We discovered a novel somatic gene fusion, CD74-NRG1, by transcriptome sequencing of 25 lung adenocarcinomas of never smokers. By screening 102 lung adenocarcinomas negative for known oncogenic alterations, we found four additional fusion-positive tumors, all of which were of the invasive mucinous subtype. Mechanistically, CD74-NRG1 leads to extracellular expression of the EGF-like domain of NRG1 III-?3, thereby providing the ligand for ERBB2-ERBB3 receptor complexes. Accordingly, ERBB2 and ERBB3 expression was high in the index case, and expression of phospho-ERBB3 was specifically found in tumors bearing the fusion (P < 0.0001). Ectopic expression of CD74-NRG1 in lung cancer cell lines expressing ERBB2 and ERBB3 activated ERBB3 and the PI3K-AKT pathway, and led to increased colony formation in soft agar. Thus, CD74-NRG1 gene fusions are activating genomic alterations in invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas and may offer a therapeutic opportunity for a lung tumor subtype with, so far, no effective treatment.
The FLRT family of transmembrane proteins has been implicated in the regulation of FGF signalling, neurite outgrowth, homotypic cell sorting and cadherin-mediated adhesion. In an expression screen we identified the Netrin receptors Unc5B and Unc5D as high-affinity FLRT3 interactors. Upon overexpression, Unc5B phenocopies FLRT3 and both proteins synergize in inducing cell deadhesion in Xenopus embryos. Morpholino knock-downs of Unc5B and FLRT3 synergistically affect Xenopus development and induce morphogenetic defects. The small GTPase Rnd1, which transmits FLRT3 deadhesion activity, physically and functionally interacts with Unc5B, and mediates its effect on cell adhesion. The results suggest that FLRT3, Unc5B and Rnd1 proteins interact to modulate cell adhesion in early Xenopus development.
We used somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to generate a mouse from the nucleus of an IgG1(+) ovalbumin-specific B cell. The resulting OBI mice show generally normal B-cell development, with elevated percentages of marginal zone B cells and a reduction in B-1 B cells. Whereas OBI RAG1(-/-) mice have exclusively IgG1 anti-ovalbumin in their serum, OBI mice show elevated levels of anti-ovalbumin of nearly all isotypes 3 of the ?1 constant region in the IgH locus, indicating that class switch recombination (CSR) occurs in the absence of immunization with ovalbumin. This CSR is associated with the presence of IgM(+)IgG1(+) double producer B cells that represent <1% of total B cells, accumulate in the peritoneal cavity, and account for near-normal levels of serum IgM and IgG3.
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