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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Heritability estimates on Hodgkin's lymphoma: a genomic- versus population-based approach.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing the risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and demonstrated the association of common genetic variation for this type of cancer. Such evidence for inherited genetic risk is also provided by the family history and the very high concordance between monozygotic twins. However, little is known about the genetic and environmental contributions. A common measure for describing the phenotypic variation due to genetics is the heritability. Using GWAS data on 906 HL cases by considering all typed SNPs simultaneously, we have calculated that the common variance explained by SNPs accounts for >35% of the total variation on the liability scale in HL (95% confidence interval 6-62%). These findings are consistent with similar heritability estimates of ?0.40 (95% confidence interval 0.17-0.58) based on Swedish population data. Our estimates support the underlying polygenic basis for susceptibility to HL, and show that heritability based on the population data is somehow larger than heritability based on the genomic data because of the possibility of some missing heritability in the GWAS data. Besides that there is still major evidence for multiple loci causing HL on chromosomes other than chromosome 6 that need to be detected. Because of limited findings in prior GWASs, it seems worth checking for more loci causing susceptibility to HL.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 17 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.184.
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Novel genome-wide association study-based candidate loci for differentiated thyroid cancer risk.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) have identified robust associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 9q22.33 (FOXE1), 14q13.3 (NKX2-1), and 2q35 (DIRC3). Our recently published GWAS suggested additional susceptibility loci specific for the high-incidence Italian population.
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SUCLG2 identified as both a determinator of CSF A?1-42 levels and an attenuator of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-beta 1-42 (A?1-42) and phosphorylated Tau at position 181 (pTau181) are biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We performed an analysis and meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data on A?1-42 and pTau181 in AD dementia patients followed by independent replication. An association was found between A?1-42 level and a single-nucleotide polymorphism in SUCLG2 (rs62256378) (P = 2.5×10(-12)). An interaction between APOE genotype and rs62256378 was detected (P = 9.5 × 10(-5)), with the strongest effect being observed in APOE-?4 noncarriers. Clinically, rs62256378 was associated with rate of cognitive decline in AD dementia patients (P = 3.1 × 10(-3)). Functional microglia experiments showed that SUCLG2 was involved in clearance of A?1-42.
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Investigation of the involvement of MIR185 and its target genes in the development of schizophrenia.
J Psychiatry Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder of unclear etiology. The strongest known genetic risk factor is the 22q11.2 microdeletion. Research has yet to confirm which genes within the deletion region are implicated in schizophrenia. The minimal 1.5 megabase deletion contains MIR185, which encodes microRNA 185.
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16p11.2 600 kb Duplications confer risk for typical and atypical Rolandic epilepsy.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is the most common idiopathic focal childhood epilepsy. Its molecular basis is largely unknown and a complex genetic etiology is assumed in the majority of affected individuals. The present study tested whether six large recurrent copy number variants at 1q21, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, 16p11.2, 16p13.11 and 22q11.2 previously associated with neurodevelopmental disorders also increase risk of RE. Our association analyses revealed a significant excess of the 600 kb genomic duplication at the 16p11.2 locus (chr16: 29.5-30.1 Mb) in 393 unrelated patients with typical (n = 339) and atypical (ARE; n = 54) RE compared with the prevalence in 65 046 European population controls (5/393 cases versus 32/65 046 controls; Fisher's exact test P = 2.83 × 10(-6), odds ratio = 26.2, 95% confidence interval: 7.9-68.2). In contrast, the 16p11.2 duplication was not detected in 1738 European epilepsy patients with either temporal lobe epilepsy (n = 330) and genetic generalized epilepsies (n = 1408), suggesting a selective enrichment of the 16p11.2 duplication in idiopathic focal childhood epilepsies (Fisher's exact test P = 2.1 × 10(-4)). In a subsequent screen among children carrying the 16p11.2 600 kb rearrangement we identified three patients with RE-spectrum epilepsies in 117 duplication carriers (2.6%) but none in 202 carriers of the reciprocal deletion. Our results suggest that the 16p11.2 duplication represents a significant genetic risk factor for typical and atypical RE.
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Genome-wide CNV analysis in 221 unrelated patients and targeted high-throughput sequencing reveal novel causative candidate genes for colorectal adenomatous polyposis.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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To uncover novel causative genes in patients with unexplained adenomatous polyposis, a model disease for colorectal cancer, we performed a genome-wide analysis of germline copy number variants (CNV) in a large, well characterized APC and MUTYH mutation negative patient cohort followed by a targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. Genomic DNA from 221 unrelated German patients was genotyped on high-resolution SNP arrays. Putative CNVs were filtered according to stringent criteria, compared with those of 531 population-based German controls, and validated by qPCR. Candidate genes were prioritized using in silico, expression, and segregation analyses, data mining and enrichment analyses of genes and pathways. In 27% of the 221 unrelated patients, a total of 77 protein coding genes displayed rare, nonrecurrent, germline CNVs. The set included 26 candidates with molecular and cellular functions related to tumorigenesis. Targeted high-throughput sequencing found truncating point mutations in 12% (10/77) of the prioritized genes. No clear evidence was found for autosomal recessive subtypes. Six patients had potentially causative mutations in more than one of the 26 genes. Combined with data from recent studies of early-onset colorectal and breast cancer, recurrent potential loss-of-function alterations were detected in CNTN6, FOCAD (KIAA1797), HSPH1, KIF26B, MCM3AP, YBEY and in three genes from the ARHGAP family. In the canonical Wnt pathway oncogene CTNNB1 (?-catenin), two potential gain-of-function mutations were found. In conclusion, the present study identified a group of rarely affected genes which are likely to predispose to colorectal adenoma formation and confirmed previously published candidates for tumor predisposition as etiologically relevant.
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Classic bladder exstrophy: Frequent 22q11.21 duplications and definition of a 414 kb phenocritical region.
Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Classic bladder exstrophy (CBE) is the most common form of the bladder exstrophy and epispadias complex. Previously, we and others have identified four patients with a duplication of 22q11.21 among a total of 96 unrelated CBE patients.
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Commingling analysis of age-of-onset in bipolar I disorder and the morbid risk for major psychoses in first degree relatives of bipolar I probands.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Age-of-onset (AO) is increasingly used in molecular genetics of bipolar I disorder (BP-I) as a phenotypic specifier with the goal of reducing genetic heterogeneity. However, questions regarding the cut-off age for defining early onset (EO), as well as the number of onset groups characterizing BP-I have emerged over the last decade with no definite conclusion. The aims of this paper are: 1) to see whether a mixture of three distributions better describes the AO of BP-I than a mixture of two distributions in different independent samples; 2) to compare the morbid risk (MR) for BP-I and for major affective disorders and schizophrenia in first degree relatives of BP-I probands by proband onset group derived from commingling analysis, since the MR to relatives is a trait with strong genetic background.
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Common variants in the HLA-DQ region confer susceptibility to idiopathic achalasia.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Idiopathic achalasia is characterized by a failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax due to a loss of neurons in the myenteric plexus. This ultimately leads to massive dilatation and an irreversibly impaired megaesophagus. We performed a genetic association study in 1,068 achalasia cases and 4,242 controls and fine-mapped a strong MHC association signal by imputing classical HLA haplotypes and amino acid polymorphisms. An eight-residue insertion at position 227-234 in the cytoplasmic tail of HLA-DQ?1 (encoded by HLA-DQB1*05:03 and HLA-DQB1*06:01) confers the strongest risk for achalasia (P=1.73×10(-19)). In addition, two amino acid substitutions in the extracellular domain of HLA-DQ?1 at position 41 (lysine encoded by HLA-DQA1*01:03; P=5.60×10(-10)) and of HLA-DQ?1 at position 45 (glutamic acid encoded by HLA-DQB1*03:01 and HLA-DQB1*03:04; P=1.20×10(-9)) independently confer achalasia risk. Our study implies that immune-mediated processes are involved in the pathophysiology of achalasia.
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XRCC5 as a Risk Gene for Alcohol Dependence: Evidence from a Genome-Wide Gene-Set-Based Analysis and Follow-up Studies in Drosophila and Humans.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Genetic factors have as large role as environmental factors in the etiology of alcohol dependence (AD). Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable systematic searches for loci not hitherto implicated in the etiology of AD, many true findings may be missed owing to correction for multiple testing. The aim of the present study was to circumvent this limitation by searching for biological system-level differences, and then following up these findings in humans and animals. Gene-set-based analysis of GWAS data from 1333 cases and 2168 controls identified 19 significantly associated gene-sets, of which 5 could be replicated in an independent sample. Clustered in these gene-sets were novel and previously identified susceptibility genes. The most frequently present gene, ie in 6 out of 19 gene-sets, was X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 5 (XRCC5). Previous human and animal studies have implicated XRCC5 in alcohol sensitivity. This phenotype is inversely correlated with the development of AD, presumably as more alcohol is required to achieve the desired effects. In the present study, the functional role of XRCC5 in AD was further validated in animals and humans. Drosophila mutants with reduced function of Ku80-the homolog of mammalian XRCC5-due to RNAi silencing showed reduced sensitivity to ethanol. In humans with free access to intravenous ethanol self-administration in the laboratory, the maximum achieved blood alcohol concentration was influenced in an allele-dose-dependent manner by genetic variation in XRCC5. In conclusion, our convergent approach identified new candidates and generated independent evidence for the involvement of XRCC5 in alcohol dependence.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 13 August 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.178.
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Genome-wide association study reveals two new risk loci for bipolar disorder.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and highly heritable mental illness and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have robustly identified the first common genetic variants involved in disease aetiology. The data also provide strong evidence for the presence of multiple additional risk loci, each contributing a relatively small effect to BD susceptibility. Large samples are necessary to detect these risk loci. Here we present results from the largest BD GWAS to date by investigating 2.3 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of 24,025 patients and controls. We detect 56 genome-wide significant SNPs in five chromosomal regions including previously reported risk loci ANK3, ODZ4 and TRANK1, as well as the risk locus ADCY2 (5p15.31) and a region between MIR2113 and POU3F2 (6q16.1). ADCY2 is a key enzyme in cAMP signalling and our finding provides new insights into the biological mechanisms involved in the development of BD.
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Evidence for contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of systemic mast cell activation disease.
Immunogenetics
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Recently, evidence was provided for common familial occurrence of systemic mast cell activation disease (MCAD), i.e., mast cell disorders characterized by aberrant release of mast cell mediators and/or accumulation of pathological mast cells in potentially any tissue. Since there is accumulating evidence that epigenetic processes may have transgenerational consequences, the aim of the present study was to investigate by two different experimental approaches whether epigenetic effects may contribute to the familial occurrence of MCAD. (1) High throughput profiling of the methylation status of the genomic DNA in leukocytes from MCAD patients in comparison to healthy subjects revealed for the first time an association of MCAD with alterations in DNA methylation comprising genes encoding proteins crucially involved in DNA/RNA repair and processing, apoptosis, cell activity, and exocytosis/cell communication. A set of 195 differentially methylated CpG sites could be regarded as candidates for a MCAD signature at the methylation level of the DNA. (2) In a cohort of MCAD patients, a correlation between age at symptom onset and year of birth (reflecting different generations) was observed suggesting the presence of the phenomenon of anticipation. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that epigenetic processes could substantially contribute to the transgenerational transmission of MCAD.
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Systematic pathway enrichment analysis of a genome-wide association study on breast cancer survival reveals an influence of genes involved in cell adhesion and calcium signaling on the patients' clinical outcome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) may help to understand the effects of genetic polymorphisms on breast cancer (BC) progression and survival. However, they give only a focused view, which cannot capture the tremendous complexity of this disease. Therefore, we investigated data from a previously conducted GWAS on BC survival for enriched pathways by different enrichment analysis tools using the two main annotation databases Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The goal was to identify the functional categories (GO terms and KEGG pathways) that are consistently overrepresented in a statistically significant way in the list of genes generated from the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. The SNPs with allelic p-value cut-offs 0.005 and 0.01 were annotated to the genes by excluding or including a 20 kb up-and down-stream sequence of the genes and analyzed by six different tools. We identified eleven consistently enriched categories, the most significant ones relating to cell adhesion and calcium ion binding. Moreover, we investigated the similarity between our GWAS and the enrichment analyses of twelve published gene expression signatures for breast cancer prognosis. Five of them were commonly used and commercially available, five were based on different aspects of metastasis formation and two were developed from meta-analyses of published prognostic signatures. This comparison revealed similarities between our GWAS data and the general and the specific brain metastasis gene signatures as well as the Oncotype DX signature. As metastasis formation is a strong indicator of a patient's prognosis, this result reflects the survival aspect of the conducted GWAS and supports cell adhesion and calcium signaling as important pathways in cancer progression.
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Genome-wide association study on differentiated thyroid cancer.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) have identified associations with polymorphisms at 2q35 (DIRC3), 8p12 (NRG1), 9q22.33 (FOXE1), and 14q13.2 (NKX2-1). However, most of the inherited genetic risk factors of DTC remain to be discovered.
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Mutations in GRIN2A cause idiopathic focal epilepsy with rolandic spikes.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Idiopathic focal epilepsy (IFE) with rolandic spikes is the most common childhood epilepsy, comprising a phenotypic spectrum from rolandic epilepsy (also benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes, BECTS) to atypical benign partial epilepsy (ABPE), Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) and epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike and waves during slow-wave sleep (CSWS). The genetic basis is largely unknown. We detected new heterozygous mutations in GRIN2A in 27 of 359 affected individuals from 2 independent cohorts with IFE (7.5%; P = 4.83 × 10(-18), Fishers exact test). Mutations occurred significantly more frequently in the more severe phenotypes, with mutation detection rates ranging from 12/245 (4.9%) in individuals with BECTS to 9/51 (17.6%) in individuals with CSWS (P = 0.009, Cochran-Armitage test for trend). In addition, exon-disrupting microdeletions were found in 3 of 286 individuals (1.0%; P = 0.004, Fishers exact test). These results establish alterations of the gene encoding the NMDA receptor NR2A subunit as a major genetic risk factor for IFE.
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Stimulation of MMP-1 and CCL2 by NAMPT in PDL cells.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms and characterized by the destruction of the periodontium. Obese individuals have an increased risk of periodontitis, and elevated circulating levels of adipokines, such as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), may be a pathomechanistic link between both diseases. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the regulation of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells by NAMPT and its production under inflammatory and infectious conditions. NAMPT caused a significant upregulation of 9 genes and downregulation of 3 genes, as analyzed by microarray analysis. Eight of these genes could be confirmed by real-time PCR: NAMPT induced a significant upregulation of EGR1, MMP-1, SYT7, ITPKA, CCL2, NTM, IGF2BP3, and NRP1. NAMPT also increased significantly the MMP-1 and CCL2 protein synthesis. NAMPT was significantly induced by interleukin-1 ? and the periodontal microorganism P. gingivalis. NAMPT may contribute to periodontitis through upregulation of MMP-1 and CCL2 in PDL cells. Increased NAMPT levels, as found in obesity, may therefore represent a mechanism whereby obesity could confer an increased risk of periodontitis. Furthermore, microbial and inflammatory signals may enhance the NAMPT synthesis in PDL cells and thereby contribute to the increased gingival and serum levels of this adipokine, as found in periodontitis.
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Dense genotyping of immune-related disease regions identifies nine new risk loci for primary sclerosing cholangitis.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a severe liver disease of unknown etiology leading to fibrotic destruction of the bile ducts and ultimately to the need for liver transplantation. We compared 3,789 PSC cases of European ancestry to 25,079 population controls across 130,422 SNPs genotyped using the Immunochip. We identified 12 genome-wide significant associations outside the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex, 9 of which were new, increasing the number of known PSC risk loci to 16. Despite comorbidity with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in 72% of the cases, 6 of the 12 loci showed significantly stronger association with PSC than with IBD, suggesting overlapping yet distinct genetic architectures for these two diseases. We incorporated association statistics from 7 diseases clinically occurring with PSC in the analysis and found suggestive evidence for 33 additional pleiotropic PSC risk loci. Together with network analyses, these findings add to the genetic risk map of PSC and expand on the relationship between PSC and other immune-mediated diseases.
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TLR4, ATF-3 and IL8 inflammation mediator expression correlates with seizure frequency in human epileptic brain tissue.
Seizure
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Data from animal models has nicely shown that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system (CNS) can modulate seizure frequency. However, a potential relationship between the modulation of seizure frequency and gene expression of key inflammatory factors in human epileptic tissue is still unresolved. Brain tissue from pharmacoresistant patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) provides a unique prerequisite for clinico-neuropathological correlations. Here, we have concentrated on gene expression of the human key inflammatory mediators, TLR4, ATF-3 and IL8, in correlation to seizure frequency and additional clinical parameters in human epileptic brain tissue of pharmacoresistant mTLE patients. Furthermore, we characterized the cell types expressing the respective proteins in epileptic hippocampi.
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Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs.
, S Hong Lee, Stephan Ripke, Benjamin M Neale, Stephen V Faraone, Shaun M Purcell, Roy H Perlis, Bryan J Mowry, Anita Thapar, Michael E Goddard, John S Witte, Devin Absher, Ingrid Agartz, Huda Akil, Farooq Amin, Ole A Andreassen, Adebayo Anjorin, Richard Anney, Verneri Anttila, Dan E Arking, Philip Asherson, Maria H Azevedo, Lena Backlund, Judith A Badner, Anthony J Bailey, Tobias Banaschewski, Jack D Barchas, Michael R Barnes, Thomas B Barrett, Nicholas Bass, Agatino Battaglia, Michael Bauer, Mònica Bayés, Frank Bellivier, Sarah E Bergen, Wade Berrettini, Catalina Betancur, Thomas Bettecken, Joseph Biederman, Elisabeth B Binder, Donald W Black, Douglas H R Blackwood, Cinnamon S Bloss, Michael Boehnke, Dorret I Boomsma, Gerome Breen, René Breuer, Richard Bruggeman, Paul Cormican, Nancy G Buccola, Jan K Buitelaar, William E Bunney, Joseph D Buxbaum, William F Byerley, Enda M Byrne, Sian Caesar, Wiepke Cahn, Rita M Cantor, Miguel Casas, Aravinda Chakravarti, Kimberly Chambert, Khalid Choudhury, Sven Cichon, C Robert Cloninger, David A Collier, Edwin H Cook, Hilary Coon, Bru Cormand, Aiden Corvin, William H Coryell, David W Craig, Ian W Craig, Jennifer Crosbie, Michael L Cuccaro, David Curtis, Darina Czamara, Susmita Datta, Geraldine Dawson, Richard Day, Eco J De Geus, Franziska Degenhardt, Srdjan Djurovic, Gary J Donohoe, Alysa E Doyle, Jubao Duan, Frank Dudbridge, Eftichia Duketis, Richard P Ebstein, Howard J Edenberg, Josephine Elia, Sean Ennis, Bruno Etain, Ayman Fanous, Anne E Farmer, I Nicol Ferrier, Matthew Flickinger, Eric Fombonne, Tatiana Foroud, Josef Frank, Barbara Franke, Christine Fraser, Robert Freedman, Nelson B Freimer, Christine M Freitag, Marion Friedl, Louise Frisén, Louise Gallagher, Pablo V Gejman, Lyudmila Georgieva, Elliot S Gershon, Daniel H Geschwind, Ina Giegling, Michael Gill, Scott D Gordon, Katherine Gordon-Smith, Elaine K Green, Tiffany A Greenwood, Dorothy E Grice, Magdalena Gross, Detelina Grozeva, Weihua Guan, Hugh Gurling, Lieuwe de Haan, Jonathan L Haines, Hakon Hakonarson, Joachim Hallmayer, Steven P Hamilton, Marian L Hamshere, Thomas F Hansen, Annette M Hartmann, Martin Hautzinger, Andrew C Heath, Anjali K Henders, Stefan Herms, Ian B Hickie, Maria Hipolito, Susanne Hoefels, Peter A Holmans, Florian Holsboer, Witte J Hoogendijk, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Christina M Hultman, Vanessa Hus, Andrés Ingason, Marcus Ising, Stéphane Jamain, Edward G Jones, Ian Jones, Lisa Jones, Jung-Ying Tzeng, Anna K Kähler, René S Kahn, Radhika Kandaswamy, Matthew C Keller, James L Kennedy, Elaine Kenny, Lindsey Kent, Yunjung Kim, George K Kirov, Sabine M Klauck, Lambertus Klei, James A Knowles, Martin A Kohli, Daniel L Koller, Bettina Konte, Ania Korszun, Lydia Krabbendam, Robert Krasucki, Jonna Kuntsi, Phoenix Kwan, Mikael Landén, Niklas Långström, Mark Lathrop, Jacob Lawrence, William B Lawson, Marion Leboyer, David H Ledbetter, Phil H Lee, Todd Lencz, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Douglas F Levinson, Cathryn M Lewis, Jun Li, Paul Lichtenstein, Jeffrey A Lieberman, Dan-Yu Lin, Don H Linszen, Chunyu Liu, Falk W Lohoff, Sandra K Loo, Catherine Lord, Jennifer K Lowe, Susanne Lucae, Donald J MacIntyre, Pamela A F Madden, Elena Maestrini, Patrik K E Magnusson, Pamela B Mahon, Wolfgang Maier, Anil K Malhotra, Shrikant M Mane, Christa L Martin, Nicholas G Martin, Manuel Mattheisen, Keith Matthews, Morten Mattingsdal, Steven A McCarroll, Kevin A McGhee, James J McGough, Patrick J McGrath, Peter McGuffin, Melvin G McInnis, Andrew McIntosh, Rebecca McKinney, Alan W McLean, Francis J McMahon, William M McMahon, Andrew McQuillin, Helena Medeiros, Sarah E Medland, Sandra Meier, Ingrid Melle, Fan Meng, Jobst Meyer, Christel M Middeldorp, Lefkos Middleton, Vihra Milanova, Ana Miranda, Anthony P Monaco, Grant W Montgomery, Jennifer L Moran, Daniel Moreno-De-Luca, Gunnar Morken, Derek W Morris, Eric M Morrow, Valentina Moskvina, Pierandrea Muglia, Thomas W Mühleisen, Walter J Muir, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Michael Murtha, Richard M Myers, Inez Myin-Germeys, Michael C Neale, Stan F Nelson, Caroline M Nievergelt, Ivan Nikolov, Vishwajit Nimgaonkar, Willem A Nolen, Markus M Nöthen, John I Nurnberger, Evaristus A Nwulia, Dale R Nyholt, Colm O'Dushlaine, Robert D Oades, Ann Olincy, Guiomar Oliveira, Line Olsen, Roel A Ophoff, Urban Osby, Michael J Owen, Aarno Palotie, Jeremy R Parr, Andrew D Paterson, Carlos N Pato, Michele T Pato, Brenda W Penninx, Michele L Pergadia, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Benjamin S Pickard, Jonathan Pimm, Joseph Piven, Danielle Posthuma, James B Potash, Fritz Poustka, Peter Propping, Vinay Puri, Digby J Quested, Emma M Quinn, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Henrik B Rasmussen, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Karola Rehnström, Andreas Reif, Marta Ribasés, John P Rice, Marcella Rietschel, Kathryn Roeder, Herbert Roeyers, Lizzy Rossin, Aribert Rothenberger, Guy Rouleau, Douglas Ruderfer, Dan Rujescu, Alan R Sanders, Stephan J Sanders, Susan L Santangelo, Joseph A Sergeant, Russell Schachar, Martin Schalling, Alan F Schatzberg, William A Scheftner, Gerard D Schellenberg, Stephen W Scherer, Nicholas J Schork, Thomas G Schulze, Johannes Schumacher, Markus Schwarz, Edward Scolnick, Laura J Scott, Jianxin Shi, Paul D Shilling, Stanley I Shyn, Jeremy M Silverman, Susan L Slager, Susan L Smalley, Johannes H Smit, Erin N Smith, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, David St Clair, Matthew State, Michael Steffens, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, John S Strauss, Jana Strohmaier, T Scott Stroup, James S Sutcliffe, Peter Szatmari, Szabocls Szelinger, Srinivasa Thirumalai, Robert C Thompson, Alexandre A Todorov, Federica Tozzi, Jens Treutlein, Manfred Uhr, Edwin J C G van den Oord, Gerard van Grootheest, Jim van Os, Astrid M Vicente, Veronica J Vieland, John B Vincent, Peter M Visscher, Christopher A Walsh, Thomas H Wassink, Stanley J Watson, Myrna M Weissman, Thomas Werge, Thomas F Wienker, Ellen M Wijsman, Gonneke Willemsen, Nigel Williams, A Jeremy Willsey, Stephanie H Witt, Wei Xu, Allan H Young, Timothy W Yu, Stanley Zammit, Peter P Zandi, Peng Zhang, Frans G Zitman, Sebastian Zöllner, Bernie Devlin, John R Kelsoe, Pamela Sklar, Mark J Daly, Michael C O'Donovan, Nicholas Craddock, Patrick F Sullivan, Jordan W Smoller, Kenneth S Kendler, Naomi R Wray.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2013
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Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17-29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohns disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders.
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?CaMKII autophosphorylation controls the establishment of alcohol drinking behavior.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The ?-Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (?CaMKII) is a crucial enzyme controlling plasticity in the brain. The autophosphorylation of ?CaMKII works as a molecular memory for a transient calcium activation, thereby accelerating learning. We investigated the role of ?CaMKII autophosphorylation in the establishment of alcohol drinking as an addiction-related behavior in mice. We found that alcohol drinking was initially diminished in ?CaMKII autophosphorylation-deficient ?CaMKII(T286A) mice, but could be established at wild-type level after repeated withdrawals. The locomotor activating effects of a low-dose alcohol (2 g/kg) were absent in ?CaMKII(T286A) mice, whereas the sedating effects of high-dose (3.5 g/kg) were preserved after acute and subchronic administration. The in vivo microdialysis revealed that ?CaMKII(T286A) mice showed no dopamine (DA) response in the nucleus accumbens to acute or subchronic alcohol administration, but enhanced serotonin (5-HT) responses in the prefrontal cortex. The attenuated DA response in ?CaMKII(T286A) mice was in line with altered c-Fos activation in the ventral tegmental area after acute and subchronic alcohol administration. In order to compare findings in mice with the human condition, we tested 23 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CAMK2A gene for their association with alcohol dependence in a population of 1333 male patients with severe alcohol dependence and 939 controls. We found seven significant associations between CAMK2A SNPs and alcohol dependence, one of which in an autophosphorylation-related area of the gene. Together, our data suggest ?CaMKII autophosphorylation as a facilitating mechanism in the establishment of alcohol drinking behavior with changing the DA-5-HT balance as a putative mechanism.
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Rs6295 promoter variants of the serotonin type 1A receptor are differentially activated by c-Jun in vitro and correlate to transcript levels in human epileptic brain tissue.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Many brain disorders, including epilepsy, migraine and depression, manifest with episodic symptoms that may last for various time intervals. Transient alterations of neuronal function such as related to serotonin homeostasis generally underlie this phenomenon. Several nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in gene promoters associated with these diseases have been described. For obvious reasons, their regulatory roles on gene expression particularly in human brain tissue remain largely enigmatic. The rs6295 G-/C-allelic variant is located in the promoter region of the human HTR1a gene, encoding the G-protein-coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT1AR). In addition to reported transcriptional repressor binding, our bioinformatic analyses predicted a reduced binding affinity of the transcription factor (TF) c-Jun for the G-allele. In vitro luciferase transfection assays revealed c-Jun to (a) activate the rs6295 C- significantly stronger than the G-allelic variant and (b) antagonize efficiently the repressive effect of Hes5 on the promoter. The G-allele of rs6295 is known to be associated with aspects of major depression and migraine. In order to address a potential role of rs6295 variants in human brain tissue, we have isolated DNA and mRNA from fresh frozen hippocampal tissue of pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients (n=140) after epilepsy surgery for seizure control. We carried out SNP genotyping studies and mRNA analyses in order to determine HTR1a mRNA expression in human hippocampal samples stratified according to the rs6295 allelic variant. The mRNA expression of HTR1a was significantly more abundant in hippocampal mRNA of TLE patients homozygous for the rs6295 C-allele as compared to those with the GG-genotype. These data may point to a novel, i.e., rs6295 allelic variant and c-Jun dependent transcriptional 5HT1AR receptoropathy.
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Copy number variants in German patients with schizophrenia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Large rare copy number variants (CNVs) have been recognized as significant genetic risk factors for the development of schizophrenia (SCZ). However, due to their low frequency (1?150 to 1?1000) among patients, large sample sizes are needed to detect an association between specific CNVs and SCZ. So far, the majority of genome-wide CNV analyses have focused on reporting only CNVs that reached a significant P-value within the study cohort and merely confirmed the frequency of already-established risk-carrying CNVs. As a result, CNVs with a very low frequency that might be relevant for SCZ susceptibility are lost for secondary analyses. In this study, we provide a concise collection of high-quality CNVs in a large German sample consisting of 1,637 patients with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder and 1,627 controls. All individuals were genotyped on Illuminas BeadChips and putative CNVs were identified using QuantiSNP and PennCNV. Only those CNVs that were detected by both programs and spanned ?30 consecutive SNPs were included in the data collection and downstream analyses (2,366 CNVs, 0.73 CNVs per individual). The genome-wide analysis did not reveal a specific association between a previously unknown CNV and SCZ. However, the group of CNVs previously reported to be associated with SCZ was more frequent in our patients than in the controls. The publication of our dataset will serve as a unique, easily accessible, high-quality CNV data collection for other research groups. The dataset could be useful for the identification of new disease-relevant CNVs that are currently overlooked due to their very low frequency and lack of power for their detection in individual studies.
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Genome-wide significant association between alcohol dependence and a variant in the ADH gene cluster.
Addict Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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Alcohol dependence (AD) is an important contributory factor to the global burden of disease. The etiology of AD involves both environmental and genetic factors, and the disorder has a heritability of around 50%. The aim of the present study was to identify susceptibility genes for AD by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The sample comprised 1333 male in-patients with severe AD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and 2168 controls. These included 487 patients and 1358 controls from a previous GWAS study by our group. All individuals were of German descent. Single-marker tests and a polygenic score-based analysis to assess the combined contribution of multiple markers with small effects were performed. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1789891, which is located between the ADH1B and ADH1C genes, achieved genome-wide significance [P = 1.27E-8, odds ratio (OR) = 1.46]. Other markers from this region were also associated with AD, and conditional analyses indicated that these made a partially independent contribution. The SNP rs1789891 is in complete linkage disequilibrium with the functional Arg272Gln variant (P = 1.24E-7, OR = 1.31) of the ADH1C gene, which has been reported to modify the rate of ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde in vitro. A polygenic score-based approach produced a significant result (P = 9.66E-9). This is the first GWAS of AD to provide genome-wide significant support for the role of the ADH gene cluster and to suggest a polygenic component to the etiology of AD. The latter result may indicate that many more AD susceptibility genes still await identification.
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 20q13 amplicon genes in relation to breast cancer risk and clinical outcome.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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The 20q13 region is frequently amplified/overexpressed in breast tumours. However, the nature of this amplification/overexpression is unknown. Here, we investigated genetic variation in five 20q13 amplicon genes (MYBL2, AURKA, ZNF217, STK4 and PTPN1) and its impact on breast cancer (BC) susceptibility and clinical outcome. As a novel finding, four polymorphisms in STK4 (rs6017452, rs7271519) and AURKA (rs2273535, rs8173) associated with steroid hormone receptor status both in a Swedish population-based cohort of 783 BC cases and in a Polish familial/early onset cohort of 506 BC cases. In the joint analysis, the minor allele carriers of rs6017452 had more often hormone receptor positive tumours (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40-0.81), while homozygotes for the minor allele of rs7271519, rs2273535 and rs8173 had more often hormone receptor negative tumours (2.26, 1.30-3.39; 2.39, 1.14-5.01; 2.39, 1.19-4.80, respectively) than homozygotes for the common allele. BC-specific survival analysis of AURKA suggested that the Swedish carriers of the minor allele of rs16979877, rs2273535 and rs8173 might have a worse survival compared with the major homozygotes. The survival probabilities associated with the AURKA genotypes depended on the tumour phenotype. In the Swedish case-control study, associations with BC susceptibility were observed in a dominant model for three MYBL2 promoter polymorphisms (rs619289, P = 0.02; rs826943, P = 0.03 and rs826944, P = 0.02), two AURKA promoter polymorphisms (rs6064389, P = 0.04 and rs16979877, P = 0.02) and one 3UTR polymorphism in ZNF217 (rs1056948, P = 0.01). In conclusion, our data confirmed the impact of the previously identified susceptibility locus and provided preliminary evidence for novel susceptibility variants in BC. We provided evidence for the first time that genetic variants at 20q13 may affect hormone receptor status in breast tumours and influence tumour aggressiveness and survival of the patients. Future studies are needed to confirm the prognostic value of our findings in the clinic.
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Genome-wide association study identifies genetic variation in neurocan as a susceptibility factor for bipolar disorder.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a follow-up study of bipolar disorder (BD), a common neuropsychiatric disorder. In the GWAS, we investigated 499,494 autosomal and 12,484 X-chromosomal SNPs in 682 patients with BD and in 1300 controls. In the first follow-up step, we tested the most significant 48 SNPs in 1729 patients with BD and in 2313 controls. Eight SNPs showed nominally significant association with BD and were introduced to a meta-analysis of the GWAS and the first follow-up samples. Genetic variation in the neurocan gene (NCAN) showed genome-wide significant association with BD in 2411 patients and 3613 controls (rs1064395, p = 3.02 × 10(-8); odds ratio = 1.31). In a second follow-up step, we replicated this finding in independent samples of BD, totaling 6030 patients and 31,749 controls (p = 2.74 × 10(-4); odds ratio = 1.12). The combined analysis of all study samples yielded a p value of 2.14 × 10(-9) (odds ratio = 1.17). Our results provide evidence that rs1064395 is a common risk factor for BD. NCAN encodes neurocan, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, which is thought to be involved in cell adhesion and migration. We found that expression in mice is localized within cortical and hippocampal areas. These areas are involved in cognition and emotion regulation and have previously been implicated in BD by neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and postmortem studies.
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Resequencing and follow-up of neurexin 1 (NRXN1) in schizophrenia patients.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Large rare deletions in NRXN1 increase the risk for schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether small rare sequence changes in exons and splice sites contribute to the development of schizophrenia in a high-penetrance manner. Complete coding regions and splice sites were resequenced in 94 patients and 94 controls. Among the 16 rare sequence variants, two missense substitutions (E201G and I1068V) were observed in single patients but not in controls. Investigation of DNA samples from family members and in silico analysis of possible effects on protein function produced no evidence of high-penetrance genetic effects. Follow-up genotyping of the most promising findings (E201G and I1068V) in an independent sample of >1400 patients and >1100 controls revealed no overrepresentation in patients compared to controls (E201G: 0/1 and I1068V: 0/0). Since I1068V was observed in a single patient, it is impossible to exclude the possibility that I1068V makes a minor contribution to schizophrenia susceptibility. Overall, however, the results do not suggest the existence of rare, highly penetrant NRXN1 mutations in patients with schizophrenia.
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Susceptibility locus for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate on chromosome 10q25 confers risk in Estonian patients.
Eur. J. Oral Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is one of the most common birth defects and has a multifactorial etiology that includes both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, two novel susceptibility loci and three suggestive loci for NSCL/P were identified by a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) in a German population with subsequent independent replication in a mixed European population. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these newly detected loci confer similar effects in the North-East European Baltic population. A total of 101 NSCL/P patients and 254 controls from Estonia were included. A significant association was observed for rs7078160 (P = 0.0016) at chromosome 10q25, which confirms the association of this locus with NSCL/P in the Baltic population. No significant association was found for the other four loci, a result that may have been attributable to the limited power of the sample.
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Genetic risk factors for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in a Mesoamerican population: Evidence for IRF6 and variants at 8q24 and 10q25.
Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is one of the most common of all birth defects. NSCL/P has a multifactorial etiology that includes both genetic and environmental factors. The IRF6 gene and three further susceptibility loci at 8q24, 10q25, and 17q22, which were identified by a recent genome-wide association scan (GWAS), are confirmed genetic risk factors for NSCL/P in patients of European descent.
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Feasible and successful: genome-wide interaction analysis involving all 1.9 x 10(11) pair-wise interaction tests.
Hum. Hered.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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The Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) is the study design of choice for detecting common genetic risk factors for multifactorial diseases. The performance of full Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses (GWIA) has always been considered computationally challenging. Two-stage strategies to reduce the amount of numerical analysis require the detection of single marker effects or prior pathophysiological hypotheses before the analysis of interaction. This prevents the detection of pure epistatic effects. Our case-control study in idiopathic generalized epilepsy demonstrates that a full GWIA is feasible through use of data compression, specific data representation, interleaved data organization, and parallelization of the analysis on a multi-processor system. Following extensive quality control of the genotypes, our final list of top interaction hits contains only pairs of interacting SNPs with negligible marginal effects. The TOP HIT interaction was between a SNP-pair intragenic to gene DNER (chr 2) and gene CTNNA3 (chr 10). Both of these genes are functionally involved in neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and the formation of neuronal circuits. Our results therefore indicate a possible interaction between these two genes in epileptogenesis. Results from GWAS are beginning to reveal a missing heritability in complex traits and diseases. Systematic, hypothesis-free analysis of epistatic interaction (GWIA) may help to close this increasingly recognized gap in heritability.
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A reappraisal of the association between Dysbindin (DTNBP1) and schizophrenia in a large combined case-control and family-based sample of German ancestry.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
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Dysbindin (DTNBP1) is a widely studied candidate gene for schizophrenia (SCZ); however, inconsistent results across studies triggered skepticism towards the validity of the findings. In this HapMap-based study, we reappraised the association between Dysbindin and SCZ in a large sample of German ethnicity.
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The catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene and its potential association with schizophrenia: findings from a large German case-control and family-based sample.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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The aim of the present study was to investigate possible associations between schizophrenia and 13 SNP markers in COMT. No association was observed in 631 cases, 207 nuclear families, and 776 controls. A cognitive performance phenotype (Trail Marking Test) was available for a subgroup of the patients. No association was found between the 13 markers and this phenotype. Four clinically-defined subgroups (early age at onset, negative symptoms, family history of schizophrenia, and life-time major depressive episode) were also investigated. Associations were observed for 3 of these subgroups, although none withstood correction for multiple testing. COMT does not appear to be a risk factor for schizophrenia in this population.
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Possible association of different G72/G30 SNPs with mood episodes and persecutory delusions in bipolar I Romanian patients.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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The G72/G30 gene is one of the common loci shared both by schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Studies accumulating since the discovery of this gene complex produced controversial results in both disorders in different populations.
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IRF6 gene variants in Central European patients with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.
Eur. J. Oral Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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Variants in the interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) gene have repeatedly been associated with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). A recent study has suggested that the functionally relevant variant rs642961 is the underlying cause of the observed associations. We genotyped rs642961 in our Central European case-control sample of 460 NSCL/P patients and 952 controls. In order to investigate whether other IRF6 variants contribute independently to the etiology of NSCL/P, we also genotyped the non-synonymous coding variant V274I (rs2235371) and five IRF6-haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A highly significant result was observed for rs642961 (P = 1.44 x 10(-6)) in our sample. The odds ratio was 1.75 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38-2.22] for the heterozygous genotype and 1.94 (95% CI: 1.21-3.10) for the homozygous genotype, values that are similar to those reported in a previously published family-based study. Our results thus confirm the involvement of the IRF6 variant, rs642961, in the etiology of NSCL/P in the Central European population. We also found evidence suggestive of an independent protective effect of the coding variant V274I. In order to understand fully the genetic architecture of the IRF6 locus, it will be necessary to conduct additional SNP-based and resequencing studies using large samples of patients.
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VEGF gene haplotypes are associated with sarcoidosis.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2009
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The cause of sarcoidosis is unclear. Evidence suggests that there is a genetic susceptibility toward the disease. In this study, we examined whether haplotypes of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 are associated with the onset or the course of sarcoidosis.
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Genome-wide association study identifies two susceptibility loci for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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We conducted a genome-wide association study for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) in 401 affected individuals and 1,323 controls, with replication in an independent sample of 793 NSCL/P triads. We report two new loci associated with NSCL/P at 17q22 (rs227731, combined P = 1.07 x 10(-8), relative risk in homozygotes = 1.84, 95% CI 1.34-2.53) and 10q25.3 (rs7078160, combined P = 1.92 x 10(-8), relative risk in homozygotes = 2.17, 95% CI 1.32-3.56).
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The DISC locus and schizophrenia: evidence from an association study in a central European sample and from a meta-analysis across different European populations.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2009
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Association studies, as well as the initial translocation family study, identified the gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) as a risk factor for schizophrenia. DISC1 encodes a multifunctional scaffold protein involved in neurodevelopmental processes implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. The present study explores the contribution of the DISC locus to schizophrenia using three different approaches: (i) systematic association mapping aimed at detecting DISC risk variants in a schizophrenia sample from a central European population (556 SNPs, n = 1621 individuals). In this homogenous sample, a circumscribed DISC1 interval in intron 9 was significantly associated with schizophrenia in females (P = 4 x 10(-5)) and contributed most strongly to early-onset cases (P = 9 x 10(-5)). The odds ratios (ORs) were in the range of 1.46-1.88. (ii) The same sample was used to test for the locus-specific SNP-SNP interaction most recently associated with schizophrenia. Our results confirm the SNP interplay effect between rs1538979 and rs821633 that significantly conferred disease risk in male patients with schizophrenia (P = 0.016, OR 1.57). (iii) In order to detect additional schizophrenia variants, a meta-analysis was performed using nine schizophrenia samples from different European populations (50 SNPs, n = 10 064 individuals maximum, n = 3694 minimum). We found evidence for a common schizophrenia risk interval within DISC1 intron 4-6 (P = 0.002, OR 1.27). The findings point to a complex association between schizophrenia and DISC, including the presence of different risk loci and SNP interplay effects. Furthermore, our phenotype-genotype results--including the consideration of sex-specific effects--highlight the value of homogenous samples in mapping risk genes for schizophrenia in general, and at the DISC locus in particular.
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Variation in P2RX7 candidate gene (rs2230912) is not associated with bipolar I disorder and unipolar major depression in four European samples.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Two recent studies reported evidence for association between genetic variation of the positional candidate gene P2RX7 on chromosome 12q24 and bipolar I disorder (BPI) [Barden et al. (2006); Am J Med Genet Part B 141B:374-382; McQuillin et al. (2008); Mol Psychiatry 13:1-7] and one study found association with unipolar major depression (Mdd-UP) [Lucae et al. (2006); Hum Mol Genet 15:2438-2445]. In the present work, we aimed to replicate the SNP that showed the strongest association in the above-mentioned studies, namely rs2230912 (P2RX7-E13A) resulting in a change of the amino acid glutamine to arginine at position 460 (Gln460Arg), in four European bipolar I disorder samples from Germany, Poland, Romania, and Russia totaling 1,445 patients, in a German sample of recurrent Mdd-UP patients (N = 640), and a control sample of 2,006 subjects. We found no allelic or genotypic association between rs2230912 and BPI or Mdd-UP both in the national samples and in the combined European patient sample. Additional studies are needed to clarify the potential involvement of P2RX7 and of SNP rs2230912 in the etiology of major affective disorders.
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Further evidence for the involvement of MYH9 in the etiology of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.
Eur. J. Oral Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is one of the most common birth defects and has a multifactorial etiology that includes both genetic and environmental components. MYH9, the gene coding for the heavy chain of non-muscle myosin II, has been considered as a good candidate gene in NSCL/P on the basis of its expression profile during craniofacial morphogenesis. Reports in an Italian sample, as well as in an ethnically mixed North American sample, of a positive association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the MYH9 gene and NSCL/P have provided further support for the role of MYH9 in the development of NSCL/P. In the present study, we aimed to replicate these findings by conducting a family-based association study with seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in MYH9 using a sample of 248 NSCL/P patients and their parents. Single marker analysis resulted in a highly significant association for rs7078. In haplotype analysis, the most significant result was obtained for the SNP combination (rs7078; rs2071731; rs739097; rs5995288). Our results thus confirm the potential involvement of MYH9 in the etiology of NSCL/P in our patients of Central European origin, although further studies are warranted to determine its exact pathogenetic role.
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Dissection of phenotype reveals possible association between schizophrenia and Glutamate Receptor Delta 1 (GRID1) gene promoter.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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Recent linkage and association data have implicated the Glutamate Receptor Delta 1 (GRID1) locus in the etiology of schizophrenia. In this study, we sought to test whether variants in the promoter region are associated with this disorder. The distribution of CpG islands, which are known to be relevant for transcriptional regulation, was computationally determined at the GRID1 locus, and the putative transcriptional regulatory region at the 5-terminus was systematically tagged using HapMap data. Genotype analyses were performed with 22 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) in a German sample of 919 schizophrenia patients and 773 controls. The study also included two SNPs in intron 2 and one in intron 3 which have been found to be significantly associated with schizophrenia in previous studies. For the transcriptional regulatory region, association was obtained with rs3814614 (p=0.0193), rs10749535 (p=0.0245), and rs11201985 (p=0.0222). For all further analyses, the patient samples were divided into more homogeneous subgroups according to sex, age at onset, positive family history of schizophrenia and lifetime history of major depression. The p-value of the schizophrenia association finding for the three markers decreased by approximately one order of magnitude, despite the reduction in the total sample size. Marker rs3814614 (unadjusted p=0.0005), located approximately 2.0 kb from the transcriptional start point, also withstood a two-step correction for multiple testing (p=0.030). No support was obtained for previously reported associations with the intronic markers. Our results suggest that genetic variants in the GRID1 transcriptional regulatory region may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia, and that future association studies of schizophrenia may require stratification to ensure more homogeneous patient subgroups.
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Transforming growth factor-beta receptor type 1 (TGFBR1) is not associated with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in patients of Central European descent.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) type 1 receptor (also known as activin receptor-like kinase 5, ALK5) is expressed in palatal tissue during embryogenesis. Experimental studies in transgenic mice with a genetic deletion of Alk5 showed that TGF-? type 1 receptor is required for upper lip and midline fusion of the hard and soft palate. In humans, association of TGF-? type 1 receptor gene (TGFBR1) and the development of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) had been observed in a multiethnic sample of Chinese, Philippine, Indian and Turkish families. In order to re-evaluate the relevance of these findings, we carried out a family-based association study among 218 NSCL/P families of Central European descent.
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Recent positive selection of a human androgen receptor/ectodysplasin A2 receptor haplotype and its relationship to male pattern baldness.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2009
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Genetic variants in the human androgen receptor gene (AR) are associated with male pattern baldness (androgenetic alopecia, AGA) in Europeans. Previous observations of long-range linkage disequilibrium at the AR locus are consistent with the hypothesis of recent positive selection. Here, we further investigate this signature and its relationship to the AGA risk haplotype. The haplotype homozygosity suggests that the AGA risk haplotype was driven to high frequency by positive selection in Europeans although a low meiotic recombination rate contributed to the high haplotype homozygosity. Further, we find high levels of population differentiation as measured by F(ST) and a series of fixed derived alleles along an extended region centromeric to AR in the Asian HapMap sample. The predominant AGA risk haplotype also carries the putatively functional variant 57K in the flanking ectodysplasin A2 receptor gene (EDA2R). It is therefore probable that the AGA risk haplotype rose to high frequency in combination with this EDA2R variant, possibly by hitchhiking on a positively selected 57K haplotype.
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Key susceptibility locus for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate on chromosome 8q24.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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We conducted a genome-wide association study involving 224 cases and 383 controls of Central European origin to identify susceptibility loci for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). A 640-kb region at chromosome 8q24.21 was found to contain multiple markers with highly significant evidence for association with the cleft phenotype, including three markers that reached genome-wide significance. The 640-kb cleft-associated region was saturated with 146 SNP markers and then analyzed in our entire NSCL/P sample of 462 unrelated cases and 954 controls. In the entire sample, the most significant SNP (rs987525) had a P value of 3.34 x 10(-24). The odds ratio was 2.57 (95% CI = 2.02-3.26) for the heterozygous genotype and 6.05 (95% CI = 3.88-9.43) for the homozygous genotype. The calculated population attributable risk for this marker is 0.41, suggesting that this study has identified a major susceptibility locus for NSCL/P.
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Genetic variation at the synaptic vesicle gene SV2A is associated with schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
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Convergent evidence from pharmacological and animal studies suggests a possible role for the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A gene (SV2A) in schizophrenia susceptibility. To test systematically all common variants in the SV2A gene region for an association with schizophrenia, we used a HapMap-based haplotype tagging approach and tested five SNPs in 794 patients and 843 controls. The SNP rs15931 showed evidence for an association with schizophrenia and was followed-up in an independent sample of 2581 individuals (overall p-value=0.0042, OR=0.779). Our study in the German population provides evidence, at a genetic level, for the involvement of the SV2A gene region in schizophrenia.
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Evaluating SKI as a candidate gene for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.
Eur. J. Oral Sci.
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Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is one of the most common of all congenital malformations and has a multifactorial etiology. Findings in mice suggest that the v-ski sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (SKI) gene is a candidate gene for orofacial clefting. In humans, a significant association between rs2843159 within SKI and NSCL/P has been reported in patients from the Philippines and South America. In the South American patients, the association was driven by the subgroup of patients with non-syndromic cleft lip only (NSCLO). Here we investigated the association with rs2843159 in a Mayan Mesoamerican population (172 NSCL/P patients and 366 controls). In addition, we analyzed the phenotypic subgroups NSCLO and non-syndromic cleft of lip and palate (NSCLP). A trend towards association between rs2843159 and NSCL/P was observed in the Mayan cohort (P = 0.097), and we found a stronger association in the NSCLP subgroup (P = 0.072) despite a limited sample size. To investigate whether other common variants within the SKI gene contribute to NSCL/P susceptibility in European and Asian populations, we also analyzed genotypic data from two recent genome-wide association studies using set-based statistical approaches. These analyses detected a trend toward association in the European population. Our data provide limited support for the hypothesis that common SKI variants are susceptibility factors for NSCL/P.
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Genome-wide association data provide further support for an association between 5-HTTLPR and major depressive disorder.
J Affect Disord
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Dysfunctions of serotonergic neurotransmission are supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The concentration of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the synaptic cleft is essentially regulated by the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT). A length polymorphism repeat in the 5-HTT promoter region, termed 5-HTTLPR, has been commonly investigated for an association with psychiatric disorders.
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Genome-wide meta-analyses of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate identify six new risk loci.
Nat. Genet.
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We have conducted the first meta-analyses for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) using data from the two largest genome-wide association studies published to date. We confirmed associations with all previously identified loci and identified six additional susceptibility regions (1p36, 2p21, 3p11.1, 8q21.3, 13q31.1 and 15q22). Analysis of phenotypic variability identified the first specific genetic risk factor for NSCLP (nonsyndromic cleft lip plus palate) (rs8001641; P(NSCLP) = 6.51 × 10(-11); homozygote relative risk = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.84-3.16).
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Small molecules enable highly efficient neuronal conversion of human fibroblasts.
Nat. Methods
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Forced expression of proneural transcription factors has been shown to direct neuronal conversion of fibroblasts. Because neurons are postmitotic, conversion efficiencies are an important parameter for this process. We present a minimalist approach combining two-factor neuronal programming with small molecule-based inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3? and SMAD signaling, which converts postnatal human fibroblasts into functional neuron-like cells with yields up to >200% and neuronal purities up to >80%.
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A mega-analysis of genome-wide association studies for major depressive disorder.
, Stephan Ripke, Naomi R Wray, Cathryn M Lewis, Steven P Hamilton, Myrna M Weissman, Gerome Breen, Enda M Byrne, Douglas H R Blackwood, Dorret I Boomsma, Sven Cichon, Andrew C Heath, Florian Holsboer, Susanne Lucae, Pamela A F Madden, Nicholas G Martin, Peter McGuffin, Pierandrea Muglia, Markus M Noethen, Brenda P Penninx, Michele L Pergadia, James B Potash, Marcella Rietschel, Danyu Lin, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Jianxin Shi, Stacy Steinberg, Hans J Grabe, Paul Lichtenstein, Patrik Magnusson, Roy H Perlis, Martin Preisig, Jordan W Smoller, Kari Stefansson, Rudolf Uher, Zoltan Kutalik, Katherine E Tansey, Alexander Teumer, Alexander Viktorin, Michael R Barnes, Thomas Bettecken, Elisabeth B Binder, René Breuer, Victor M Castro, Susanne E Churchill, William H Coryell, Nick Craddock, Ian W Craig, Darina Czamara, Eco J De Geus, Franziska Degenhardt, Anne E Farmer, Maurizio Fava, Josef Frank, Vivian S Gainer, Patience J Gallagher, Scott D Gordon, Sergey Goryachev, Magdalena Gross, Michel Guipponi, Anjali K Henders, Stefan Herms, Ian B Hickie, Susanne Hoefels, Witte Hoogendijk, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Dan V Iosifescu, Marcus Ising, Ian Jones, Lisa Jones, Tzeng Jung-Ying, James A Knowles, Isaac S Kohane, Martin A Kohli, Ania Korszun, Mikael Landén, William B Lawson, Glyn Lewis, Donald Macintyre, Wolfgang Maier, Manuel Mattheisen, Patrick J McGrath, Andrew McIntosh, Alan McLean, Christel M Middeldorp, Lefkos Middleton, Grant M Montgomery, Shawn N Murphy, Matthias Nauck, Willem A Nolen, Dale R Nyholt, Michael O'Donovan, Högni Oskarsson, Nancy Pedersen, William A Scheftner, Andrea Schulz, Thomas G Schulze, Stanley I Shyn, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Susan L Slager, Johannes H Smit, Hreinn Stefansson, Michael Steffens, Thorgeir Thorgeirsson, Federica Tozzi, Jens Treutlein, Manfred Uhr, Edwin J C G van den Oord, Gerard van Grootheest, Henry Völzke, Jeffrey B Weilburg, Gonneke Willemsen, Frans G Zitman, Benjamin Neale, Mark Daly, Douglas F Levinson, Patrick F Sullivan.
Mol. Psychiatry
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Prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of major depressive disorder (MDD) have met with limited success. We sought to increase statistical power to detect disease loci by conducting a GWAS mega-analysis for MDD. In the MDD discovery phase, we analyzed more than 1.2 million autosomal and X chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18?759 independent and unrelated subjects of recent European ancestry (9240 MDD cases and 9519 controls). In the MDD replication phase, we evaluated 554 SNPs in independent samples (6783 MDD cases and 50?695 controls). We also conducted a cross-disorder meta-analysis using 819 autosomal SNPs with P<0.0001 for either MDD or the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium bipolar disorder (BIP) mega-analysis (9238 MDD cases/8039 controls and 6998 BIP cases/7775 controls). No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance in the MDD discovery phase, the MDD replication phase or in pre-planned secondary analyses (by sex, recurrent MDD, recurrent early-onset MDD, age of onset, pre-pubertal onset MDD or typical-like MDD from a latent class analyses of the MDD criteria). In the MDD-bipolar cross-disorder analysis, 15 SNPs exceeded genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), and all were in a 248?kb interval of high LD on 3p21.1 (chr3:52?425?083-53?822?102, minimum P=5.9 × 10(-9) at rs2535629). Although this is the largest genome-wide analysis of MDD yet conducted, its high prevalence means that the sample is still underpowered to detect genetic effects typical for complex traits. Therefore, we were unable to identify robust and replicable findings. We discuss what this means for genetic research for MDD. The 3p21.1 MDD-BIP finding should be interpreted with caution as the most significant SNP did not replicate in MDD samples, and genotyping in independent samples will be needed to resolve its status.
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Direct conversion of fibroblasts into stably expandable neural stem cells.
Cell Stem Cell
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Recent advances have suggested that direct induction of neural stem cells (NSCs) could provide an alternative to derivation from somatic tissues or pluripotent cells. Here we show direct derivation of stably expandable NSCs from mouse fibroblasts through a curtailed version of reprogramming to pluripotency. By constitutively inducing Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc while strictly limiting Oct4 activity to the initial phase of reprogramming, we generated neurosphere-like colonies that could be expanded for more than 50 passages and do not depend on sustained expression of the reprogramming factors. These induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) uniformly display morphological and molecular features of NSCs, such as the expression of Nestin, Pax6, and Olig2, and have a genome-wide transcriptional profile similar to that of brain-derived NSCs. Moreover, iNSCs can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Our results demonstrate that functional NSCs can be generated from somatic cells by factor-driven induction.
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Association between copy number variants in 16p11.2 and major depressive disorder in a German case-control sample.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
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The majority of genetic risk factors for major depressive disorder (MDD) still await identification. Since copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders, the question arises as to whether CNVs also play a role in MDD. We performed a genome-wide CNV study using Illuminas SNP array data from 604 MDD patients and 1,643 controls. Putative CNVs were detected with the CNV algorithms QuantiSNP and PennCNV. CNVs with ?30 consecutive SNPs and a log Bayes Factor/confidence value of ?30 were statistically analyzed using PLINK. Further analyses and technical verification were only performed in the case of regions for which CNV calls from both programs showed nominal significance. Set-based tests were used to test whether common variants in the CNV regions showed association in two GWAS datasets of MDD. CNVs from four chromosomal regions were associated with MDD. The following were more frequent in patients than controls: microdeletions in 7p21.3 (P?=?0.033) and 18p11.32 (P?=?0.030); microduplications in 15q26.3 (P?=?0.033); and the combination of microdeletion/duplications in 16p11.2 (P???0.018). SNPs in CNV region 16p11.2 showed significant association in a set-based test (P?=?0.026). Microdeletions/duplications in 16p11.2 are the most promising CNVs, since these affect genes and CNVs in this region have been implicated in other neuropsychiatric disorders. The association finding for common SNPs provides further support for the hypothesis that this region is involved in the development of MDD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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