Bacterial Dsb enzymes are involved in the oxidative folding of many proteins, through the formation of disulfide bonds between their cysteine residues. The Dsb protein network has been well characterized in cells of the model microorganism Escherichia coli. To gain insight into the functioning of the Dsb system in epsilon-Proteobacteria, where it plays an important role in the colonization process, we studied two homologs of the main Escherichia coli Dsb oxidase (EcDsbA) that are present in the cells of the enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, the most frequently reported bacterial cause of human enteritis in the world.
Coiled coils are widespread protein domains comprising ?-helices wound around each other in a regular fashion. Owing to their regularity, coiled-coil structures can be fully described by parametric equations. This in turn makes them an excellent model for studying sequence-structure relationships in proteins. Here, we used computational design to identify sequence features that determine the degree of helix axial rotation in four-helical homo-oligomeric antiparallel coiled coils. We designed 135,000 artificial sequences for a repertoire of backbone models representing all theoretically possible axial rotation states. Analysis of the designed sequences revealed features that precisely define the rotation of the helices. Based on these features we implemented a bioinformatic tool, which given a coiled-coil sequence, predicts the rotation of the helices in its structure. Moreover, we showed that another structural parameter, helix axial shift, is coupled to helix axial rotation and that dependence between these two parameters narrows the number of possible axial rotation states.
In addition to mRNAs whose primary function is transmission of genetic information from DNA to proteins, numerous other classes of RNA molecules exist, which are involved in a variety of functions, such as catalyzing biochemical reactions or performing regulatory roles. In analogy to proteins, the function of RNAs depends on their structure and dynamics, which are largely determined by the ribonucleotide sequence. Experimental determination of high-resolution RNA structures is both laborious and difficult, and therefore, the majority of known RNAs remain structurally uncharacterized. To address this problem, computational structure prediction methods were developed that simulate either the physical process of RNA structure formation ("Greek science" approach) or utilize information derived from known structures of other RNA molecules ("Babylonian science" approach). All computational methods suffer from various limitations that make them generally unreliable for structure prediction of long RNA sequences. However, in many cases, the limitations of computational and experimental methods can be overcome by combining these two complementary approaches with each other. In this work, we review computational approaches for RNA structure prediction, with emphasis on implementations (particular programs) that can utilize restraints derived from experimental analyses. We also list experimental approaches, whose results can be relatively easily used by computational methods. Finally, we describe case studies where computational and experimental analyses were successfully combined to determine RNA structures that would remain out of reach for each of these approaches applied separately.
Bacterial chemotaxis receptors are elongated homodimeric coiled-coil bundles, which transduce signals generated in an N-terminal sensor domain across 15-20nm to a conserved C-terminal signaling subdomain. This signal transduction regulates the activity of associated kinases, altering the behavior of the flagellar motor and hence cell motility. Signaling is in turn modulated by selective methylation and demethylation of specific glutamate and glutamine residues in an adaptation subdomain. We have determined the structure of a chimeric protein, consisting of the HAMP domain from Archaeoglobus fulgidus Af1503 and the methyl-accepting domain of Escherichia coli Tsr. It shows a 21nm coiled coil that alternates between two coiled-coil packing modes: canonical knobs-into-holes and complementary x-da, a variant form related to the canonical one by axial rotation of the helices. Comparison of the obtained structure to the Thermotoga maritima chemoreceptor TM1143 reveals that they adopt different axial rotation states in their adaptation subdomains. This conformational change is presumably induced by the upstream HAMP domain and may modulate the affinity of the chemoreceptor to the methylation-demethylation system. The presented findings extend the cogwheel model for signal transmission to chemoreceptors.
Structures of full-length, membrane-bound proteins are essential for understanding transmembrane signaling mechanisms. However, in prokaryotic receptors no such structure has been reported, despite active research for many years. Here we present results of an alternative strategy, whereby a transmembrane receptor is made soluble by selective mutations to the membrane-spanning region, chosen by analysis of helix geometry in the transmembrane regions of chemotaxis receptors. We thus converted the receptor Af1503 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus to a soluble form by deleting transmembrane helix 1 and mutating the surface residues of transmembrane helix 2 to hydrophilic amino acids. Crystallization of this protein resulted in the structure of a tetrameric proteolytic fragment representing the modified transmembrane helices plus the cytoplasmic HAMP domain, a ubiquitous domain of prokaryotic signal transducers. The protein forms a tetramer via native parallel dimerization of the HAMP domain and non-native antiparallel dimerization of the modified transmembrane helices. The latter results in a four-helical coiled coil, characterized by unusually large changes in helix periodicity. The structure offers the first view of the junction between the transmembrane region and HAMP and explains the conservation of a key sequence motif in HAMP domains.
Ribonuclease H-like (RNHL) superfamily, also called the retroviral integrase superfamily, groups together numerous enzymes involved in nucleic acid metabolism and implicated in many biological processes, including replication, homologous recombination, DNA repair, transposition and RNA interference. The RNHL superfamily proteins show extensive divergence of sequences and structures. We conducted database searches to identify members of the RNHL superfamily (including those previously unknown), yielding >60 000 unique domain sequences. Our analysis led to the identification of new RNHL superfamily members, such as RRXRR (PF14239), DUF460 (PF04312, COG2433), DUF3010 (PF11215), DUF429 (PF04250 and COG2410, COG4328, COG4923), DUF1092 (PF06485), COG5558, OrfB_IS605 (PF01385, COG0675) and Peptidase_A17 (PF05380). Based on the clustering analysis we grouped all identified RNHL domain sequences into 152 families. Phylogenetic studies revealed relationships between these families, and suggested a possible history of the evolution of RNHL fold and its active site. Our results revealed clear division of the RNHL superfamily into exonucleases and endonucleases. Structural analyses of features characteristic for particular groups revealed a correlation between the orientation of the C-terminal helix with the exonuclease/endonuclease function and the architecture of the active site. Our analysis provides a comprehensive picture of sequence-structure-function relationships in the RNHL superfamily that may guide functional studies of the previously uncharacterized protein families.
In this study we present discovery and characterization of a highly thermostable endolysin from bacteriophage Ph2119 infecting Thermus strain MAT2119 isolated from geothermal areas in Iceland. Nucleotide sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene affiliated the strain with the species of Thermus scotoductus. Bioinformatics analysis has allowed identification in the genome of phage 2119 an open-reading-frame (468-bp in length) coding for a 155-amino-acid basic protein with a Mr of 17,555. Ph2119 endolysin does not resemble any of known thermophilic phage lytic enzymes. Instead, it has conserved amino acid residues (His(30) Tyr(58) His(132) Cys(140)) that form a Zn(2+) binding site characteristic for T3 and T7 lysozymes as well as eukaryotic peptidoglycan recognition proteins, which directly bind to, but also may destroy bacterial peptidoglycan. The purified enzyme shows high lytic activity towards thermophiles, i.e. Thermus scotoductus (100%); Thermus thermophilus (100%); Thermus flavus (99%) and also, to a lesser extent towards mesophilic Gram-negative bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli (34%), Serratia marcescens (28%); Pseudomonas fluorescens, (13%) and Salmonella panama (10%). The enzyme has showed no activity against a number of Gram-positive staining bacteria analyzed with the exception of Deinococcus radiodurans (25%) and Bacillus cereus (15%). Ph2119 endolysin was found to be highly thermostable: it retains approx. 87% of lytic activity after 6 h incubation at 95°C. The optimum temperature range for the enzyme activity is 50°C to 78°C. The enzyme exhibits lytic activity in the pH range of 6-10 (maximum at pH 7.5-8.0) and is also active in the presence of NaCl up to 500 mM.
Design of a structurally defined helical assembly is described that involves recoding of the amino acid sequence of peptide GCN4-pAA. In solution and the crystalline state, GCN4-pAA adopts a 7-helix bundle structure that resembles a supramolecular lock washer. Structurally informed mutagenesis of the sequence of GCN4-pAA afforded peptide 7HSAP1, which undergoes self-association into a nanotube via noncovalent interactions between complementary interfaces of the coiled-coil lock-washer structures. Biophysical measurements conducted in solution and the solid state over multiple length scales of structural hierarchy are consistent with self-assembly of nanotube structures derived from 7-helix bundle subunits. The dimensions of the supramolecular assemblies are similar to those observed in the crystal structure of GCN4-pAA. Fluorescence studies of the interaction of 7HSAP1 with the solvatochromic fluorophore PRODAN indicated that the nanotubes could encapsulate shape-appropriate small molecules with high binding affinity.
Prokaryotic ribosomal protein genes are typically grouped within highly conserved operons. In many cases, one or more of the encoded proteins not only bind to a specific site in the ribosomal RNA, but also to a motif localized within their own mRNA, and thereby regulate expression of the operon. In this study, we computationally predicted an RNA motif present in many bacterial phyla within the 5 untranslated region of operons encoding ribosomal proteins S6 and S18. We demonstrated that the S6:S18 complex binds to this motif, which we hereafter refer to as the S6:S18 complex-binding motif (S6S18CBM). This motif is a conserved CCG sequence presented in a bulge flanked by a stem and a hairpin structure. A similar structure containing a CCG trinucleotide forms the S6:S18 complex binding site in 16S ribosomal RNA. We have constructed a 3D structural model of a S6:S18 complex with S6S18CBM, which suggests that the CCG trinucleotide in a specific structural context may be specifically recognized by the S18 protein. This prediction was supported by site-directed mutagenesis of both RNA and protein components. These results provide a molecular basis for understanding protein-RNA recognition and suggest that the S6S18CBM is involved in an auto-regulatory mechanism.
Protein-RNA interactions play fundamental roles in many biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, RNA splicing, and protein synthesis. The understanding of these processes improves as new structures of protein-RNA complexes are solved and the molecular details of interactions analyzed. However, experimental determination of protein-RNA complex structures by high-resolution methods is tedious and difficult. Therefore, studies on protein-RNA recognition and complex formation present major technical challenges for macromolecular structural biology. Alternatively, protein-RNA interactions can be predicted by computational methods. Although less accurate than experimental measurements, theoretical models of macromolecular structures can be sufficiently accurate to prompt functional hypotheses and guide e.g. identification of important amino acid or nucleotide residues. In this article we present an overview of strategies and methods for computational modeling of protein-RNA complexes, including software developed in our laboratory, and illustrate it with practical examples of structural predictions.
Protein domains characteristic of eukaryotic innate immunity and apoptosis have many prokaryotic counterparts of unknown function. By reconstructing interactomes computationally, we found that bacterial proteins containing these domains are part of a network that also includes other domains not hitherto associated with immunity. This network is connected to the network of prokaryotic signal transduction proteins, such as histidine kinases and chemoreceptors. The network varies considerably in domain composition and degree of paralogy, even between strains of the same species, and its repetitive domains are often amplified recently, with individual repeats sharing up to 100% sequence identity. Both phenomena are evidence of considerable evolutionary pressure and thus compatible with a role in the "arms race" between host and pathogen. In order to investigate the relationship of this network to its eukaryotic counterparts, we performed a cluster analysis of organisms based on a census of its constituent domains across all fully sequenced genomes. We obtained a large central cluster of mainly unicellular organisms, from which multicellular organisms radiate out in two main directions. One is taken by multicellular bacteria, primarily cyanobacteria and actinomycetes, and plants form an extension of this direction, connected via the basal, unicellular cyanobacteria. The second main direction is taken by animals and fungi, which form separate branches with a common root in the ?-proteobacteria of the central cluster. This analysis supports the notion that the innate immunity networks of eukaryotes originated from their endosymbionts and that increases in the complexity of these networks accompanied the emergence of multicellularity.
HAMP domains mediate signal transduction in over 7500 enzyme-coupled receptors represented in all kingdoms of life. The HAMP domain of the putative archaeal receptor Af1503 has a parallel, dimeric, four-helical coiled coil structure, but with unusual core packing, related to canonical packing by concerted axial rotation of the helices. This has led to the gearbox model for signal transduction, whereby the alternate packing modes correspond to signaling states. Here we present structures of a series of Af1503 HAMP variants. We show that substitution of a conserved small side chain within the domain core (A291) for larger residues induces a gradual transition in packing mode, involving both changes in helix rotation and bundle shape, which are most prominent at the C-terminal, output end of the domain. These are correlated with activity and ligand response in vitro and in vivo by incorporating Af1503 HAMP into mycobacterial adenylyl cyclase assay systems.
Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) represent an important class of pathogenicity factors in proteobacteria. Their defining feature is a conserved membrane anchor, which forms a 12-stranded beta-barrel through the outer membrane. The proteins are translocated through the pore of this barrel and, once export is complete, the pore is occluded by a three-stranded coiled coil with canonical heptad (7/2) sequence periodicity. In many TAAs this coiled coil is extended by a segment of varying length, which has pentadecad (15/4) periodicity. We used X-ray crystallography and biochemical methods to analyze the transition between these two periodicities in the coiled-coil stalk of the Yersinia adhesin YadA. Our results show how the strong right-handed supercoil of the 15/4-periodic part locally undergoes further over-winding to 19/5, before switching at a fairly constant rate over 14 residues to the canonical left-handed supercoil of the 7/2-periodic part. The transition region contains two YxD motifs, which are characteristic for right-handed coiled-coil segments of TAAs. This novel coiled-coil motif forms a defined network of inter- and intrahelical hydrogen bonds, thus serving as a structural determinant. Supercoil fluctuations have hitherto been described in coiled coils whose main sequence periodicity is disrupted locally by discontinuities. Here we present the first detailed analysis of two fundamentally different coiled-coil periodicities being accommodated in the same structure.
Homodimeric receptors with one or two transmembrane (TM) segments per monomer are universal to life and represent the largest and most diverse group of cellular TM receptors. They frequently share domain types across phyla and, in some cases, have been recombined experimentally into functional chimeras (e.g., the bacterial aspartate chemoreceptor with the human insulin receptor), suggesting that they have a common mechanism. The nature of this mechanism, however, is still being debated. We have proposed a new model for transduction mechanism by axial helix rotation, based on the structure of a widespread domain, HAMP, that frequently occurs in direct continuation of the last TM segment, primarily in histidine kinases and chemoreceptors. Here we show by statistical analysis that HAMP domain sequences have biophysical properties compatible with the two conformations proposed by the model. The analysis also identifies three networks of coevolving residues, which allow the mechanism to subdivide into individual steps. The most extended of these networks is specific for membrane-bound HAMP domains and most likely accepts the signal from the TM helices. In a classification based on sequence clustering, these HAMPs form a central supercluster, surrounded by smaller clusters of divergent HAMPs, which typically combine into arrays of up to 31 consecutive copies and accept conformational input from other HAMP domains. Unexpectedly, the classification shows a division between domains of histidine kinases and those of chemoreceptors; thus, except for a few versatile lineages, HAMP domains are largely specific for one particular output domain. Within proteins using a given output domain, HAMP domains also show extensive coevolution with histidine kinases, but not with chemoreceptors. We attribute the greater capability for recombination among chemoreceptors to their acquisition of a reversible modification system, which acts as a capacitor for the initially deleterious effects of combining domains optimized in different contexts.
Four-helical bundles are the most abundant topological motif among helical folds. Their constituent helices show crossing angles that mainly cluster around +20 degrees (aligned) or -50 degrees (orthogonal). Bundles with all helices aligned are called square and comprise four-helical coiled coils as their structurally most regular form. Since coiled coils can be described fully by parametric equations, they can serve as a reference point for quantifying the conformational space of all square bundles. To this end we have developed a program, samCC, which measures the deviation of a given bundle from an idealized coiled coil and decomposes this into axial rotation and axial, radial, and angular shifts. We present examples of analyses performed with the program and focus in particular on the axial rotation states of helices in coiled coils, in order to gain further insight into a proposed mechanism for transmembrane signal transduction, which involves a 26 degrees axial rotation of helices between a canonical coiled coil and a variant called the Alacoil. We find that, unlike expected from the mechanistic model, coiled coils show a continuum of axial rotation states, suggesting that the Alacoil does not represent a single, defined state. We also find that one of the originally proposed Alacoil proteins, Rop, in fact has canonical packing. SamCC is freely available as a web service athttp://toolkit.tuebingen.mpg.de/samcc.
Most core residues of coiled coils are hydrophobic. Occasional polar residues are thought to lower stability, but impart structural specificity. The coiled coils of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are conspicuous for their large number of polar residues in position d of the core, which often leads to their prediction as natively unstructured regions. The most frequent residue, asparagine (N@d), can occur in runs of up to 19 consecutive heptads, frequently in the motif [I/V]xxNTxx. In the Salmonella TAA, SadA, the core asparagines form rings of interacting residues with the following threonines, grouped around a central anion. This conformation is observed generally in N@d layers from trimeric coiled coils of known structure. Attempts to impose a different register on the motif show that the asparagines orient themselves specifically into the core, even against conflicting information from flanking domains. When engineered into the GCN4 leucine zipper, N@d layers progressively destabilized the structure, but zippers with 3 N@d layers still folded at high concentration. We propose that N@d layers maintain the coiled coils of TAAs in a soluble, export-competent state during autotransport through the outer membrane. More generally, we think that polar motifs that are both periodic and conserved may often reflect special folding requirements, rather than an unstructured state of the mature proteins.
Identification and characterization of recurrent supersecondary structural elements is central to understanding the rules governing protein tertiary structure. Here, we describe the GD box, a widespread noncontiguous supersecondary element, which we initially found in a group of topologically distinct but homologous beta-barrels--the cradle-loop barrels. The GD box is similar both in sequence and structure and comprises two short unpaired beta-strands connected by an orthogonal type-II beta-turn and a noncontiguous beta-strand forming hydrogen bonds with the beta-turn. Using structure-based analysis, we have detected 518 instances of the GD box in a nonredundant subset of the SCOP database comprising 3771 domains. Apart from the cradle-loop barrels, this motif is also found in a diverse set of nonhomologous folds including other topologically related beta-barrels. Since nonlocal interactions are fundamental in the formation of protein structure, systematic identification and characterization of other noncontiguous supersecondary structural elements is likely to prove valuable to protein structure modeling, validation, and prediction.
MODOMICS, a database devoted to the systems biology of RNA modification, has been subjected to substantial improvements. It provides comprehensive information on the chemical structure of modified nucleosides, pathways of their biosynthesis, sequences of RNAs containing these modifications and RNA-modifying enzymes. MODOMICS also provides cross-references to other databases and to literature. In addition to the previously available manually curated tRNA sequences from a few model organisms, we have now included additional tRNAs and rRNAs, and all RNAs with 3D structures in the Nucleic Acid Database, in which modified nucleosides are present. In total, 3460 modified bases in RNA sequences of different organisms have been annotated. New RNA-modifying enzymes have been also added. The current collection of enzymes includes mainly proteins for the model organisms Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and is currently being expanded to include proteins from other organisms, in particular Archaea and Homo sapiens. For enzymes with known structures, links are provided to the corresponding Protein Data Bank entries, while for many others homology models have been created. Many new options for database searching and querying have been included. MODOMICS can be accessed at http://genesilico.pl/modomics.
Thermoacidophilic crenarchaea of the genus Sulfolobus contain six AAA (ATPase associated with various cellular activities) proteins, including a proteasome-associated ATPase, a Vps4 (vacuolar protein sorting 4) homologue, and two Cdc48 (cell-division cycle 48)-like proteins. The last two AAA proteins are deeply branching divergent members of this family without close relatives outside the Sulfolobales. Both proteins have two nucleotide-binding domains and, unlike other members of the family, they seem to lack folded N-terminal domains. Instead, they contain N-terminal extensions of approx. 50 residues, which are predicted to be unstructured, except for a single transmembrane helix. We have analysed the two proteins, MBA (membrane-bound AAA) 1 and MBA2, by computational and experimental means. They appear to be monophyletic and to share a common ancestor with the Cdc48 clade. Both are membrane-bound and active as nucleotidases upon heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. They form ring complexes, which are stable after solubilization in a mild detergent and whose formation is dependent on the presence of the N-terminal extensions.
Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are modular, highly repetitive surface proteins that mediate adhesion to host cells in a broad range of Gram-negative pathogens. Although their sizes may differ by more than one order of magnitude, they all follow the same basic head-stalk-anchor architecture, where the head mediates adhesion and autoagglutination, the stalk projects the head from the bacterial surface, and the anchor provides the export function and attaches the adhesin to the bacterial outer membrane after export is complete. In complex adhesins, head and stalk domains may alternate several times before the anchor is reached. Despite extensive sequence divergence, the structures of TAA domains are highly constrained, due to the tight interleaving of their constituent polypeptide chains. We have therefore taken a "domain dictionary" approach to characterize representatives for each domain type by X-ray crystallography and use these structures to reconstruct complete TAA fibers. With SadA from Salmonella enterica, EhaG from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC), and UpaG from uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), we present three representative structures of a complex adhesin that occur in a conserved genomic context in Enterobacteria and is essential in the infection process of uropathogenic E. coli. Our work proves the applicability of the dictionary approach to understanding the structure of a class of proteins that are otherwise poorly tractable by high-resolution methods and provides a basis for the rapid and detailed annotation of newly identified TAAs.
MODOMICS is a database of RNA modifications that provides comprehensive information concerning the chemical structures of modified ribonucleosides, their biosynthetic pathways, RNA-modifying enzymes and location of modified residues in RNA sequences. In the current database version, accessible at http://modomics.genesilico.pl, we included new features: a census of human and yeast snoRNAs involved in RNA-guided RNA modification, a new section covering the 5-end capping process, and a catalogue of building blocks for chemical synthesis of a large variety of modified nucleosides. The MODOMICS collections of RNA modifications, RNA-modifying enzymes and modified RNAs have been also updated. A number of newly identified modified ribonucleosides and more than one hundred functionally and structurally characterized proteins from various organisms have been added. In the RNA sequences section, snRNAs and snoRNAs with experimentally mapped modified nucleosides have been added and the current collection of rRNA and tRNA sequences has been substantially enlarged. To facilitate literature searches, each record in MODOMICS has been cross-referenced to other databases and to selected key publications. New options for database searching and querying have been implemented, including a BLAST search of protein sequences and a PARALIGN search of the collected nucleic acid sequences.
Exonuclease VII (ExoVII) is a bacterial nuclease involved in DNA repair and recombination that hydrolyses single-stranded DNA. ExoVII is composed of two subunits: large XseA and small XseB. Thus far, little was known about the molecular structure of ExoVII, the interactions between XseA and XseB, the architecture of the nuclease active site or its mechanism of action. We used bioinformatics methods to predict the structure of XseA, which revealed four domains: an N-terminal OB-fold domain, a middle putatively catalytic domain, a coiled-coil domain and a short C-terminal segment. By series of deletion and site-directed mutagenesis experiments on XseA from Escherichia coli, we determined that the OB-fold domain is responsible for DNA binding, the coiled-coil domain is involved in binding multiple copies of the XseB subunit and residues D155, R205, H238 and D241 of the middle domain are important for the catalytic activity but not for DNA binding. Altogether, we propose a model of sequence-structure-function relationships in ExoVII.
Bacterial transmembrane receptors regulate an intracellular catalytic output in response to extracellular sensory input. To investigate the conformational changes that relay the regulatory signal, we have studied the HAMP domain, a ubiquitous intracellular module connecting input to output domains. HAMP forms a parallel, dimeric, four-helical coiled coil, and rational substitutions in our model domain (Af1503 HAMP) induce a transition in its interhelical packing, characterized by axial rotation of all four helices (the gearbox signaling model). We now illustrate how these conformational changes are propagated to a downstream domain by fusing Af1503 HAMP variants to the DHp domain of EnvZ, a bacterial histidine kinase. Structures of wild-type and mutant constructs are correlated with ligand response in vivo, clearly associating them with distinct signaling states. We propose that altered recognition of the catalytic domain by DHp, rather than a shift in position of the phospho-accepting histidine, forms the basis for regulation of kinase activity.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.