Type I interferons (IFNs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). MEDI-546 is an investigational human monoclonal antibody directed against the type I IFN receptor. This Phase 1 study evaluated the safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), immunogenicity, and pharmacodynamics (PD) of single and multiple intravenous doses of MEDI-546 in adults with SSc.
CD8(+) T cells undergo rapid expansion during infection with intracellular pathogens, which is followed by swift and massive culling of primed CD8(+) T cells. The mechanisms that govern the massive contraction and maintenance of primed CD8(+) T cells are not clear. We show in this study that the transcription factor, FoxO3a, does not influence Ag presentation and the consequent expansion of CD8(+) T cell response during Listeria monocytogenes infection, but plays a key role in the maintenance of memory CD8(+) T cells. The effector function of primed CD8(+) T cells as revealed by cytokine secretion and CD107a degranulation was not influenced by inactivation of FoxO3a. Interestingly, FoxO3a-deficient CD8(+) T cells displayed reduced expression of proapoptotic molecules BIM and PUMA during the various phases of response, and underwent reduced apoptosis in comparison with wild-type cells. A higher number of memory precursor effector cells and memory subsets was detectable in FoxO3a-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, FoxO3a-deficient memory CD8(+) T cells upon transfer into normal or RAG1-deficient mice displayed enhanced survival. These results suggest that FoxO3a acts in a cell-intrinsic manner to regulate the survival of primed CD8(+) T cells.
A major challenge for the field of transplantation is the lack of understanding of genomic and molecular drivers of early post-transplant immunity. The early immune response creates a complex milieu that determines the course of ensuing immune events and the ultimate outcome of the transplant. The objective of the current study was to mechanistically deconvolute the early immune response by purifying and profiling the constituent cell subsets of the peripheral blood. We employed genome-wide profiling of whole blood and purified CD4, CD8, B cells and monocytes in tandem with high-throughput laser-scanning cytometry in 10 kidney transplants sampled serially pre-transplant, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Cytometry confirmed early cell subset depletion by antibody induction and immunosuppression. Multiple markers revealed the activation and proliferative expansion of CD45RO(+)CD62L(-) effector memory CD4/CD8 T cells as well as progressive activation of monocytes and B cells. Next, we mechanistically deconvoluted early post-transplant immunity by serial monitoring of whole blood using DNA microarrays. Parallel analysis of cell subset-specific gene expression revealed a unique spectrum of time-dependent changes and functional pathways. Gene expression profiling results were validated with 157 different probesets matching all 65 antigens detected by cytometry. Thus, serial blood cell monitoring reflects the profound changes in blood cell composition and immune activation early post-transplant. Each cell subset reveals distinct pathways and functional programs. These changes illuminate a complex, early phase of immunity and inflammation that includes activation and proliferative expansion of the memory effector and regulatory cells that may determine the phenotype and outcome of the kidney transplant.
A fundamental component of signaling initiated by the BCR and CD19 is the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Downstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, the protein kinase AKT phosphorylates several substrates, including members of the forkhead box subgroup O (Foxo) transcription factor family. Among the Foxo proteins, Foxo1 has unique functions in bone marrow B-cell development and peripheral B-cell function. Here, we report a previously unrecognized role for Foxo1 in controlling the ratio of mature B-cell subsets in the spleen. Conditional deletion of Foxo1 in B cells resulted in an increased percentage of marginal zone B cells and a decrease in follicular (FO) B cells. In addition, Foxo1 deficiency corrected the absence of marginal zone B cells that occurs in CD19-deficient mice. These findings show that Foxo1 regulates the balance of mature B-cell subsets and is required for the marginal zone B-cell deficiency phenotype of mice lacking CD19.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has long been recognized to be characterized by dysregulated signaling pathways in T and B lymphocytes, beginning with observations of cellular hyperactivity and hyperresponsiveness, and evolving to recent studies focused upon the genetic and molecular bases of such phenomena. This review focuses on recently elucidated signaling abnormalities currently thought to be intrinsic to T and/or B cells in human SLE.
Forkhead transcription factors play critical roles in leukocyte homeostasis. To study further the immunological functions of Foxo1, we generated mice that selectively lack Foxo1 in T cells (Foxo1(flox/flox) Lck.cre(+)conditional knockout mice (cKO)). Although thymocyte development appeared relatively normal, Foxo1 cKO mice harbored significantly increased percentages of mature single positive T cells in the thymus as compared with WT mice, yet possessed smaller lymph nodes and spleens that contained fewer T cells. Foxo1 cKO T cells were not more prone to apoptosis, but instead were characterized by a CD62L(lo) CCR7(lo) CD44(hi) surface phenotype, a poorly populated lymphoid compartment in the periphery, and were relatively refractory to TCR stimulation, all of which were associated with reduced expression of Sell, Klf2, Ccr7, and S1pr1. Thus, Foxo1 is critical for naïve T cells to populate the peripheral lymphoid organs by coordinating a molecular program that maintains homeostasis and regulates trafficking.
Forkhead (Fox) transcription factors have been increasingly recognized to play key roles in immune homeostasis, especially Foxp3 for its role in the development and function of regulatory T cells, and Foxo family members for their regulatory role in T and B lymphocytes as well as other leukocytes. Although these transcription factors positively regulate the expression of multiple target genes, a unique functional attribute of these genes is the maintenance of leukocyte homeostasis, such as the preservation of the naïve or quiescent T cell state and prevention of autoimmunity. As a result, many chronic inflammatory processes appear to reflect a relative loss of activity of one of these transcription factors, raising the possibility that therapeutic approaches which confer gain-of-function Fox activity may be beneficial. On the other hand, however, some of the Fox family members also appear to promote and/or maintain chronic inflammation by preserving inflammatory leukocyte survival and/or otherwise promoting the expression of inflammatory target genes, at least in some cell types such as neutrophils. Therefore, although the role of Fox in inflammatory disorders remains complex and incompletely understood, the continued study of these factors provides new insight into the initiation, maintenance, and propagation of inflammation.
The mammalian forkhead box, class O (FoxO) transcription factors function to regulate diverse physiological processes. Emerging evidence that both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and lithium suppress FoxO activity suggests a potential role of FoxOs in regulating mood-relevant behavior. Here, we investigated whether brain FoxO1 and FoxO3a can be regulated by serotonin and antidepressant treatment and whether their genetic deletion affects behaviors.
Mouse models of lupus have for many years provided accessible and reliable research systems for the pathogenesis and therapy of systemic autoimmune disease, spanning a spectrum of inbred strains that develop spontaneous disease to experimentally induced, sometimes genetically manipulated animals. Nearly all the models share in common the development of glomerulonephritis and autoantibodies, including antinuclear and DNA specificities, the most common endpoints examined in experimental studies, but exhibit specific differences in the incidence of other end-organ manifestations such as hemolytic anemia, arthritis, dermatitis, and vasculitis. This chapter contrasts the clinical characteristics of these various models, providing an outline for their use and analysis.
The rarity of relapsing polychondritis (RP) has hindered the development of standardized tools for clinical assessment. Here, we describe the development of a preliminary score for disease assessing activity in RP, the Relapsing Polychondritis Disease Activity Index (RPDAI).
CD8 T cell responses have three phases: expansion, contraction, and memory. Dynamic alterations in proliferation and apoptotic rates control CD8 T cell numbers at each phase, which in turn dictate the magnitude of CD8 T cell memory. Identification of signaling pathways that control CD8 T cell memory is incomplete. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway controls cell growth in many cell types by modulating the activity of FOXO transcription factors. But the role of FOXOs in regulating CD8 T cell memory remains unknown. We show that phosphorylation of Akt, FOXO and mTOR in CD8 T cells occurs in a dynamic fashion in vivo during an acute viral infection. To elucidate the potentially dynamic role for FOXO3 in regulating homeostasis of activated CD8 T cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, we infected global and T cell-specific FOXO3-deficient mice with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV). We found that FOXO3 deficiency induced a marked increase in the expansion of effector CD8 T cells, preferentially in the spleen, by T cell-intrinsic mechanisms. Mechanistically, the enhanced accumulation of proliferating CD8 T cells in FOXO3-deficient mice was not attributed to an augmented rate of cell division, but instead was linked to a reduction in cellular apoptosis. These data suggested that FOXO3 might inhibit accumulation of growth factor-deprived proliferating CD8 T cells by reducing their viability. By virtue of greater accumulation of memory precursor effector cells during expansion, the numbers of memory CD8 T cells were strikingly increased in the spleens of both global and T cell-specific FOXO3-deficient mice. The augmented CD8 T cell memory was durable, and FOXO3 deficiency did not perturb any of the qualitative attributes of memory T cells. In summary, we have identified FOXO3 as a critical regulator of CD8 T cell memory, and therapeutic modulation of FOXO3 might enhance vaccine-induced protective immunity against intracellular pathogens.
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