Influenza causes serious and sometimes fatal disease in individuals at risk due to advanced age or immunodeficiencies. Despite progress in the development of seasonal influenza vaccines, vaccine efficacy in elderly and immunocompromised individuals remains low. We recently developed a passive immunization strategy using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to deliver a neutralizing anti-influenza antibody at the site of infection, the nasal airways. Here we show that young, old, and immunodeficient (severe combined immunodeficient [SCID]) mice that were treated intranasally with AAV9 vector expressing a modified version of the broadly neutralizing anti-influenza antibody FI6 were protected and exhibited no signs of disease following an intranasal challenge with the mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza strain A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1) (PR8) (Mt. Sinai strain). Nonvaccinated mice succumbed to the PR8 challenge due to severe weight loss. We propose that airway-directed AAV9 passive immunization against airborne infectious agents may be beneficial in elderly and immunocompromised patients, for whom there still exists an unmet need for effective vaccination against influenza.
The possibility that vaccination with adenovirus (AdV) vectors increased mucosal T cell activation remains a central hypothesis to explain the potential enhancement of HIV acquisition within the Step trial. Modeling this within rhesus macaques is complicated because human adenoviruses, including human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5), are not endogenous to macaques. Here, we tested whether vaccination with a rhesus macaque-derived adenoviral vector (simian adenovirus 7 [SAdV-7]) enhances mucosal T cell activation within rhesus macaques. Following intramuscular SAdV-7 vaccination, we observed a pronounced increase in SAdV-7-specific CD4(+) T cell responses in peripheral blood and, more dramatically, in rectal mucosa tissue. Vaccination also induced a significant increase in the frequency of activated memory CD4(+) T cells in SAdV-7- and HAdV-5-vaccinated animals in the rectal mucosa but not in peripheral blood. These fluctuations within the rectal mucosa were also associated with a pronounced decrease in the relative frequency of naive resting CD4(+) T cells. Together, these results indicate that peripheral vaccination with an AdV vector can increase the activation of mucosal CD4(+) T cells, potentially providing an experimental model to further evaluate the role of host-vector interactions in increased HIV acquisition after AdV vector vaccination.
We have identified a novel endogenous low mol wt. (15.6 kDa) protein inhibitor of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in cytosolic fraction of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. The inhibitor showed different affinities toward the ???? and ???? isozymes of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, where ?? is more sensitive than ??. The inhibitor interacted reversibly to the E1 site of the enzyme and blocked the phosphorylated intermediate formation. Circular dichroism study suggests that the inhibitor causes an alteration in the confirmation of the enzyme.
Intramuscular (IM) administration of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has entered the early stages of clinical development with some success, including the first approved gene therapy product in the West called Glybera. In preparation for broader clinical development of IM AAV vector gene therapy, we conducted detailed pre-clinical studies in mice and macaques evaluating aspects of delivery that could affect performance. We found that following IM administration of AAV8 vectors in mice, a portion of the vector reached the liver and hepatic gene expression contributed significantly to total expression of secreted transgenes. The contribution from liver could be controlled by altering injection volume and by the use of traditional (promoter) and non-traditional (tissue-specific microRNA target sites) expression control elements. Hepatic distribution of vector following IM injection was also noted in rhesus macaques. These pre-clinical data on AAV delivery should inform safe and efficient development of future AAV products.
Treatment of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (BPASMCs) with U46619 attenuated isoproterenol caused stimulation of adenyl cyclase activity and cAMP production. Pretreatment with SQ29548 (Tp receptor antagonist), apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor) and Go6976 (PKC-? inhibitor) eliminated U46619 caused attenuation of isoproterenol stimulated adenyl cyclase activity. Pretreatment with SQ29548 and apocynin prevented U46619 induced increase in NADPH oxidase activity, PKC-? activity and Gi? phosphorylation. However, pretreatment with CZI, a PKC-? inhibitor, markedly, but not completely, inhibited U46619 induced increase in NADPH oxidase activity, PKC-? activity, Gi? phosphorylation and also significantly eliminated U46619 caused attenuation of isoproterenol stimulated adenyl cyclase activity. Pretreatment with Go6976 inhibited U46619 induced increase in Gi? phosphorylation, but not PKC-? activity and NADPH oxidase activity. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin eliminated U46619 caused attenuation of isoproterenol stimulated adenyl cyclase activity without any discernible change in PKC-?, NADPH oxidase and PKC-? activities. Transfection of the cells with Tp, PKC-? and PKC-? siRNA duplexes corroborate the findings observed with their respective pharmacological inhibitors on the responses produced by U46619. Taken together, we suggest involvement of PKC-? in U46619 caused attenuation of isoproterenol stimulated ?-adrenergic response, which is regulated by NADPH oxidase-PKC?-Gi? axis in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.
We investigated the mechanism by which TxA2 mimetic, U46619, activates proMMP-2 in bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Our study showed that treatment of the cells with U46619 caused an increase in the expression and subsequently activation of proMMP-2 in the cells. Pretreatment with p(38)MAPK inhibitor, SB203580; and NF-?B inhibitor, Bay11-7082 inhibited the expression and activation of proMMP-2 induced by U46619. U46619 also induced increase in MT1-MMP expression, which was inhibited upon pretreatment with SB203580 and Bay11-7082. U46619 treatment to the cells stimulated p(38)MAPK activity as well as NF-?B activation by I?B-? phosphorylation, translocation of NF-?Bp65 subunit from cytosol to nucleus and subsequently, by increasing its DNA-binding activity. Induction of NF-?B activation seems to be mediated through IKK, as transfection of cells with either IKK? or IKK? siRNA prevented U46619-induced phosphorylation of I?B-? and NF-?Bp65 DNA-binding activity. U46619 treatment to the cells also downregulated the TIMP-2 level. Pretreatment of the cells with SB203580 and Bay11-7082 did not show any discernible change in TIMP-2 level by U46619. Overall, U46619-induced activation of proMMP-2 is mediated via involvement of p(38)MAPK-NF?B-MT1MMP signaling pathway with concomitant downregulation of TIMP-2 expression in bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.
The complete nucleotide sequence of an isolate of simian adenovirus 7 (SAdV-7) was determined. The genome organization of this isolate was found to be similar to that of other primate adenoviruses with two principal notable points: severe truncation of the E1A and E1B 19K proteins and an E3 region encoding only the 12.5K homologue. The viral gene products of SAdV-7 are most closely related to simian adenovirus 1 (SAdV-1), and like SAdV-1, are related to the human adenovirus species HAdV-F, such as the enteric adenoviruses HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 and the recently defined HAdV-G (HAdV-52). Two kinds of gene transfer vectors were made: a replication-competent SAdV-7-based vector with no genomic deletion, and a standard replication-incompetent vector deleted for E1. Importantly, the E1-deleted vector could be propagated to high titre by trans-complementation in human HEK 293 cells.
Persistent adenoviral shedding in stools is known to occur past convalescence following acute adenoviral infections. We wished to establish the frequency with which adenoviruses may colonize the gut in normal human subjects.
We investigated the role of TGF-?1 and TNF-? in mediating the effect of IL-1? in activating proMMP-9 and proMMP-2, and the involvement of an aprotinin sensitive protease in this scenario in bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. IL-1? induces TGF-?1 mediated stimulation of 92kDa proMMP-9 and 72kDa proMMP-2 mRNA and protein expression; whereas, the elevated level of TNF-? promotes activation of proMMP-9 and proMMP-2. Interestingly, TNF-? induced activation of proMMP-9 appeared to be mediated via a 43kDa aprotinin sensitive protease. TNF-? inhibited aprotinin and TIMP-1 mRNA and protein expression, which apparently facilitated the proteolytic conversion of proMMP-9 to MMP-9 with the involvement of the aprotinin sensitive protease. The aprotinin sensitive protease did not activate proMMP-2 under IL-1? stimulation, albeit a marked inhibition of TIMP-2 mRNA and protein expression were elicited by TNF-?. Thus, IL-1? induced stimulation of the two progelatinases occurs via different mechanisms.
We recently reported the isolation and sequencing of 30 novel adenoviruses from chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas. These adenoviruses are promising candidates for the purpose of expanding the repertoire of adenoviral serotypes that can be used to create vectors for circumventing pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in human populations. We thus aimed to create vectors from 20 of the newly isolated adenoviruses.
We conducted a study to evaluate the protective efficacy in mice of vaccination with novel adenovirus vectors expressing an influenza A nucleoprotein (AdFluA-NP) based on isolates from non-human primates. In a previous study, we had observed that AdFluA-NP vectors can induce similar T cell responses in mice yet differ in ability to protect animals from lethal challenge with influenza A virus. To better define correlates of protection, we extended our study design to include additional novel AdFluA-NP vectors, and to evaluate cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in the spleens and lungs of immunized mice prior to virus challenge. As in our previous study, all vectors induced similar numbers of antigen-specific interferon gamma (IFNgamma) secreting T cells and memory T cells in the spleen 4 weeks post immunization, but differed in their ability to protect the animals from lethal infection. However, cytokine-secreting NP antigen-specific CTLs in the lungs of mice from immunization groups that survived lethal challenge showed greater proliferative ability and higher CD27 expression. In addition, NP antigen-specific peripheral blood lymphocytes from protected mice showed greater proliferative ability after ex vivo stimulation. Our results provide additional correlates of protection that should be considered when developing anti-influenza vaccines.
Using m-calpain antibody, we have identified two major bands corresponding to the 80 kDa large and the 28 kDa small subunit of m-calpain in caveolae vesicles isolated from bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle plasma membrane. In addition, 78, 35, and 18 kDa immunoreactive bands of m-calpain have also been detected. Casein zymogram studies also revealed the presence of m-calpain in the caveolae vesicles. We have also identified Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-1 (NCX1) in the caveolae vesicles. Purification and N-terminal sequence analyses of these two proteins confirmed their identities as m-calpain and NCX1, respectively. We further sought to determine the role of m-calpain on calcium-dependent proteolytic cleavage of NCX1 in the caveolae vesicles. Treatment of the caveolae vesicles with the calcium ionophore, A23187 (1 microM) in presence of CaCl(2) (1 mM) appears to cleave NCX1 (120 kDa) to an 82 kDa fragment as revealed by immunoblot study using NCX1 monoclonal antibody; while pretreatment with the calpain inhibitors, calpeptin or MDL28170; or the Ca(2+) chelator, BAPTA-AM did not cause a discernible change in the NCX protein profile. In vitro cleavage of the purified NCX1 by the purified m-calpain supports this finding. The cleavage of NCX1 by m-calpain in the caveolae vesicles may be interpreted as an important mechanism of Ca(2+) overload, which could arise due to inhibition of Ca(2+) efflux by the forward-mode NCX and that could lead to sustained Ca(2+) overload in the smooth muscle leading to pulmonary hypertension.
Treatment of bovine pulmonary smooth muscle cells with the TxA(2) mimetic, U46619 stimulated [Ca(2+)](i), which was inhibited upon pretreatment with apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor). Pretreatment with cromakalim (K(V) channel opener) or nifedepine (L-VOCC inhibitor) inhibited U46619 induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i), indicating a role of K(V)-LVOCC axis in this scenario. Neither cromakalim nor nifedepine inhibited U46619 induced increase in NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting that the NADPH oxidase activation is proximal to the K(V)-LVOCC axis in the cells. Pretreatment with calphostin C (PKC inhibitor) markedly reduced U46619 induced increase in NADPH oxidase activity and [Ca(2+)](i) in the cells. Calphostin C pretreatment also markedly reduced p(47phox) phosphorylation and translocation to the membrane and association with p(22phox), a component of Cyt.b(558) of NADPH oxidase in the membrane. Overall, PKC plays an important role in NADPH oxidase derived O(2)(-)-mediated regulation of K(V)-LVOCC axis leading to an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) by U46619 in the cells.
Adenoviruses are important human pathogens that have been developed as vectors for gene therapies and genetic vaccines. Previous studies indicated that human infections with adenoviruses are self-limiting in immunocompetent hosts with evidence of some persistence in adenoid tissue. We sought to better understand the natural history of adenovirus infections in various non-human primates and discovered that healthy populations of great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans) and macaques shed substantial quantities of infectious adenoviruses in stool. Shedding in stools from asymptomatic humans was found to be much less frequent, comparable to frequencies reported before. We purified and fully sequenced 30 novel adenoviruses from apes and 3 novel adenoviruses from macaques. Analyses of the new ape adenovirus sequences (as well as the 4 chimpanzee adenovirus sequences we have previously reported) together with 22 complete adenovirus genomes available from GenBank revealed that (a) the ape adenoviruses could clearly be classified into species corresponding to human adenovirus species B, C, and E, (b) there was evidence for intraspecies recombination between adenoviruses, and (c) the high degree of phylogenetic relatedness of adenoviruses across their various primate hosts provided evidence for cross species transmission events to have occurred in the natural history of B and E viruses. The high degree of asymptomatic shedding of live adenovirus in non-human primates and evidence for zoonotic transmissions warrants caution for primate handling and housing. Furthermore, the presence of persistent and/or latent adenovirus infections in the gut should be considered in the design and interpretation of human and non-human primate studies with adenovirus vectors.
Recent studies indicate that great apes and macaques chronically shed adenoviruses in the stool. Shedding of adenovirus in the stool of humans is less prevalent, although virus genomes persist in gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the majority of individual samples. Chimpanzees have high levels of broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies to adenoviruses in serum, with very low frequencies of adenovirus-specific T cells in peripheral blood. A similar situation exists in macaques; sampling of guts from macaques demonstrated adenovirus-specific T cells in lamina propria. Humans show intermediate levels of serum neutralizing antibodies, with adenovirus-specific T cells in peripheral blood of all individuals sampled and about 20% of samples from the gut, suggesting a potential role of T cells in better controlling virus replication in the gut. The overall structure of the E3 locus, which is involved in modulating the hosts response to infection, is degenerate in humans compared to that in apes, which may contribute to diminished evasion of host immunity. The impact of adenovirus persistence and immune responses should be considered when using adenoviral vectors in gene therapy and genetic vaccines.
We sought to evaluate the mechanism(s) associated with pro matrix metalloprotease 2 (proMMP-2) activation in bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Preincubation of cells with anti-TNFR1 antibody prevented tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced proMMP-2 activation and increase in membrane type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP) expression as well as inhibition of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) expression, indicating the role of TNFR1 receptor during TNF-? stimulation. Anti-MT1-MMP antibody abrogated proMMP-2 activation by TNF-?-stimulated cell membrane, suggesting the involvement of MT1-MMP in proMMP-2 activation. Induction of MT1-MMP expression in response to TNF-? occurs via activation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B on inhibitory ?B kinase (IKK) activation and subsequently phosphorylation/degradation of I?B-?. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC)-? activity by Go6976 and PKC-? siRNA prevented TNF-?-induced IKK activity, I?B-? phosphorylation/degradation and NF-?B activation. Inhibition of PKC-? activity also prevented TNF-?-induced MT1-MMP expression and proMMP-2 activation as well as down regulation of TIMP-2 expression. Inhibition of I?B-? phosphorylation by PS-1145, an IKK selective inhibitor, prevented TNF-?-induced increase in MT1-MMP expression and proMMP-2 activation, which although did not alter inhibition of TIMP-2 expression. Overall, we unravelled a hitherto unknown mechanism of the involvement of PKC-? in proMMP-2 activation and inhibition of TIMP-2 expression by NF-?B-MT1-MMP-dependent and -independent pathway, respectively, during TNF-? stimulation in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.
In the context of cross-talk between transmembrane signaling pathways, we studied the loci within the ?-adrenergic receptor/G protein/adenyl cyclase system at which PKC exerts regulatory effects of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) on isoproterenol stimulated adenyl cyclase activity in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Treatment of the cells with ONOO(-) stimulated PKC-? activity and that subsequently increased p(38)MAPK phosphorylation. Pretreatment with Go6976 (PKC-? inhibitor) and SB203580 (p(38)MAPK inhibitor) eliminated ONOO(-) caused inhibition on isoproterenol stimulated adenyl cyclase activity. Pretreatment with Go6976, but not SB203580, prevented ONOO(-) induced increase in PKC-? activity. Studies using genetic inhibitors of PKC-? (PKC-? siRNA) and p(38)MAPK (p(38)MAPK siRNA) also corroborated the findings obtained with their pharmacological inhibitors in eliminating the attenuation of ONOO(-) effect on isoproterenol stimulated adenyl cyclase activity. This inhibitory effect of ONOO(-) was found to be eliminated upon pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin thereby pointing to a G(i) dependent mechanism. This hypothesis was reinforced by G(i)? phosphorylation as well as by the observation of the loss of the ability of Gpp(NH)p (a measure of G(i) mediated response) to stimulate adenyl cyclase activity upon ONOO(-) treatment to the cells. We suggest the existence of a pertussis toxin sensitive G protein (G(i))-mediated mechanism in isoproterenol stimulated adenyl cyclase activity, which is regulated by PKC?-p(38)MAPK axis dependent phosphorylation of its ?-subunit (G(i)?) in the pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.
Adenoviruses can cause infectious diarrheal disease or respiratory infections in humans; 2 recent reports have indicated probable human infection with simian adenoviruses (SAdVs). To assess the possibility of animal-to-human transmission of SAdVs, we tested fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques housed in 5 primate facilities in the United States and cultured 23 SAdV isolates. Of these, 9 were purified and completely sequenced; 3 SAdV samples from the American Type Culture Collection (SAdV-6, SAdV-18, and SAdV-20) were also completely sequenced. The sequence of SAdV-18 was closely related to that of human adenovirus F across the whole genome, and the new isolates were found to harbor 2 fiber genes similar to those of human adenovirus (HAdV) strains HAdV-40 and HAdV-41, which can cause infectious diarrhea. The high prevalence of adenoviruses in fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques and the similarity of the isolates to human strains indicates the possibility of animal-to-human transmission of SAdVs.
We have recently reported that treatment of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells with the thromboxane A(2) mimetic, U46619 stimulated NADPH oxidase derived O(2)(·-) level, which subsequently caused marked increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Herein, we demonstrated that O(2)(·-)-mediated increase in [Ca(2+)](i) stimulates an aprotinin sensitive proteinase activity, which proteolytically activates PKC-? under U46619 treatment to the cells. The activated PKC-? then phosphorylates p(38)MAPK and that subsequently caused G(i)? phosphorylation leading to stimulation of cPLA(2) activity in the cell membrane.
We have recently reported that ?(2)?(1) and ?(1)?(1) isozymes of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) are localized in the caveolae whereas only the ?(1)?(1) isozyme of NKA is localized in the non-caveolae fraction of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell membrane. It is well known that different isoforms of NKA are regulated differentially by PKA and PKC, but the mechanism is not known in the caveolae of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Herein, we examined whether this regulation occurs through phospholemman (PLM) in the caveolae. Our results suggest that PKC mediated phosphorylation of PLM occurs only when it is associated with the ?(2) isoform of NKA, whereas phosphorylation of PLM by PKA occurs when it is associated with the ?(1) isoform of NKA. To investigate the mechanism of regulation of ?(2) isoform of NKA by PKC-mediated phosphorylation of PLM, we have purified PLM from the caveolae and reconstituted into the liposomes. Our result revealed that (i) in the reconstituted liposomes phosphorylated PLM (PKC mediated) stimulate NKA activity, which appears to be due to an increase in the turnover number of the enzyme; (ii) phosphorylated PLM did not change the affinity of the pump for Na(+); and (iii) even after phosphorylation by PKC, PLM still remains associated with the ?(2) isoform of NKA.
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