Context: Hemoperfusion (HP) or dialysis is occasionally used following carbamazepine (CBZ) toxicity but it remains unclear which is the most efficient modality. We describe a case of severe CBZ intoxication treated with different extracorporeal modalities during which CBZ toxicokinetics were compared. Case details: A 58-year-old man was transferred to our facility 24 hours after ingesting over 14 g of sustained-release CBZ. Because of worsening neurological condition requiring mechanical ventilation and CBZ levels reaching 47.6 µg/mL, he underwent three intermittent hemodialysis (IHD), two continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH), and one IHD with HP (IHD-HP). IHD and CVVH removed 1.73 g of carbamazepine over 43 hours. Mean apparent half-life was 8.8 hours during IHD 49.1 hours during CVVH, and 5.1 hours during IHD-HP, while measured endogenous half-life after extracorporeal therapies was 81.4 hours. Mean CBZ clearances were 106.2 mL/min during IHD and 21.2 mL/ min during CVVH. His neurological status improved during extracorporeal elimination, and he was discharged without sequela after 16 days. Treatments were well tolerated aside from thrombocytopenia during IHDHP. Discussion: All extracorporeal treatments facilitated CBZ elimination, although CVVH was significantly less efficient than IHD and IHD-HP. IHD-HP may be better than IHD alone but must be weighed against its risks. IHD appears sufficient to eliminate CBZ and may need to be repeated or prolonged according to the clinical context if CBZ absorption is delayed.
IntroductionThe risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) with the use of albumin-containing fluids compared to starches in the surgical intensive care setting remains uncertain. We evaluated the adjusted risk of AKI associated with colloids following cardiac surgery.MethodsWe performed a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery in a tertiary care center from 2008 to 2010. We assessed crystalloid and colloid administration until 36 hours postoperatively. AKI was defined by the Risk Injury Failure Loss and End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE risk) and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) stage 1 serum creatinine criterion within 96 hours postoperatively.ResultsOur cohort included 984 patients with a baseline glomerular filtration rate of 72¿±¿19 ml/min/1.73 m2. Twenty-three percent had a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), 31% were diabetics and 23% underwent valvular surgery. The incidence of AKI was 5.3% with RIFLE and 12.0% with AKIN. AKI was associated with a reduced LVEF, diuretic use, anemia, valvular surgery, duration of extracorporeal circulation, hemodynamic instability, and the use of albumin, pentastarch 10% and transfusions. There was an important dose-dependent AKI risk with the administration of albumin, which also paralleled a higher prevalence of concomitant risk factors of AKI. To address any indication bias, we derived a propensity score predicting the likelihood to receive albumin, matching 141 cases to 141 controls with a similar risk profile. In this analysis, albumin was associated with an increased AKI risk (RIFLE Risk 12% versus 5%, P =0.03 and AKIN stage 1 28% versus 13%, P =0.002). We repeated this methodology in subjects without postoperative hemodynamic instability and still identified an association between the use of albumin and AKI.ConclusionsAlbumin administration was associated with a dose-dependent risk of AKI and remained significant using a propensity score methodology. Future studies should address the safety of albumin-containing fluids on kidney function in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
The Oxford Classification of IgA Nephropathy (IgAN) identified mesangial hypercellularity (M), endocapillary proliferation (E), segmental glomerulosclerosis (S), and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (T) as independent predictors of outcome. Whether it applies to individuals excluded from the original study and how therapy influences the predictive value of pathology remain uncertain. The VALIGA study examined 1147 patients from 13 European countries that encompassed the whole spectrum of IgAN. Over a median follow-up of 4.7 years, 86% received renin-angiotensin system blockade and 42% glucocorticoid/immunosuppressive drugs. M, S, and T lesions independently predicted the loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and a lower renal survival. Their value was also assessed in patients not represented in the Oxford cohort. In individuals with eGFR less than 30?ml/min per 1.73?m(2), the M and T lesions independently predicted a poor survival. In those with proteinuria under 0.5?g/day, both M and E lesions were associated with a rise in proteinuria to 1 or 2?g/day or more. The addition of M, S, and T lesions to clinical variables significantly enhanced the ability to predict progression only in those who did not receive immunosuppression (net reclassification index 11.5%). The VALIGA study provides a validation of the Oxford classification in a large European cohort of IgAN patients across the whole spectrum of the disease. The independent predictive value of pathology MEST score is reduced by glucocorticoid/immunosuppressive therapy.
The KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) 2012 clinical practice guideline for anemia management in patients with chronic kidney disease provides the structural and evidence base for the Canadian Society of Nephrology commentary on this guidelines relevancy and application to the Canadian health care system. While in general agreement, we provide commentary on 11 of the 61 KDIGO guideline statements. Specifically, we agreed that a therapeutic trial of iron is appropriate in cases in which a reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) dosage or avoidance of ESA and transfusion is desired, transferrin saturations are >30%, and ferritin concentrations are >500 ?g/L. However, we concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support an upper target or threshold for ferritin and transferrin saturation levels. We agree with the initiation of ESA treatment when hemoglobin (Hb) level is 90-100 g/L; however, we specifically state that an acceptable range for Hb level is 95-115 g/L, with a target of 100-110 g/L, and add caution to individualization above this range due to concerns regarding the safety of ESAs. We agree that ESAs should be used with considerable caution in patients with active malignancy, history of stroke, or history of malignancy, and we suggest initiating ESA therapy at Hb level of 90 g/L and to aim for a Hb level in the range of 90-105 g/L. The reader is encouraged to note the level of evidence and review the entire KDIGO anemia guideline to interpret the guideline statements and commentary appropriately.
The Oxford Classification of the pathology of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, developed in 2009, is highly predictive of renal prognosis. It has been validated in different populations, but the results remain inconsistent.
The evolution of diabetic nephropathy is incompletely accounted by current clinical tools. New biomarkers may refine patient assessment and help monitor therapy. We compared the added predictive value of 7 candidate inflammatory urinary biomarkers to known risk factors of progression.
The long-term effect of immunosuppressive therapy (IS) on kidney survival in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MGN) is debated. The introduction of renin angiotensin blockade, rigorous BP control, and the increasing age at presentation of patients with MGN adds further uncertainty. Given these important changes, we sought to determine whether implementation of IS has altered outcome.
The Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) identified four pathological elements that were of prognostic value and additive to known clinical and laboratory variables in predicting patient outcome. These features are segmental glomerulosclerosis/adhesion, mesangial hypercellularity, endocapillary proliferation, and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis. Here, we tested the Oxford results using an independent cohort of 187 adults and children with IgAN from 4 centers in North America by comparing the performance of the logistic regression model and the predictive value of each of the four lesions in both data sets. The cohorts had similar clinical and histological findings, presentations, and clinicopathological correlations. During follow-up, however, the North American cohort received more immunosuppressive and antihypertensive therapies. Identifying patients with a rapid decline in the rate of renal function using the logistic model from the original study in the validation data set was good (c-statistic 0.75), although less precise than in the original study (0.82). Individually, each pathological variable offered the same predictive value in both cohorts except mesangial hypercellularity, which was a weaker predictor. Thus, this North American cohort validated the Oxford IgAN classification and supports its utilization. Further studies are needed to determine the relationship to the impact of treatment and to define the value of the mesangial hypercellularity score.
IgA nephropathy is defined by the presence of IgA-dominant glomerular deposits. Within this definition, there is variation in the location of IgA and the presence of other immunoglobulins. The Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy identifies four histological features that are independent predictors of clinical outcome but does not include immunostains. Here, we investigate the potential clinical significance of immunostaining data.
To study the predictive value of biopsy lesions in IgA nephropathy in a range of patient ages we retrospectively analyzed the cohort that was used to derive a new classification system for IgA nephropathy. A total of 206 adults and 59 children with proteinuria over 0.5 g/24 h/1.73 m(2) and an eGFR of stage-3 or better were followed for a median of 69 months. At the time of biopsy, compared with adults children had a more frequent history of macroscopic hematuria, lower adjusted blood pressure, and higher eGFR but similar proteinuria. Although their outcome was similar to that of adults, children had received more immunosuppressants and achieved a lower follow-up proteinuria. Renal biopsies were scored for variables identified by an iterative process as reproducible and independent of other lesions. Compared with adults, children had significantly more mesangial and endocapillary hypercellularity, and less segmental glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage, the four variables previously identified to predict outcome independent of clinical assessment. Despite these differences, our study found that the cross-sectional correlation between pathology and proteinuria was similar in adults and children. The predictive value of each specific lesion on the rate of decline of renal function or renal survival in IgA nephropathy was not different between children and adults.
Accurate measurement of the international normalized ratio (INR) may be difficult in hemodialysis (HD) patients with heparin-locked central catheters. Blood contamination with locking solutions may interfere with INR measurement when samples are collected directly from the catheter.
Although early studies suggest that patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MGN) and subnephrotic range proteinuria overall do well, these studies were small and follow-up was short or difficult to discern.
IgA nephropathy is the most common glomerular disease worldwide, yet there is no international consensus for its pathological or clinical classification. Here a new classification for IgA nephropathy is presented by an international consensus working group. The goal of this new system was to identify specific pathological features that more accurately predict risk of progression of renal disease in IgA nephropathy, thus enabling both clinicians and pathologists to improve individual patient prognostication. In a retrospective analysis, sequential clinical data were obtained on 265 adults and children with IgA nephropathy who were followed for a median of 5 years. Renal biopsies from all patients were scored by pathologists blinded to the clinical data for pathological variables identified as reproducible by an iterative process. Four of these variables: (1) the mesangial hypercellularity score, (2) segmental glomerulosclerosis, (3) endocapillary hypercellularity, and (4) tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis were subsequently shown to have independent value in predicting renal outcome. These specific pathological features withstood rigorous statistical analysis even after taking into account all clinical indicators available at the time of biopsy as well as during follow-up. The features have prognostic significance and we recommended they be taken into account for predicting outcome independent of the clinical features both at the time of presentation and during follow-up. The value of crescents was not addressed due to their low prevalence in the enrolled cohort.
Pathological classifications in current use for the assessment of glomerular disease have been typically opinion-based and built on the expert assumptions of renal pathologists about lesions historically thought to be relevant to prognosis. Here we develop a unique approach for the pathological classification of a glomerular disease, IgA nephropathy, in which renal pathologists first undertook extensive iterative work to define pathologic variables with acceptable inter-observer reproducibility. Where groups of such features closely correlated, variables were further selected on the basis of least susceptibility to sampling error and ease of scoring in routine practice. This process identified six pathologic variables that could then be used to interrogate prognostic significance independent of the clinical data in IgA nephropathy (described in the accompanying article). These variables were (1) mesangial cellularity score; percentage of glomeruli showing (2) segmental sclerosis, (3) endocapillary hypercellularity, or (4) cellular/fibrocellular crescents; (5) percentage of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy; and finally (6) arteriosclerosis score. Results for interobserver reproducibility of individual pathological features are likely applicable to other glomerulonephritides, but it is not known if the correlations between variables depend on the specific type of glomerular pathobiology. Variables identified in this study withstood rigorous pathology review and statistical testing and we recommend that they become a necessary part of pathology reports for IgA nephropathy. Our methodology, translating a strong evidence-based dataset into a working format, is a model for developing classifications of other types of renal disease.
OBJECTIVE, DESIGN AND PATIENTS: The risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with hydroxyethyl starch may be limited to higher molecular weight agents. We retrospectively evaluated the risk of AKI using pentastarch 10% (250 kDa, 0.45) in a random cohort of 563 patients operated for a cardiac surgery at a university hospital.
Background/Aims: Studies have proposed various polymorphisms of genes implicated in the physiopathology of chronic kidney disease as risk factors of progression and potential clinical tools. We sought to validate and simultaneously compare their predictive value in a prospective cohort of chronic glomerulopathies receiving recommended antihypertensive and antiproteinuric therapies. Methods: Using PubMed, we identified 9 polymorphisms previously associated with progression. These were mostly of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and inflammation pathways: MCP-1 A2518G, TGF-?1 T869C and C-509T, ACE I/D, AGT M235T, AT1R A1166C, TSC-22 A-396G, eNOS 4b/a and CYP11?2 C-344T. We hypothesized that their determination would identify individuals at higher risk of progression. Results: We recruited 93 predominantly male and Caucasian patients with a mean age of 63 and baseline eGFR of 33 ml/min/1.73 m(2) followed prospectively over a median of 36 months. 61% of patients had diabetic nephropathy, almost all received RAA blockade (90%) and none immunosuppressive therapy. The average blood pressure during follow-up was 140/72 mm Hg, the urinary protein to creatinine ratio 0.15 g/mmol and the rate of renal function decline -3.2 ± 4.1 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/year. Proteinuria and blood pressure strongly predicted progression. However, under recommended therapy, none of the proposed polymorphisms predicted renal function decline. In addition, none showed simple or partial correlations with the severity of proteinuria or blood pressure. Finally, summation variable of risk polymorphisms did not predict progression. Conclusion: This study does not validate the use of these 9 polymorphisms as individual clinical tools in patients with chronic glomerulopathies on recommended antihypertensive and antiproteinuric therapies.
The Oxford classification of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) provides a histopathologic grading system that is associated with kidney disease outcomes independent of clinical features. We evaluated the Oxford IgAN classification in a large cohort of patients from China.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.