk of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients on antithrombotic or anti-inflammatory therapy.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the effect of different prevention strategies against upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in the general population and in patients on antithrombotic or anti-inflammatory treatments.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid alone and in combination with clopidogrel and other medications.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study evaluated the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) associated with use of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) alone and in combination with other gastrotoxic medications.
Related JoVE Video
Laboratory reptile surgery: principles and techniques.
J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reptiles used for research and instruction may require surgical procedures, including biopsy, coelomic device implantation, ovariectomy, orchidectomy, and esophogostomy tube placement, to accomplish research goals. Providing veterinary care for unanticipated clinical problems may require surgical techniques such as amputation, bone or shell fracture repair, and coeliotomy. Although many principles of surgery are common between mammals and reptiles, important differences in anatomy and physiology exist. Veterinarians who provide care for these species should be aware of these differences. Most reptiles undergoing surgery are small and require specific instrumentation and positioning. In addition, because of the wide variety of unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics among snakes, chelonians, and lizards, different techniques may be necessary for different reptiles. This overview describes many common reptile surgery techniques and their application for research purposes or to provide medical care to research subjects.
Related JoVE Video
Medication use during pregnancy, with particular focus on prescription drugs: 1976-2008.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of the study was to provide information on overall medication use throughout pregnancy, with particular focus on the first trimester and specific prescription medications.
Related JoVE Video
Detecting autophagy in response to ER stress signals in cancer.
Meth. Enzymol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Different physiological and pathological situations that produce alterations in the endoplasmic reticulum, lead to a condition known as ER stress. ER stress activates a complex intracellular signal transduction pathway, called unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR is tailored essentially to reestablish ER homeostasis. However, when persistent, ER stress can switch the cytoprotective functions of UPR into cell death promoting mechanisms. One of the cellular mechanisms that are regulated by ER stress is autophagy. Autophagy is a cellular process by which different cytoplasmic components including organelles are targeted for degradation to the autophagosomes. Interestingly, like ER stress, autophagy can be a protective or a cell death promoting mechanism. Recently, a variety of anticancer therapies (including those that stimulate ER stress) have been shown to activate autophagy in tumor cells, which has been proposed to either enhance cancer cell death or act as a mechanism of resistance to chemotherapy. In this chapter, we will describe some of the procedures that are currently used to analyze autophagy as well as some of the experimental approaches that can be undertaken to investigate the connection between ER stress and autophagy in cancer.
Related JoVE Video
A combined preclinical therapy of cannabinoids and temozolomide against glioma.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is highly resistant to current anticancer treatments, which makes it crucial to find new therapeutic strategies aimed at improving the poor prognosis of patients suffering from this disease. ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of marijuana, and other cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit tumor growth in animal models of cancer, including glioma, an effect that relies, at least in part, on the stimulation of autophagy-mediated apoptosis in tumor cells. Here, we show that the combined administration of THC and temozolomide (TMZ; the benchmark agent for the management of GBM) exerts a strong antitumoral action in glioma xenografts, an effect that is also observed in tumors that are resistant to TMZ treatment. Combined administration of THC and TMZ enhanced autophagy, whereas pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of this process prevented TMZ + THC-induced cell death, supporting that activation of autophagy plays a crucial role on the mechanism of action of this drug combination. Administration of submaximal doses of THC and cannabidiol (CBD; another plant-derived cannabinoid that also induces glioma cell death through a mechanism of action different from that of THC) remarkably reduces the growth of glioma xenografts. Moreover, treatment with TMZ and submaximal doses of THC and CBD produced a strong antitumoral action in both TMZ-sensitive and TMZ-resistant tumors. Altogether, our findings support that the combined administration of TMZ and cannabinoids could be therapeutically exploited for the management of GBM.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.